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Full text of "Public addresses, letters, and papers of William Kerr Scott : Governor of North Carolina, 1949-1953"

THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 




THE COLLECTION OF 

NORTH CAROLINIANA 

ENDOWED BY 

JOHN SPRUNT HILL 

CLASS OF 1889 



C353.03 
5H-2.7P 



UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 



00034043696 



FOR USE ONLY IN 
THE NORTH CAROLINA COLLECTION 



Form No. A-368, Rev. 8/95 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Ensuring Democracy through Digital Access (NC-LSTA) 



http://www.archive.org/details/publicaddrl19491953scot 



PUBLIC ADDRESSES, LETTERS, 

AND PAPERS OF 

WILLIAM KERR SCOTT 



Christian Printing Company 
durham, n. c. 



PUBLIC ADDRESSES, LETTERS, 
AND PAPERS 

'/ 

WILLIAM KERR SCOTT 

GOVERNOR OF NORTH CAROLINA 

1949-1953 



Edited by 
David Leroy Corbitt 
Editor, Division of Publications 
State Department of Archives and History 



RALEIGH 

COUNCIL OF STATE 

STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

1957 



FOREWORD 

In publishing this volume of messages to the General Assembly, 
proclamations, addresses, statements, and articles for the press, the 
same general method and procedure used in the publication of let- 
ter books of other governors have been adopted. The material in 
this volume was written by Governor Scott or was issued by his office 
during his four-year term. 

Again a number of pictures of important persons or events con- 
nected with some phase of the duties and activities of his administra- 
tion are included. It is believed that these pictures add interest and 
value to the book. 

Governor Scott frequently spoke without manuscript and oc- 
casionally when he had a prepared manuscript he departed from it, 
and spoke extemporaneously. Some of his addresses, therefore, are 
not available for inclusion in this volume. All of his messages to the 
General Assembly are included. Many of his addresses indicate that 
he wrote only a resume for the record. It is believed that it is well 
to include all of his addresses — short resumes or full addresses — if 
they are available. 

In compiling the appointments an effort has been made to list 
the names, the addresses, and the terms of the appointees on the 
several boards and commissions, and to give citations to the laws 
authorizing these appointments. It is believed that this is pertinent 
and valuable information. 

The biographical sketch, "William Kerr Scott," was written by 
Robert W. Redwine, a former Associated Press correspondent and 
an active supporter of Governor Scott prior to and during his term of 
office. 

The funds for printing this volume have been provided by the 
Council of State as has been the custom in previous volumes. 

The State Department of Archives and History authorized my 
services for the purpose of arranging the papers, writing the head- 
ings, preparing the table of contents, compiling the index, and super- 
vising the printing and mailing of the volumes. 

In some instances I have found it necessary to change the capitali- 
V^) zation, punctuations, phraseology, and sentence arrangement, but in 
V0 all cases I have endeavored to retain the original meaning. 

wo 



Miss Mary L. Hatley did the typing of this material and compiled 
the list of appointments. Miss Beth Crabtree has read the manuscript, 
checked many items, read the proof and assisted in many other ways 
in seeing the book through the press. Other persons such as the 
staff of the State Library, the staff of the State News Bureau, and 
others have rendered assistance for which I am appreciative. 

D. L. Corbitt. 
Raleigh, N. C. 
January 31, 1957. 



WILLIAM KERR SCOTT 

By Robert W. Redwine 

Every man is his own ancestor, and every man is his own heir. 
He devises his own future, and he inherits his own past. — hedge. 

Some men seem destined by the Creator to play a controversial 
role in life. 

William Kerr Scott — "The Squire of Haw River" — was cast in 
a mould and grew to maturity in a climate that fitted him for such 
a role. 

Just as is the case with ripe olives and collards, people either like 
him or they thoroughly dislike him; there is no middle ground. 

Those who like him and the things for which he stands and bat- 
tles have elected him to public office each and every time he has 
offered himself as a candidate. Those who dislike him have fought 
him, tooth and toenail, in season and out. 

But, with few exceptions, even his bitterest enemies admit they 
admire his accomplishments and his dogged determination to attain 
his objectives. What they condemn most severely is not the things he 
does but rather the way in which he does them. 

His character is as rugged as the sassafras and hickory-covered 
red hills of his native Alamance County which have been tended by 
Scotts for several generations. And, from his Scottish ancestors, Kerr 
Scott inherited a Presbyterian conscience that is uncompromising, 
and a stubborn, bulldog-like tenacity of purpose that cannot be shaken. 

Seldom has a public figure arisen in North Carolina who was a 
greater enigma or more unpredictable in methods or acts. 

He is equally at home in a crossroads gathering of farmers griping 
about the weather or a lack of telephones in rural areas, making a 
college commencement day address, milking a cow, or serving as 
moderator of a session of his fellow Presbyterian elders. 

As a student at North Carolina State College, he excelled in such 
widely diverse activities as track, YMCA work, and debating; and, 
according to Professor C. L. Newman, "listened more intently than 
any student I had." 

In those three words, "listened more intently," and in two others, 
"hard work," can be found keys to understanding the tremendous 
scope of Kerr Scott's accomplishments since he entered public life. 

"The Squire of Haw River" is still a good listener, a deep student 
of what he hears and reads; and then, when he makes up his mind 



x William Kerr Scott 

what should be done and how it should be done, he goes out and 
does it. 

Thousands of miles of paved roads, hundreds of modern school- 
houses, and scores of rural and city health centers and hospitals, all 
of which his enemies and some of his friends said could not be built, 
are tangible, living proof of this ingrained trait of the man. 

As a fighter for the things in which he believes — "reducing de- 
ficits in services to the people" — he is capable of using, and does 
use, a wide variety of weapons. He is most adept, however, in 
"needling," or, as he expresses it, in "carefully putting a cocklebur 
under the saddle of those who would deny the people services to 
which they are entitled." 

His Haw River farm has been a mecca for many years for tens of 
thousands of people who wanted to thank him personally for the 
benefits that came their way by his cocklebur placing. 

During the four years he and his beloved "Miss Mary" — as he 
calls Mrs. Scott — occupied the Executive Mansion in Raleigh, more 
than 225,000 North Carolina men, women, and children visited in 
their home; and every one was made to feel a welcomed guest. Also, 
slightly more than 300,000 individuals, by actual count, wrote one 
or more letters to the Governor during that four-year period. 

The Scotts love people. 

Kerr Scott, who was later to become known from Murphy to 
Manteo as "The Squire of Haw River," was born April 17, 1896, in 
a farmhouse located about one mile from the spot on which he chose 
some 20 years later to build his own home. 

His father, Robert W. Scott, was a prosperous Hawfields com- 
munity farmer who was universally hailed throughout the state as 
"the first Master Farmer of North Carolina" and who was known 
by thousands as "Farmer Bob" Scott. His mother, before her mar- 
riage, was Elizabeth Hughes, a sturdy, pious daughter of a pioneer 
Orange County family. 

William Kerr was the sixth of the eleven children born to Robert 
W. and Elizabeth Hughes Scott. 

The Scott children at an early age learned the virtue of hard work. 
"Farmer Bob," or "The Captain," as his sons affectionately called 
their stern father, was a firm believer in the Biblical injunction that 
man should earn his bread by the sweat of his brow. Each child had 
his or her assigned daily chores and was expected to perform them 
not only well but cheerfully. 

And, when Sunday morning rolled around each and every one, 
unless seriously sick, answered the Sunday School roll call at nearby 



William Kerr Scott xi 

Hawfields Presbyterian Church. Hard work and strict observance 
of a high moral and spiritual code was the order of the day in the 
Scott household. 

"Farmer Bob" Scott was intensely interested in politics, both as 
an abstract social science and as a medium or avenue for the enrich- 
ment and betterment of the lives of the masses of the people. He 
was a friend and intimate of Governor Charles B. Aycock, North 
Carolina's great educational leader. 

During his term as governor and his long crusade for expansion 
of educational opportunities, Aycock visited the Hawfields community 
upon numerous occasions and was a guest in the Scott home. His 
burning zeal for expansion and growth in the field of public educa- 
tion made a profound impression upon the lad who half a century 
later was also to become governor of North Carolina. 

Today, that lad, grown into manhood, and himself fast becom- 
ing an almost legendary figure in public school building, remembers 
vividly how the farm bells of the Hawfields community rang all 
night long, when he was only six years old, in celebration of an elec- 
tion establishing the first Hawfields public school. It is an event 
and experience of childhood days he still delights in recalling and 
talking about. 

William Kerr Scott is a true son of the soil. Born on a farm, he 
has lived all his life on a farm with the exception of the four years 
he spent as a student at North Carolina State College and during his 
brief career as a field artilleryman in the Army of the United States 
during World War I. All through his four years as governor, few 
week ends found him in the Mansion in Raleigh. Usually he was 
back at Hawfields, relaxing in the comfortable farmhouse which he 
built soon after his marriage in 1919 with his own hands, and the 
assistance of technical advice and help of a neighbor, and one Negro 
laborer. On Sunday, he attended services at his Hawfields church. 

During his four years as a college student he remained in Ra- 
leigh from the time classes opened in the fall until they closed in 
late spring with the exception of visits home during the Christmas 
holidays. Christmas time his sophomore year found him walking 
home, from Raleigh to Alamance County, a distance of more than 
fifty miles, as an economy measure. There were some Christmas 
presents he wanted to buy, and his limited financial resources could 
not be stretched to cover them and a ticket home too. The first two 
days home were spent soaking his blistered feet in hot, salty water. 
"I found," he recalls with a chuckle, "that the giving of those Christ- 
mas presents was very painful." 



xii William Kerr Scott 

Kerr Scott's agricultural indoctrination and conviction that agricul- 
ture is the backbone of any and every civilization or social structure 
and therefore should be one of the prime considerations of govern- 
ment was greatly enhanced and accelerated by the public activities of 
his father. 

In 1901 Governor Aycock appointed "Farmer Bob" a member of 
the State Commission of Agriculture, as the present day State Board 
of Agriculture was known then, and the elder Scott served in that 
capacity under six succeeding governors. In addition, he served two 
terms in the State Senate and five terms in the House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

When son Kerr began successfully advocating in the first General 
Assembly of his administration as governor the issuance of millions 
of dollars of "better schools and roads" bonds, several oldtimers 
pointed out his resemblance to his father in this kind of thinking. 
One aged Alamance County neighbor drawled, " 'Course, it's Kerr's 
program, but it's also the program his daddy worked for all his life — 
this thing of better schools and roads." 

From his father's side of the family tree, Kerr Scott inherited 
traits of sternness, tenacity, and even, on occasion, stubborness, good 
business judgment, and a compelling urge to help people help them- 
selves make life more worth-while by raising the community and 
state to a better standard of living. 

From his mother he inherited an inner gentleness of nature and 
a sentimental streak that he is usually able to hide or disguise from 
all except his most intimate friends and members of his immediate 
staff. 

A constant conflict goes on within him between these two strong 
opposite sides of his inner nature. Occasionally, during public ap- 
pearances, the sentimental side breaks through the barrier he ever 
seeks to erect against it and is evidenced by a choking up of his voice. 

A notable example occurred on the night of December 30, 1952. 
In a radio network address he was saying good-by — as governor — 
to all the people of North Carolina. He started off in a strong, 
resonant voice; but toward the last his voice began to break, and he 
became so choked with emotion that the radio audience could hardly 
hear the last one hundred words or so, and the little group of friends 
and associates circled around him saw tears trickling down the ruddy 
cheeks of the broad-shouldered Chief Executive. 

With an impatient hand he quickly brushed the tears away and 
moments later was in the midst of telling a funny anecdote. As a 



William Kerr Scott xiii 

storyteller, and his stories are always clean and have a point and 
moral to them, he has few contemporary equals. 

From his mother's side of the family tree he also inherited a deep 
appreciation for literature, particularly writings dealing with the 
rise and fall of ancient civilizations. It is from the deep well of 
knowledge that he has acquired with respect to the causes for the 
old civilizations withering away that he draws inspiration for leader- 
ship in the preservation and development of practical ideals. It is 
recognition of these deadly historic faults and weaknesses and the 
ultimate consequences of them, and the parallel he sees in certain 
trends today, which convince him of the righteousness of the causes 
for which he fights. 

His philosophy of life and of government is largely encompassed 
by his conviction that what is bad for any large segment or group of 
the people is bad for all the people. This one central theme threads 
its way through the history of his public acts and utterances. 

Most of the Hughes menfolk, going back several generations, 
were preachers, doctors, and educators. The ancestral Scotts were in 
the main farmers, manufacturers, and businessmen. Somehow, and 
for some obscure reason or reasons, his forebears did not find the 
practice of law attractive, although the family trees do record several 
lawmakers and law enforcement officers among the generations that 
have passed on. 

There was never any question in Kerr Scott's mind about what 
he wanted to do as a man. He wanted to be a farmer, and a 
good farmer. Upon his graduation from Hawfields High School, he 
enrolled at North Carolina State College. Four years later, in 1917, 
he graduated with honors with a Bachelor of Science Degree in 
Agriculture. 

A few weeks earlier America had entered World War I. Before 
the conflict was many months old, Kerr Scott and three of his bro- 
thers had answered the war drum beats by laying aside their civilian 
clothes for army uniforms. One of the brothers died in service. 

At war's end, things were rough, from a financial standpoint, for 
the home-coming young ex-soldier. His still unframed college di- 
ploma and the things it suggested he was capable of doing had not 
been put to the test of everyday practices, and had gathered a bit of 
dust while he was away. And, on top of that, new jobs were few and 
far between for the inexperienced youngsters who had marched away 
to war. 

From his father he borrowed $4,000.00 enabling the future gov- 
ernor to buy a 224 acre tract of farm land, much of it uncleared, 



xiv William Kerr Scott 

and, in addition, a minimum of tools and a few head of sheep and 
cattle. Then began the back-breaking task of felling trees and digging 
stumps. The work day started at the moment the stars moved back 
for the first streaks of dawn light, and ended only after the sun 
had slipped out of sight. It was a tiresome routine followed day in 
and day out. 

But, as his axe bit into the trees and the piles of stumps grew, 
the eager young land clearer had pleasant thoughts. He was build- 
ing for the future, and that dreamed-of future included plans for a 
life shared with a gentle, little soft-speaking school teacher who 
lived in the community. She was Mary Elizabeth White, a neigh- 
bor's daughter; and they had been sweethearts since grammar school 
days. A few weeks earlier they had become charter members in the 
first 4-H Club to be organized in North Carolina. 

There had never been any doubt in his mind that some day he 
and Mary White would be married. He knew that her parents, Mr. 
and Mrs. J. R. White, did not look upon the idea with disfavor. 

He had long been a welcomed visitor at the White home, and one of 
his most amusing anecdotes is about the first formal date he ever had 
with their daughter. The young folk were about 11 and 12 years old 
when he called at her home about dark one evening to walk with 
her to the community schoolhouse for the annual commencement 
exercises. As they started to leave, the little girl's father proposed 
that he accompany them and carry a lantern to light the way. 

"But," he chuckles, "we were soon able to persuade him his idea 
wasn't such a good one after all." 

On July 2, 1919, the two were married; and from that day until 
this Mrs. Scott — still gentle and soft-spoken — has been a mighty in- 
fluence and a tower of strength in the battles Kerr Scott has waged. 

A few months after his marriage the young farmer came to the 
realization that being a husband and prospective father had added 
responsibilities that were hard to meet with the meager income from 
his still undeveloped acreage. On the other hand, he wanted to 
continue active in agricultural pursuits. Then his big opportunity 
came. He was offered, and quickly accepted after talking it over 
with Mrs. Scott, the job of Alamance County farm agent. 

This was the second time he had been called upon to provide 
leadership in programs for the production of food and fibres — a 
path he was to follow for many years to come. The first had been a 
day or two after his graduation from State College when he accepted 
appointment as a special Emergency Food Production Agent. This 



William Kerr Scott xv 

post he had shortly resigned, although it gave him military service 
draft exemption status, to enlist in the Army. 

Early in 1920 County Agent Scott took up his duties, and for the 
next 10 years, through rain and shine, he travelled from one end of 
Alamance County to the other, advising with and assisting his 
farmer neighbors. Sometimes, in extremely bad weather, he travelled 
by horseback; other times he rode in a buggy; and, when road con- 
ditions permitted it, which was not too often, he enjoyed the luxury 
of travelling by a Model-T. 

Each month his salary, small as it was back in those days of low 
pay, was stretched to expand the home farming operations, including 
the purchase of adjoining tracts of land. Mrs. Scott, although her 
hands were full taking care of the needs of a growing family, found 
time to take over some of the responsibilities of managing the home 
acres. Theirs has truly been a working partnership which has con- 
tinued throughout the years. 

Today the farm consists of some 1,300 acres, several hundred of 
them carpeted in permanent pastures that stay green the year 'round. 
The Scott dairy herd of some 200 heavy milker Holsteins and Jerseys 
is one of the best in North Carolina. On his own farm the one-time 
county agent has consistently practiced what he has been preaching 
for more than 30 years — soil conservation and improvement — to 
good effect in fertile, heavy producing soil. 

Asked one day what he considered his major accomplishment as 
Alamance County agent, Governor Scott came up with, "establish- 
ment of the largest 4-H Registered Jersey Calf Club in the world. 
Most of these boys and girls had to be assisted financially in the pur- 
chase of their calves, but every single one of them repaid his or her 
loan. Some of them have told me in recent years, including several 
highly successful preachers, lawyers, and doctors, that that was their 
first experience in thrift and in living up to a personal obligation." 

The record of having established the largest 4-H Registered Calf 
Club, set more than a quarter of a century ago, still stands unbroken. 

The years passed rather swiftly for the growing Scott family. By 
this time there were a daughter and two sons. Then one day in 1930 
came a call for work in a wider agricultural field. The call was an- 
swered; and now it was W. Kerr Scott, master of the North Carolina 
State Grange. For three years he remained at this post, and in that 
period another world record was set. This time it was in the growth 
of Grange membership, and this record also still stands unbroken. 

In the meantime, the devastating effects of the great Hoover De- 
pression were running rampant through and over the farms of 



xvi William Kerr Scott 

America. The chant of auctioneers and the hope-crushing blows of 
their hammers in thousands of farmyards were heard more often 
than the laughter of children. 

Franklin D. Roosevelt had been elected President of the United 
States. His battle cry that the nation had "nothing to fear but fear 
itself" had swept the land and hope for the future had been re- 
kindled. That hope, however, to become reality, had to be imple- 
mented. 

President-elect Roosevelt called a meeting of national farm leaders 
to convene with him at Warm Springs, Georgia. W. Kerr Scott was 
among those called and was the only southerner to attend. Out of 
that conference and others held by the group were fashioned the 
New Deal farm policy and practices that saved agriculture in the 
United States from disaster. 

President Roosevelt appointed Scott regional director of the 
newly created Farm Debt Adjustment Administration, the region 
covering seven southern states. 

Through this agency of the federal government, and the facilities 
it offered, debt-ridden farmers and their families were provided a 
breathing spell while they and the rest of the nation struggled back 
to their financial feet by way of the RFC, Bank Deposit Insurance, 
shipping and railroad subsidies, price supports, and other so-called 
New Deal instrumentalities eagerly voted by the Congress. 

"Those were both heart-rending and happy days for me," recalls 
Kerr Scott, "heart-rending because of the misery, want and hunger 
we saw on every side; happy because of the fear we were able to 
lift from the eyes of tens of thousands of men, women and children." 

As prosperity slowly but surely spread over the land under policies 
adopted and set in motion by the new national administration, the 
restless "Squire of Haw River" started thinking about a step he had 
long contemplated in a distant sort of way. He had been in training 
for it for many years. He decided the time was ripe. 

With the 1936 Democratic primary election only seven weeks 
away, he announced his candidacy for North Carolina Commissioner 
of Agriculture. Most political observers thought he had lost his mind. 
He plunged into a hectic campaign and proved them wrong. 

Many years before, his father had run unsuccessfully for the 
same post against the father of the incumbent commissioner whom 
the Squire had decided to take on in the political arena. This fact 
added dramatic appeal to the campaign. 

Seven years before, back in 1929, "Farmer Bob," while on his 
death bed, had called son Kerr to his side. 



William Kerr Scott xvii 

"I want you to promise me," he said, "that some day you will 
seek the office of Commissioner of Agriculture, and that upon being 
elected you will do your best to make the best one our State ever 
had." 

The solemn promise was given. 

And, he went on not only to defeat the son of the man who had 
defeated his father, but also to hold the state's highest agricultural 
post for 11 years, or until he resigned it to run for governor in 1948, 
having been re-elected in 1940 and 1944. 

These 11 years constituted another busy period in the life of this 
restless man who outwardly always appears to be calm but who is 
never happy unless he has one or more major projects in active de- 
velopment or at least in the hatching stage. 

As commissioner of agriculture, he led the relentless fight to rid 
North Carolina of Bangs Disease among cattle, and to make North 
Carolina the first state in the nation to accomplish this feat. Two 
other major accomplishments were forcing unscrupulous feed manu- 
facturers to discontinue the use of sawdust and rice hulls in their 
livestock feeds, and the same type of fertilizer manufacturers to dis- 
continue putting sand in their product. 

He led the Department of Agriculture in successfully battling 
against bovine tuberculosis and other animal diseases, sponsored 
establishment of the State Marketing Authority, the "Green Pastures" 
program, broadening of the State Warehouse Act, rehabilitation of 
the sheep industry in Western North Carolina, a better seed certifica- 
tion program, and was the first commissioner of agriculture to operate 
a State Fair without expense or loss of money for the State Treasury. 

Commissioner Scott travelled from Murphy to Manteo preaching 
rural electrification. His words sounded wonderful to the farm 
folk and those living in isolated communities, but the sound of his 
voice was not pleasant to the electric power industry. He had al- 
ready incurred the wrath of powerful feed and fertilizer groups, and 
the list of other special interests that he had rubbed the wrong way 
was growing. It was generally conceded, however, that he could not 
be defeated for commissioner of agriculture, and that he would be 
re-elected to that office as long as he wanted it but that his political 
future was limited to that post. 

The summer and fall of 1947 rolled around, and political leaders 
on both the state and county levels were sitting back relaxed and 
with no worries about the forthcoming 1948 primary election of a 
Democratic nominee for governor. Everything, or so they thought, 
was cut and dried. The man had been picked, his crown fashioned, 



xviii William Kerr Scott 

and preliminary plans for his inauguration were being considered. 
It would be impossible, nearly everyone said, for a serious threat to 
arise that might upset the political applecart. 

Then, in early 1948, there came a rumbling of distant thunder 
to disturb the political siesta and doldrums that had presaged a 
gubernatorial shoo-in. 

Suddenly, and without any advance warning, Commissioner of 
Agriculture Scott casually revealed at a departmental social get-to- 
gether that he would not be a candidate for re-election. Beyond that 
he would say nothing. 

The machine politicians and king-makers started gathering in 
little groups and asking each other, "what do you suppose Kerr 
Scott is up to now?" 

The answer was not many days in coming. "The Squire of Haw 
River" announced his candidacy for the governorship, and almost 
simultaneously launched one of the most vigorous political campaigns 
in the history of North Carolina. After a few weeks, and a second 
primary later, he was the Democratic nominee for governor, tanta- 
mount to election. 

The campaign was fast, furious and hot from the moment Scott 
fired his first salvo. To use one of his favorite expressions, he did 
not "drag his feet" or permit any of his headquarters staff to drag 
theirs. He lashed out at the "mud tax" rural dwellers were paying, 
and his public indignation over the state of rural affairs in general 
assumed the proportions of a crusade. 

He did not limit himself, however, to lambasting rural neglects. 
He was highly critical of his principal opponent for having permitted 
some of the financial institutions in the state to use, without paying 
any interest upon them, approximately one hundred million dollars 
of public funds — "letting these favorites take a free ride on the 
public's money," he shouted from scores of public platforms. 

Campaigner Scott promised, if elected governor, to sponsor legis- 
lation which would end this practice by requiring the State Treasurer 
to invest public funds not needed for day to day operation of the 
state government. One of the first acts of the first General Assembly 
of his administration was to give approval to his recommendation 
that such an investment policy be made a law of the state. 

Four years later, when he left the Governor's office, such invested 
funds had returned to the State Treasury more than ten million dol- 
lars in interest or dividends. 

On the morning of January 8, 1949, North Carolina's first farmer 
governor in more than half a century rather self-consciously put on 



William Kerr Scott xix 

striped trousers, a fork-tailed coat and a high silk hat, strange 
garb for this blunt-speaking son of the soil, preliminary to his in- 
auguration ceremonies. 

A less courageous man or one less dedicated to "catching up with 
my hauling" or "plowing to the end of the row," to borrow two of the 
Scott trademarks, would have quaked at what visibly lay ahead. Al- 
ready many members of the General Assembly, most of the member- 
ship having supported his chief opponent in the recent primary elec- 
tion, were openly referring to him as "The Wild Bull from Alamance 
who, if we let him, will wreck and bankrupt the state." 

Kerr Scott, the oath of office fresh and clean on his lips, how- 
ever, was undaunted. In a firm voice and with a battle gleam in his 
eye,' he delivered his inaugural address, which brought together, in 
one document, the significant influences, observations, inspirations 
and beliefs which he had accumulated over the years. 

Press and radio-wise his self-designated Go-Forward Program 
presented that day was greeted with mixed reactions. Newspaper edi- 
torials both praising and condemning it appeared overnight. Old 
Guard Conservatives charged that Governor Scott was seeking to 
steer the state government upon a course that would tear the state's 
economic and financial stability to shreds. 

Due to three principal causes, substantial cash reserves had been 
building up in the State Treasury for a period of years. The three 
were (1) good management and sound business practices by previous 
administrations, (2) inability to provide needed capital improve- 
ments in the physical plants of the various state institutions, and to 
do more than minimum road building because of serious material 
shortages during and immediately following World War II, and (3) 
prosperous business conditions that had kept tax collections at a high 

level. 

It was the Scott theory that these reserve or surplus funds, or at 
least a large part of them, should be appropriated to provide more 
hospitals and health care; expanded assistance for the aged, the de- 
pendent and the handicapped; more schools and higher pay for 
school teachers; more dormitories, laboratories and classrooms at the 
institutions of higher learning; better facilities and care of the 
mentally sick; and numerous other removals of "deficits in services to 
the people," to quote his own words. 

The entrenched opposition wanted to permit the surpluses to 
continue piling up to serve as a cushion against the effects of a de- 
pression they visualized as being just around the corner, or as an off- 



xx William Kerr Scott 

set for a tax reduction at levels that would not have beneficially 
affected the tax bills of the masses of people. 

The biggest opposition cry of anguish over the Scott Go-Forward 
Program, however, arose over his proposal that an integrated system 
of farm-to-market roads be paved. In making this rural road im- 
provement recommendation to the lawmakers, he pointed out that 
one-third of all North Carolina people live in the cities and towns 
and work there, another third live in the country and work in the 
cities and towns, and the other third both live and work in the 
country, or that two-thirds of the state's population live in rural 
areas; and, he added, "what is bad for two-thirds of the people is 
bad for all." 

A stone-like wall against the Go-Forward Program quickly formed 
in the General Assembly. A log jam of pending legislation began 
piling up as the Go-Forward proponents, who were in the minority, 
and the standpat or status quo group squared away for a battle to 
the finish. Then the governor took his cause to the people over the 
radio channels, and through this medium he placed an effective cockle- 
bur under the collective saddle of the standpatters. The people back 
home started telling their legislators they wanted action to make 
real the things they had been promised and that had been recom- 
mended to the General Assembly by their governor. 

The General Assembly quickly broke up the legislative log jam 
in response to the voice of the people. It agreed to submit to the 
voters in a special election the question of whether they wanted the 
state to issue bonds amounting to two hundred million dollars for 
paving a secondary or farm-to-market system of roads and 25 million 
dollars for a school expansion program. When that election was held 
a few months later the people voted overwhelmingly for both these 
Go-Forward projects. 

At the same time, the people voted upon themselves a one cent a 
gallon gasoline tax increase to retire the road bonds, which was the 
first and only state tax levy increase in North Carolina between 
1933 and the time Governor Scott's term of office ended. 

When the 1949 General Assembly adjourned, despite the bellig- 
erent climate in which it had operated, more than 85 per cent of the 
Go-Forward Program submitted to it had been enacted into law, a 
good batting average in any political league. 

With the legislators out of the Capitol City and back home, 
Governor Scott turned his attention to administering the wise and 
proper expenditure of the unprecedented sums that had been made 
available to remove "deficits in services to the people." To the 



William Kerr Scott xxi 

credit of all those associated with his administration, there has never 
been a hint or breath of scandal touching these millions upon mil- 
lions of dollars in construction contracts. 

He also unsheathed his needling weapons and opened up a 
studied campaign to bring about expanded electric and telephone 
services in rural North Carolina. A startled press conference group 
heard him say that rural North Carolina was served by more tele- 
phones 50 years ago than at the present moment. To their amaze- 
ment, examination of statistical reports showed the statement to be 
accurate. 

Chagrined telephone industry officials, caught with their re- 
ceivers down, started rushing expansion programs that made ma- 
terial progress during the remaining three and a half years of the 
Scott administration. 

Many needles, lances and arrows were unloosed into the vital 
spots of the electric power industry by the unpredictable "Man from 
Haw River" during the time he was governor. On one occasion he 
let fly a blast of withering criticism of electric power industry prac- 
tices and failures from the platform of a power plant dedication. 

And, yet, in his farewell address to the people, at the end of his 
term of office, he said, "I am grateful for the contributions to the 
over-all program . . . particularly by those electric and telephone 
companies that have so successfully carried their services to thou- 
sands of rural homes, churches, schools, and places of business." 

When the retiring governor paid that tribute he had before him 
the record of more than 153,000 farm home and other new rural 
electric service connections made during his administration. And he 
was probably thinking about what conditions were like back in 
1930 when, in Statesville, he became the first North Carolinian to 
suggest the establishment of a Rural Electrification Authority "to 
insure farm folk getting electric power." 

The Scott way of doing things kept press and radio reporters on 
their toes whenever and wherever he appeared in public. They never 
knew when, in the middle of doing something else or telling a story, 
he might in an offhanded way make a major announcement. 

This was dramatically brought home to the reporters only a few 
weeks after he took office, and shortly after the death of United 
States Senator J. Melville Broughton. For several days there had 
been wide speculation about who would be appointed to fill the 
vacancy and when the appointment would be made. Governor Scott 
was on a speakers platform at Chapel Hill to make a few informal 
remarks of no political importance when, toward the end and seem- 



xxii William Kerr Scott 

ingly as an afterthought, he quietly and without changing the inflec- 
tion of his voice, remarked that Dr. Frank Porter Graham would be 
the next United States Senator from North Carolina. The name of 
Dr. Graham, president of the Greater University of North Carolina, 
had not even been on the press' list of 54 prospective or potential can- 
didates for the appointment. 

The governor's press conferences were always spirited affairs and 
oftentimes were highlighted by lively exchanges between the chief 
executive and some of the newsmen. It soon became evident to the 
Capitol Hill reporters that all promises made by Campaigner Scott 
would be kept by Governor Scott. 

In his battle for the governorship, Candidate Scott had promised 
that if elected he would see to it that women had greater representa- 
tion in state government. By his appointment, Miss Susie Sharp be- 
came the first, and to this date, only woman Superior Court judge in 
the history of North Carolina; and he appointed more women to 
state boards and commissions than any other governor ever did. 

It is inherent in the Scott make-up to keep a promise, for a promise 
to him is a sacred contract never to be forgotten even if made in the 
heat of a political campaign. 

He also appointed, although this was not responsive to a cam- 
paign or any other kind of promise, the first Negro ever to serve on 
the State Board of Education. 

"Comprising almost one-third of the population of our state, and 
with 30 per cent of the children attending our public schools being 
their children, the Negro race is entitled to and should have represen- 
tation on the Board of Education," he told inquiring reporters. 

When the second General Assembly of the administration con- 
vened in January of 1951, there was a much smaller degree of hostility 
between the executive and legislative branches of the government 
than there had been two years before; but all was not sweetness and 
light. A small, hard-knit core of ultra-conservatives, secretly calling 
themselves the "Hold-the-Liners," met almost nightly to design ways 
and means of curbing the powers of Governor Scott and to hold to 
a minimum appropriations for building programs. 

For a time it appeared their efforts would meet with success. Again 
a legislative log jam developed and the wheels almost stopped turning. 
It was a critical moment for the administration. Unless something 
was done to break the log jam, the Go-Forward Program put in mo- 
tion two years earlier would be only half completed. 

Again Governor Scott appealed to the people, and again he 
used the medium of radio to reach directly into the homes of mil- 



William Kerr Scott xxiii 

lions. Sitting at his desk in the Capitol, he spoke earnestly into a 
microphone over a network of almost 100 stations, saying: 

"Since your 1951 Legislature has been in Raleigh, it has become 
popular for various committees to hold 'executive sessions' — secret 
meetings from which the public is barred and the press and radio 
prevented from reporting fully — for the discussion of important 
matters affecting the welfare of you, your families and your neigh- 
bors . . . you will be the ultimate victims of these highhanded tac- 
tics. . . . The issues before the General Assembly are being over- 
shadowed by personalities and factional politics. This is tragic and 
not in the interest of the people and their needs. 

"Time has come to quit playing politics with human needs and 
get down to the business of considering the merits of worth-while 
legislation ... in recent weeks the courage and vision which has 
guided North Carolina through the past half a century has been 
obscured in part by a new and strange philosophy. The group which 
fathered this spirit of defeatism calls itself 'Hold-the-Liners.' " 

And, then, there was a long silence, as the aroused Governor 
paused to obtain full effect for what was to follow. 

"Hold the line against what?" he thundered. Then he proceeded 
to answer his own question by asking a whole series of new ones: 
against the mental institutions and those seeking admission to them, 
against the tuberculosis sanatoriums, against the schools for the deaf 
and blind, against hospitals for mentally afflicted children, against 
the aged and infirm, against better pay for teachers, against merit 
raises for state employees, and against our institutions of higher learn- 
ing? 

An angry citizenry over the weekend echoed their chief execu- 
tive's words, and on the following Tuesday the group of "Hold-the- 
Liners" started tearing down the dikes they had been building to 
keep North Carolina from continuing to Go-Forward. 

Slightly less than two years later, as his term of office ended, Gov- 
ernor Scott was able to report to the people that during his four- 
year administration the following accomplishments had been re- 
corded: 

The paving of 14,810 miles of highways and roads, or the paving 
of 179 more miles than had been paved in North Carolina in all the 
years prior to 1949; 

A public school building program providing 8,000 new classrooms, 
175 gymnasiums, and 350 lunchrooms; 



xxiv William Kerr Scott 

Permanent improvements costing $331,339,843 at the institutions 
of higher learning, and in the construction of mental, tubercular, 
spastic, orthopedic, and community hospitals; 

The establishment of an annual appropriation of $550,000 to 
support a state-wide public school health program; 

An increase of 398 new industrial plants with a total investment 
of $257,000,000, to give employment to 39,000 additional workers 
with annual payrolls of $95,000,000; 

The construction of modern port facilities at Morehead City and 
Wilmington at a cost of $7,500,000 which brought to fruition a one 
hundred year old dream of North Carolina for deep water shipping 
outlets; 

The installation ~ of in excess of 31,000 rural telephones, and 153,- 
000 new electric service connections in rural areas; 

The placing in service of 4,406 additional beds in 77 new and im- 
proved hospitals in 73 of the state's 100 counties, many of these 
counties heretofore having been without hospital facilities. 

And, he also was able, with understandable pride and to the con- 
sternation of his enemies who predicted he would wreck the economy 
of the state, to point out that "my successor, when he takes office, 
finds a surplus in excess of forty million dollars in the State Treasury." 

The heavy press of official duties that have filled most of Kerr 
Scott's days for the last 30 years has not prevented him from being 
active in numerous organizations and groups. He holds or has held 
membership in the following: 

American Jersey Cattle Club; North Carolina Jersey Cattle Club (past presi- 
dent); North Carolina Cotton Growers Association (Advisory Board); North Car- 
olina Rural Electrification Authority; American Legion; Junior Order American 
Mechanics; National Association of Commissioners, Secretaries and Directors of 
Agriculture (President 1947); National Advisory Committee of Agricultural Re- 
search and Marketing in 1946-1948; Special U. S. Commission to Mexico for Study 
of Hoof and Mouth Disease in 1947; Chairman Tobacco Advisory Board in 1945. 

He received the Progressive Farmer award "Man of the Year" in 
1947, and the North Carolina State Grange award "Man of the Year" 
in 1950. 

He has had conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Agriculture by North Carolina State College; and the Doctor of 
Laws degree by the University of North Carolina and by Elon Col- 
lege. 

Kerr Scott's devotion to his family, to his church, and the firm 
conviction that man is his brothers' keeper are unshakable and prob- 
ably, in the final analysis, constitute the strongest trait of his character. 



William Kerr Scott xxv 

He and Mrs. Scott have three children, Osborne W., Robert W., 
and Mary Kerr (Mrs. A. J. Lowdermilk of Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio) , 
and three grandchildren — Betty White Lowdermilk, daughter of 
Mary Kerr, and Mary Ella and Margaret Rose, twin daughters of 
Robert W. 

Sunday mornings, when the weather is good, usually find him 
walking the mile and a half from his home to Hawfields Presbyterian 
Church to attend both Sunday School and church services. Along 
the way neighbors will join him and by the time the group reaches 
the churchyard there has been a full discussion of community prob- 
lems and what should be done about them. For the "Squire of Haw 
River" these Sunday morning walks with his neighbors are a relax- 
ing highlight of a work-filled week. These neighbors respect his 
opinions, but they also are always ready to argue with him when they 
disagree with his views. 

The Hawfields Church, of which Kerr Scott became a member 
when a boy, was organized in 1755, and in May 1955, celebrated its 
200th birthday. At informal church meetings, Governor Scott is 
usually addressed either as deacon or elder. He served as a deacon 
from 1920 through 1932, and has been an elder since 1933. 

"The effect the Go-Forward Program has had, and will continue 
to have on the religious life of the people of North Carolina was the 
most important accomplishment of my administration," retiring 
Governor Scott told a reporter. "In past years the rural people of 
North Carolina, and remember, rural folk constitute more than 76 
per cent of all church membership in our state, were denied regular 
church attendance and a normal community social life by impassable 
or near impassable mud-choked roads during many months each year. 

"Now, that blight upon healthy community activities has been 
eradicated. When we lifted the 'mud tax' from the backs of two- 
thirds of our population by paving more than 14,000 miles of country 
roads, and stabilized with gravel and sand an equal number of miles, 
the way was cleared for a revitalized church life and Christian ac- 
tivities that cannot be measured in terms of dollars and cents." 

William Kerr Scott, the "jet-propelled plowboy" from Alamance, 
looking backward, measures and evaluates his four hectic years as 
governor of North Carolina in terms of spiritual and moral values 
rather than in terms of having guided an unprecedented Go-Forward 
Program to meet material human needs. 



xxvi William Kerr Scott 

Few people, if any living today, are capable of judging the full 
force of the impact — spiritual, moral, material, or even political — 
that this restless, vision-endowed farmer-statesman has made on the 
future of his native North Carolina, which he visualizes as forever 
Going-Forward. 

William Kerr Scott's imprint, deep and wide, however, is there 
for the historians of the future to read, measure, and record. 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Foreword vii 

Biographical Sketch, William Kerr Scott ix 

Messages to the General Assembly: 

1949 

Inaugural Address 3 

Postwar Reserve Fund 15 

Budget Report 16 

Secondary Road Bond Issue 21 

Domestic Relations Study 26 

Schools and School Buildings 26 

The Liquor Referendum 30 

Member of the Utilities Commission 32 

Members of the State Planning Board 32 

Members of the State Board of Education 33 

Members of the Utilities Commission 33 

1951 

Biennial Message 33 

Appointments to State Boards 51 

Budget Report 54 

Domestic Relations Study 63 

Local Government Employees' Retirement Act 63 

Study of the Care of the Aged 63 

Portland Cement Plant Study 64 

Legislation for Better Enforcement of Prohibition Laws 64 

Kress Foundation Gift 65 

Appointments to the State Board of Education 67 

Appointment of Commissioner of Banks 67 

Proclamations: 

1949 

Road and School Bonds 71 

Banking Holiday 72 

1950 

Special Registration of Medical, Dental, and Allied Specialists Categories 72 

Thanksgiving Day 75 

1951 

Reward for Murder 76 

Service in the National Guard 77 

Thanksgiving Day 78 

Banking Holiday 80 



xxviii Contents 

Proclamations — Continued: 

1952 Page 

Reward for Murder 80 

Importation of Foreign Bone Meal 81 

Controlling the Movement of Swine 83 

Thanksgiving Day 84 

Banking Holiday 85 

Presidential Electors 85 

Addresses: 

1949 

Not Dimes, But Dollars 91 

A Strong Defense is Best Notice to Aggressors 92 

The Road Bond Issue 93 

Need For More Public Services 98 

North Carolina is Proud of Her Veterans 103 

Minute Man Fitting Symbol of Defense Savings Bond Program 104 

Our State's Responsibility for Its Children 107 

No Change in Policy in Road Construction 113 

School and Road Bond Election 114 

Chowan College Begins Second Century 120 

Broadening the Educational Horizon 123 

School and Road Bonds 124 

Greetings to the Tobacco Industry 126 

Men Depend on Women for Ideals and Guidance 127 

"How You Gonna Keep 'Em Down on the Farm?" 127 

Illicit Liquor Traffic in North Carolina 138 

Duke University Remains Rich in Potential Greatness 145 

A Report to the People 146 

Trailer Museum for the People of North Carolina 151 

1950 

North Carolina's Future 152 

Legal Control of Alcoholic Beverages 157 

Furniture Manufacturing 160 

Building the Future of our State 162 

North Carolina Proud of 4-H Clubs 167 

Development of the Railroad in North Carolina 169 

Frank P. Graham is the Best North Carolina Has 172 

The People Make the Decision 175 

North Carolina's Past 180 

Our Health Program 182 

Diversification of State Government 185 

North Carolina is Building Well 193 

Honor, the Keystone of Democracy 195 

Eastern North Carolina on the March 198 

The Potentialities of the Cape Fear Valley 200 

Another Step in North Carolina's Progress ..-.: 205 

The People Approve Gordon Gray 206 

Opportunities for Industrial Development 206 



Contents xxix 

Addresses — Continued: 

1951 p a g e 

The March of Dimes 211 

Boy Scouts Program in North Carolina 212 

North Carolina Must Move Forward 213 

Report to the People 219 

North Carolina Looks Ahead for its Aged 223 

W. Roy Hampton: Citizen of the State and Nation 226 

Brevard, the Music Capital of the South 228 

North Carolina's Progress 229 

"Nickels for Know-How" 241 

Red Feather Campaign 245 

Need for Conservation of Water Resources 249 

The Significance of FM Broadcasting 255 

A Concept of Freedom 256 

America Living in a Period of Twilight 261 

What We Must Do to Stay Free 265 

1952 

A New Year's Message 266 

The State's Responsibility for its Children 272 

Anniversary of Greek Independence 277 

North Carolina is a Well-Balanced State 281 

The Eisenhower Trophy 283 

Flue-Cured Tobacco Referendum 284 

The Farmers' Economic and Educational Opportunities 287 

Employing the Rehabilitated 294 

North Carolina Faces a Challenge 297 

The South Progresses 300 

The Telephone is a Mighty Force in Modern Living 306 

The Nation Prospers Under Democratic Leadership 310 

Economic Conditions in the South 312 

Water Development in North Carolina 318 

Service to All the People 324 

A Governor's Last Look 327 

Statements and Articles for the Press: 

1949 

Economic and Social Progress 335 

Daniels to National Committee 337 

North Carolina's Agricultural Problems 337 

Agriculture — Warp of our Economic Fabric 340 

Welcome to Foreign Students 342 

The Road Bond Issue 343 

National Crime Prevention Week 343 

Highway Safety 343 

Death of Senator J. M. Broughton 344 

Wildlife Restoration Week 345 

Patriots' Day 345 

Cancer Control Month 346 



xxx Contents 

Statements and Articles for the Press — Continued: Page 

The Corn War 347 

Army Day 348 

The Corn War 349 

Amended. Road Program Accepted 349 

Contingent Teacher Pay Raise 350 

Mother's Day 352 

Pat Kimzey Dies 352 

Shut-in's Day 353 

Development of Forest Resources 353 

Strike at Hart Cotton Mills 354 

Message to Construction Industry 355 

Appalachian State Teachers' College Observes Anniversary 355 

The Marion Dispute 356 

Farm Organizations Necessary 356 

The Daniels Case 357 

The Leadership of James E. Shepard 358 

Tobacco Production 359 

The Marion Dispute 359 

Death of J. C. B. Ehringhaus 360 

Maintaining Prison Discipline 360 

Operating Expenditures 361 

A Statement of the Condition of the General Fund for the Fiscal 

Years 1947-1948 and 1948-1949 362 

Wallace Channel Improvement 363 

Public Improvements Slated for North Carolina 364 

Investigation of State Advertising Fund 367 

United Service Organizations 367 

Value of the Tobacco Crop 368 

North Carolina Public Works Program 369 

Folk Festival Project 372 

Annual Harvest Day Festival 372 

Nash County Recreation Commission 372 

Tuberculosis Christmas Seal Campaign 373 

North Carolina Leads in Textiles 374 

1950 

Report to the People 375 

Advisory Board of Paroles 393 

The Charlotte Story 394 

Death of Wilkins P. Horton 397 

Death of Mrs. Estelle T. Smith 397 

Highway Safety 397 

Why I Appointed Frank P. Graham to the United States Senate 399 

Fire Control in North Carolina Forests 402 

Nomination of Willis Smith 403 

Reports on J. Brice Moore 403 

Claude Shackelford Case 404 

Report of Advisory Budget Commission 405 

Death of Congressman A. L. Bulwinkle 406 



Contents xxxi 

Statements and Articles for the Press — Continued: Page 

Constitution Day 406 

Physically Handicapped Week 407 

White House Conference on Children and Youth 407 

Execution of Covey C. Lamm 409 

Erosion of Highway Right-of-Ways 410 

Resignation of Henry E. Hilton 411 

Christmas Seal Campaign 411 

Highway Safety 412 

North Carolina's Industrial Development 413 

State Has Proud Record under Democratic Rule 417 

1951 

Death of W. Roy Hampton 422 

Investigation of Death of James T. Tung 422 

Biennium Appropriation Bill 422 

Displaced Persons 423 

Death of Robert L. Flowers 425 

Study of Sale Practices of Oil Companies 426 

Death of Walter P. Stacy 427 

Safe Driving 427 

1952 

States' Rights Democratic Party 428 

Highway Commissioner 428 

Conviction of Lafayette Miller 428 

North Carolina Rural Electrification Authority 429 

Resignation of D. S. Coltrane 430 

Public Health Improvements 433 

Industrial and Advertising Activities 435 



Mental Institutions 



437 



Public Utilities in North Carolina 439 

The Insurance Department 449 

Department of Public Welfare 441 

Department of Conservation and Development 442 

Employment and Building Program 444 

Death of Clyde A. Erwin 445 

Allocation of Highway Fund 447 

Forest Fire Hazards 448 

The Green Pastures Program 443 

Golden Anniversary of Aviation 449 

Rural Telephones Increased 450 

Christmas Message 45I 

A Report to the People '. 451 

North Carolina's "Accessible Isolation" Attracts National Advertisers 462 

Letters and Telegrams: 

1949 

Scott, Governor, to the Citizens of Alamance County, Letter 469 

Scott, Governor, to 4-H Club Members in North Carolina, Letter 469 

Scott, Governor, to the Congregation of Beth David Synagogue, Letter 470 



xxxii Contents 

Letters and Telegrams — Continued: Page 

Rathbone, J., to Governor Scott, Telegram 471 

Scott, Governor, to B. S. Griffith, Letter 472 

Scott, Governor, to Bishop Howard E. Rondthaler, Letter 473 

Scott, Governor, to Atlantic Refining Company and others, Telegram .... 474 

Scott, Governor, to the Teachers of Agriculture, Letter 474 

Scott, Governor, to the Members of the 30th Division Association, Letter .... 475 

Carter, Marcus W., to Governor Scott, Letter 476 

Scott, Governor, to Mayor George A. Smock, 2nd, Letter 479 

Scott, Governor, to Mayon Parker, Letter 480 

Scott, Governor, to John W. Piercey, Letter 481 

Scott, Governor, to Citizens of Alamance County, Letter 482 

Scott, Governor, to the Members of the North Carolina Business and 

Professional Women's Clubs, Letter 482 

Scott, Governor, to Martin H. Work, Letter 483 

Scott, Governor, to Helen Dortch Longstreet, Letter 484 

1950 

Brown, Aycock, to Governor Scott, Letter 484 

Scott, Governor, to Senator Clyde R. Hoey, Letter 485 

Coltrane, D. S., to Governor Scott, Letter 487 

Winston, Ellen, to Governor Scott, Letter 488 

Shaw, Eugene G., to Governor Scott, Letter 490 

Scott, Governor, to Tom A. Garrison, Jr., Telegram 491 

McMullan, Harry, to Governor Scott, Letter 491 

Scott, Governor, to Chief Justice W. P. Stacy and others, Letter 494 

Stacy, Walter P. and others, to Governor Scott, Letter 495 

Hilton, Henry E., to Governor Scott, Letter 496 

Scott, Governor, to Robert Patten, Letter 498 

McMullan, Harry, to Governor Scott, Letter 499 

1952 

Scott, Governor, to Brenda Ann Cline, Letter 508 

Goforth, Mark, to Governor Scott, Letter 508 

Scott, Governor, to Norman B. McCulloch, Letter 509 

Scott, Governor, to Dr. T. C. Johnson, Letter 510 

Scott, Governor, to Colonel L. C. Rosser, Letter 510 

Scott, Governor, to D. S. Coltrane, Letter 511 

Scott, Governor, to L. D. Moore, Letter 511 

Shaw, Eugene G., to Governor Scott, Letter 512 

Shaw, Eugene G., to Governor Scott, Letter 520 

Scott, Governor, to President Harry S. Truman, Letter 524 

Brower, Edwin N., to Governor Scott, Letter 524 

Miscellaneous 

Tryon's Palace 529 

Resignation of Luther Hamilton 530 

Appointments 535 

Index 593 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page 

W. Kerr Scott Frontispiece 

Inauguration Ceremonies 7 

Inaugural Ball 23 

Governor Scott and the Council of State 31 

Governor Scott Congratulates Senator Frank P. Graham 39 

The Azalea Festival 55 

Governor Scott at Alamance County Centennial Celebration 63 

Governor Scott Receives National Safety Award 71 

Governor Scott at Forsyth County Centennial Celebration 87 

Judge Susie Sharp 95 

Chief Justice Walter P. Stacy Swears in Special Superior Court Judges 103 

Governor Scott Addresses New Members of Wildlife Resources Commission 119 

Governor Scott Visits Burlington Mills Steele Plant at Cordova 127 

Governor Scott Attends Peach Festival in Rockingham 135 

Governor Scott at Opening of Greensboro Tobacco Warehouse 151 

Governor Scott Makes Address at Opening of Carolina Power and Light 

Company's New Plant at Lumberton 159 

Governor Scott and Lieutenant Governor Hoyt P. Taylor 

at Governor Taylor's Home in Wadesboro 167 

Governor Scott and Willis Smith at Inauguration of President Hollis 

A. Edens of Duke University 183 

Governor Scott, George R. Ross, and Mrs. Maude White 

Plant Orange Tree at Hatteras 191 

Governor Scott and Cherokee Indian, McKinley Ross 223 

Governor Scott Crowns Miss Lu Long Ogburn 255 

Mrs. W. Kerr Scott and Miss Libba McGee, Cotton Maid of South Carolina 263 

Governor Scott and Major General Louis E. Woods and 

Major General Ray A. Robinson 279 

Governor Scott and Others on Rabbit Hunt at Caledonia Prison Farm 287 

Governor Scott Introduced at National 4-H Club Meeting 319 

Treasurer Brandon P. Hodges Pays Governor Scott for Road Bond 351 

Fiftieth Anniversary of Inauguration of 

Governor Charles B. Aycock Observed 383 

Boy Scouts Present Annual Report on Activities to Governor Scott 391 

Governor Scott Greets President Truman and 

Gordon Gray at Winston-Salem 407 

Mrs. W. Kerr Scott 447 

Robert Walter Scott and Elizabeth J. Scott 479 

Mrs. Robert W. (Ella Anderson) Scott 495 



MESSAGES TO THE 
GENERAL ASSEMBLY 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS 

Delivered in the Raleigh Memorial Auditorium 

January 6, 1949 

Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, Members of the General Assembly and 
my friends from all over North Carolina: 

As I assume the duties of governor today I am deeply conscious of 
the great responsibilities of the office. My campaigning dealt with 
definite proposals for the expansion and improvement of the public 
service. I take office with what I believe to be a clear mandate from the 
people to carry out the pledges I have given. I am deeply appreciative 
of the great honor this state has bestowed upon me, but I am even 
more acutely aware of the work ahead, and I dedicate myself with all 
the energies of my heart and mind to the discharge of the duties of 
the governorship. 

You, ladies and gentlemen of this General Assembly, have been 
elected by the people as their lawmakers. I have been elected their 
chief executive. Together we have a job to do. I cherish the oppor- 
tunity to work with you. I want you to know that the resources of the 
governor's office will always be at your disposal. 

Our state stands now at a point where it must take counsel of 
courage rather than fear in plotting its advance. 

We know we cannot chart the future with certainty. In business, 
and in government — which is the biggest business of all — it is neces- 
sary to plan two, four, and more years ahead. Budgets and all great 
public service programs must be projected in order that what we do 
today will dovetail into what we do tomorrow. 

Without claiming to be a prophet, I say here and now that I face 
the future with confidence. We are now in a period of readjustment. 
I see it as the levelling off process expected since the end of the war — 
the normal change from a seller's to a buyer's market, inevitable as 
production catches up with shortages. There is evidence that we 
have passed the peak of high prices, and in the months immediately 
ahead it would be surprising if the economic adjustment did not 
exact a toll in business casualty and individual unemployment. We 
would be foolish not to take this probability into consideration, but I 
think we would be equally foolish to magnify the consequences of what 
should prove to be a normal adjustment due after years of almost 
uninterrupted upward movement. 

We have returned the government in Washington to control of the 
Democratic party, under which we enjoyed our greatest prosperity. 



4 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

President Truman and the Democratic Congress have a mandate from 
the people to safeguard our economy with proper supports and con- 
trols. I cannot see the possibility of a depression such as we experi- 
enced under the last Republican administration. Our party has cre- 
ated safe-guards. Bank depositors are insured against loss. Labor 
has more than trebled its average wage in this state and workers are 
insured against total loss of income in case of temporary unemploy- 
ment. Farmers have support prices to insure them against selling 
below cost of production. Reserve funds have been accumulated to 
maintain subsistence payments to large numbers of the aged and 
needy through the Social Security Program. Out of substantial profits 
in the last eight years, business, by and large, has been able to set 
aside reserves against temporary reverses. 

I repeat. I face the future with confidence. I face it, too, with the 
conviction that now is the time to build for a greater future by bring- 
ing our public services current with the needs of the times. In doing 
this we can set the stage for the greatest era of prosperity ever ex- 
perienced by our people. 

During the war and postwar years, when neither labor nor mate- 
rials were available, I think our state leadership wisely husbanded tax 
resources. Our state is in sound fiscal position. But we cannot over- 
look the vital factor: In amassing a hoard of tax dollars we accumu- 
lated a vast backlog of urgent public service needs. We must con- 
clude that we do not have a real surplus, but actually a deficit in pub- 
lic services. To go forward, we must wipe out this deficit. 

To begin as rapidly as possible to fund this deficit of service to the 
people, and to do it as rapidly as the resources of the state will permit, 
I submit now a fifteen-point program to the members of this Gen- 
eral Assembly chosen by the people in our one hundred counties to 
speak and act for them in charting the course of our state for the 
biennium ahead. 

1. Roads. We have made great progress in road building in the last 
three decades. We now have more than 62,000 miles of roads, nearly 
16,000 miles of them hard-surfaced, but a great part of our state still 
does not have all-weather transportation. In my opinion the most in- 
excusable waste in our economy is the "mud tax." I propose repealing 
the "mud tax" just as rapidly as it is possible to build and improve 
roads that will enable every school bus to operate every day in the 
year, and provide all-weather access to markets, places of employment, 
churches, and medical care. 

The rounding out of our road system with a network of all-weather 
secondary mileage is essential to the economic as well as the cultural 



Messages to the General Assembly 5 

development of North Carolina. We are a state of thickly populated 
rural areas and small cities. Industry more and more is dependent 
upon rural and suburban labor. By improving the roads upon which 
this potential labor supply lives, we increase our attraction for new 
industry to locate here. In getting the workers to the factory, we have 
a service of importance almost equal to that of getting the child to 
school, and getting the farmer's product to market in good condition. 

I am, of course, aware of the colossal nature of the task of building 
in four years a dependable school bus route system and service roads 
for the industry of farm and factory. It may require both an increase 
in the gasoline tax and borrowing money for repayment over a long 
period. I am giving the matter of financing this road-building pro- 
gram the most serious thought, and I am seeking advice on it from 
the most competent sources I know. 

The cooperation of all concerned is essential. I realize that I, as 
your governor, can go no further toward achieving this objective than 
the General Assembly and the people are willing to go along with me. 

2. Education. The most valuable crop we raise in North Carolina 
is our children. We have so recognized this in the allocation of tax 
monies on a steadily increasing scale. From 1900, when the great ed- 
ucational crusade began under Aycock, 1 the state government has in- 
creased annual appropriations for public schools from one hundred 
thousand to over $63,000,000. In the last five years the amount has 
been quadrupled. For next year, our educational leaders are asking 
for $35,000,000 more than the state is spending on its public schools 
this year, and in addition a program of school building which would 
cost $150,000,000, spread over a period of years. The question is not 
whether we need to increase our expenditures for public schools, but 
how far we can afford to go — or not to go. 

I regard a comprehensive educational program, properly imple- 
mented with road, health, and utilities programs, as the soundest in- 
surance policy the State of North Carolina can underwrite for the 
protection of its future. 

The General Assembly of 1947 provided for a special commission 
to make a study of the entire public school system. I commend the 
members of the commission and those who helped to make this re- 
port possible, and I recommend it to this Legislature as a chart to our 
educational future. 

I urge the General Assembly to take positive action toward im- 
proving and enlarging teacher personnel by increasing teacher pay. I 



1 Charles B. Aycock, governor of North Carolina, 1901-1905, became known as "The Educational 
Governor." 



6 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

favor a minimum salary for A-grade teachers of $2,400 and increments 
to encourage better qualified teachers to remain in the service. I feel 
that this is imperative if we make the teaching profession attractive 
to the kind of people needed in it. We may look, as a result of the 
Democratic victory in the nation, for substantial Federal aid in pay- 
ing for this — possibly as much as $20,000,000 a year. 

I recommend that the Legislature give consideration to the estab- 
lishment of a system of state aid to counties for the construction of 
school buildings. Any such program would require reconsideration 
of the state's present policy and the careful examination of the present 
division of the cost of public services as between ad valorem and other 
local taxes and the state's tax levies. We may not know, before the 
session of the General Assembly adjourns, the extent to which federal 
aid may be available for this purpose. If it is necessary, I would not 
hesitate to call a special session to deal with any proposals in connec- 
tion with federal aid. 

I am not convinced that our system of higher education is either 
the best or the most economical system we can devise. We know there 
is a tremendous economic loss due to a number of factors such as poor 
preparation, poor discipline, and the unfitness of many young men 
and women for the sort of college education we offer them. We need 
only to look at the high fatality rate in the first and second year classes 
in our state supported colleges to appreciate the fact that something 
is wrong with the system and that something needs to be done about 
it. The answer may be that we need to develop a system of junior col- 
leges as a part of the Greater University. I therefore recommend that 
the General Assembly provide for a careful survey of our system of 
higher education in order that recommendation may be made to the 
next General Assembly with respect to the advisability of establishing 
a system of junior colleges with facilities for affording vocational ed- 
ucation. 

3. Health. The importance of improving our general health pro- 
gram was brought sharply under the public spotlight by distressing 
disclosures in the selective service physical examinations. Two admin- 
istrations have grappled with this probelm realistically, and the result 
of studies of two able commissions has been approved by the people's 
representatives in the last Legislature. We have made progress toward 
placing this over-all plan into effect, and we should continue to imple- 
ment it as rapidly as our resources will permit. I would guard only 
against any phase of this health program being over-emphasized at the 
expense of another. Headway is now being made on the four-year 
medical school and teaching hospital at the State University. This is 



Messages to the General Assembly 7 

an integral part of the program, but it cannot fulfill its mission with- 
out correlated development of rural hospitals and clinics. The encour- 
agement of the country practice for the doctor and nurse is dependent 
upon the availability of such modern health service stations. It is my 
earnest belief that this part should take precedence, if for financial 
reasons we are unable to carry the entire program forward at this 
time. 

There is, also, no question as to the need of a dental school, and 
the proposal to build one deserves serious consideration. 

Our hospitals for the mentally sick must be made adequate phys- 
ically and staffed with properly trained presonnel. At no time, save 
perhaps overnight, should a jail be the waiting room for patients re- 
quiring mental treatment. 

In increasing provisions for treatment of the sick, we must not 
overlook the part of the medical program devoted to the prevention of 
sickness as carried on by the State Board of Health. 

We are lagging in providing facilities for the treatment and pre- 
vention of tuberculosis. Farmers long ago stamped out tuberculosis 
among cattle. I think it is high time we showed more progress to- 
ward eradicating it in the human family. 

4. Welfare. We are not current with needs in our humanitarian 
services. The Board of Public Welfare has submitted proposals for in- 
creasing aid to the aged and needy. These proposals affect the physical 
and moral health of our people. Our old age benefits should be ad- 
justed in line with living costs and our relief standard generally 
should be brought up at least to the national average. Vigilance 
against fraud should be increased and local communities should be 
encouraged to shoulder greater responsibility toward caring for those 
unable to care for themselves. 

Great work is being done for the blind through the State Blind 
Commission and a special project of one of our largest civic clubs. 
This public service is to be commended in the highest terms, and 
might well serve as an example for other organizations of this nature. 

I am concerned about the frequency of serious crimes of violence. 
It disturbs me to hear that a large part of the large flow of convicts in- 
to our prison system consists of ex-service men of the late war. If we 
are to obtain social improvement through our courts of justice, our 
prisons must be more than merely places of detention. There must be 
greater emphasis upon returning prisoners to useful places in society, 
and to this end we should look critically at our system of prison ad- 
ministration, parole, and probation. 



8 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

5. Natural Resources. In our Department of Agriculture, the Ex- 
periment and Extension services of our agricultural colleges, and the 
Department of Conservation and Development, we have the facilities 
for promoting the broadened economic base that is vital to our con- 
tinued progress. We face challenging opportunities to improve land 
usage. Forestry may be restored as a major industry. Commercial 
fishing may be expanded, and we have untold mineral wealth awaiting 
development. Here, especially, I mention our ports and harbors. These 
are of vital concern to the entire state — not merely to the areas ad- 
jacent to them. 

6. Public Utilities. A large number of our people are being pen- 
alized by not having electric power and telephone service. Our in- 
dustry has been retarded by inequitable power and transporation rates. 

Electric power is the cheapest labor the farmer, as well as the 
manufacturer, can hire. Yet there are still around one hundred thou- 
sand farms in North Carolina that do not have electricity, and there 
are sections in which industry is being throttled because it cannot get 
electric power on terms that will enable it to compete with similar 
industries elsewhere. I want to see these service deficits wiped out 
during my administration. 

The telephone ranks at the top of modern conveniences. Yet the 
surface has barely been scratched in making the instrument available 
to all of the people. This service deficit is not only retarding rural de- 
velopment, but constricting our whole economic and social progress by 
encouraging movement of our people into already congested areas. 
Telephone service is a natural corollary to all-weather roads and 
electrification. It is essential in bringing about the better health 
services, marketing facilities, and broadening the scope of our labor 
supply which industry must have. 

Our utilities are privately owned and they should be permitted a 
reasonable return upon their investment, but to justify their mo- 
nopolistic franchises granted them by the people of the state, they must 
also provide the service to which the people are entitled. 

In the field of regulating public utilities we must have fair and 
aggressive administration of fair laws designed to protect the public 
interest as well as the interests of investors in public utilities. Our 
laws regulating utilities are, in some respects, cumbersome, out of 
date, and inadequate to meet modern conditions. Our State Utilities 
Commission needs to be reorganized and supplied with the services 
of experts so that it can act promptly and effectively in the public 
interest. 



Messages to the General Assembly 9 

I mention specifically here the urgency of eliminating freight rate 
discriminations against our industry and agriculture. 

7. Democratic Representation. I have stressed the importance of 
broadening our economic base. I lay equal stress upon broader rep- 
resentation on the boards and commissions which serve the public 
interest. I consider such broadened representation a mandate of last 
year's election. 

You will have before you for your consideration the report of the 
commission set up by the preceding Legislature to study our present 
system of state examining boards. I find widespread belief that this 
business has been carried beyond the bounds of public welfare. We 
should go slow in creating new boards and scrutinize every such board 
already in existence where there is the slightest indication that it is 
serving special privilege and restricting opportunity. 

8. Referendum. The people have the right to express themselves 
on any important issue affecting their well-being. Our constitution 
stipulates that "Elections should be frequent. For redress of grievances 
and for amending and strengthening the laws, elections should be 
often held." I urge this Legislature to present the alcoholic beverage 
question fairly to the people in a state-wide referendum without 
delay. A gag rule, or any rule, which stifles democratic processes of 
free and open debate and discussion is contrary to the spirit of our 
people. 

9. Elections. Our elections laws are in some respects archaic. They 
are generally not conducive to bringing out the participation of the 
people in government. This is the keystone of democracy. I consider 
it a disgrace that barely one-third of the people eligible to vote in our 
state took part in the November election. We have permitted our 
processes of voting to lag behind the times, and I advocate moderniza- 
tion of our election machinery to the end that people will be encour- 
aged in exercising their rights of citizenship. It is my opinion that 
the time has come for us to consider seriously the use of mechanical 
devices for the deposit and counting of ballots in all of our elections. 

10. Veterans. The more than 350,000 men and women who were 
in the armed services are now, for the most part, back in civil life. A 
great number are in positions of leadership in the state and its various 
localities. These men and women merit every consideration the state 
can show them in gratitude for their sacrifice, but I am convinced 
that the majority of veterans do not desire to be set apart as a special 
class. A great many of them have told me that, and also that the best 
bonus their state can grant them is better government and improved 



10 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

public services that will bring about better living conditions and open 
greater avenues of opportunity. This, also, is my belief. 

11. Labor. No state has enjoyed better relations between labor and 
management than ours. We have a definite responsibility for con- 
tinuing and improving these good relations. I have observed with 
deep satisfaction the increase in the last ten years of the average 
weekly wage in industry from $16 to $41. Private business as well as 
public funds have felt the enriching effect of these enlarged payrolls. 
We cannot have a well-balanced economy without wide distribution 
of buying power. A fair return for labor, whether it be in factory or 
on the farm, is essential to that condition. 

Two years ago the General Assembly enacted the so-called Anti- 
Closed Shop law. This was done at a time when labor's demands at the 
national level were influencing law-makers all over the nation to pass 
restraining legislation. I feel that the passage of time has convinced 
those willing to look upon both sides of this question that this law 
was harsh, and I recommend revision of this and other state labor 
laws to bring them in line with legislation adopted by the national 
Congress. I specifically recommend wage-hour legislation to remove 
discrimination as between business engaged in interstate commerce 
and business engaged solely in business within the state. 

I also favor increasing unemployment benefits to a level in keeping 
with advanced living costs. I am informed that we can do this and at 
the same time lower the tax levied on business for this purpose. 

12. Business and Industry. The rapidly advancing industrialization 
of our state is responsible in large measure for our unprecedented 
prosperity in recent years. Our goal should be an economy soundly 
diversified between agriculture and industry. We can increase our 
attraction to industry by broadening our supply of competent labor 
through better training in our schools and better accessibility and 
communications, so that labor can be drawn from extended areas and 
not be confined to urban limits. Tax structures are important and we 
should guard against our taxes on industry getting out of line with 
those of competing states, but even more important than the tax con- 
sideration is the supply of labor and natural resources. We have both 
awaiting development. This will become increasingly important as 
the dispersion of industry is accelerated by the atomic age. 

I am opposed to any legislation unduly favoring or discriminating 
against any form of legitimate business enterprise. 

Business in the last decade has built up a great bulwark against 
repetition of the panic of the early thirties by its contributions to the 
Unemployment Compensation Fund. There are now more than $150,- 



Messages to the General Assembly 11 

000,000 in this fund and about one million workers are covered in 
North Carolina. Payments from this fund are not large enough to 
encourage idleness, but they serve to tide workers and the businesses 
dependent upon industrial payrolls, over periods of temporary in- 
activity without danger of economic paralysis. This danger was ever- 
present before the establishment of the Social Security Plan. 

In view of the large reserves accumulated in the unemployment 
fund, I feel that business should be given all the relief possible in re- 
duction of this assessment, and recommend serious consideration of 
the proposal to this end made by the Empoyment Security Advisory 
Commission. As I have already mentioned, I am informed that this 
reduction can be made and at the same time unemployment benefits 
can be increased more in line with present living costs. 

13. Personnel. The state cannot render services commensurate with 
the needs of its people, nor in fair exchange for the tax monies it 
collects without able and adequate personnel. This is true in every 
branch and division of our government. To attract and retain per- 
sonnel capable of rendering the services to which the taxpayers are 
entitled, compensation for public service must be reasonably com- 
mensurate with salaries and wages prevailing in competitive enter- 
prise both public and private. Our salary and wage scales do not at 
this time reflect such condition. We should now raise these scales with 
a view to compensating for increased living costs with an equitable 
retroactive adjustment. 

The state has lagged behind industry in personnel management, 
and should remedy this condition immediately. To this end I recom- 
mend removal of the duties of personnel administration from the office 
of the assistant director of the Budget to a new personnel division 
under the direction of a specialist in this field. This office should pro- 
ceed without delay to survey the whole field of state employment 
and to make revisions and adjustments that are needed as rapidly as 
possible. This office, too, must always be open to any state employee 
for hearing and investigation of any complaint regarding terms or 
conditions of employment by the state. 

14. Local Government. Cities and counties are reporting budgetary 
difficulties as expenses increase without commensurate increase of 
their revenues. There is a growing tendency to appeal to the state 
government for aid. At the same time, criticism arises in some quar- 
ters against the concentration of political power at the state capital. 
During the campaign there was confusion by mingling the two ideas — 
that the central state should take on more financial responsibility for 



12 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

local government, and that it should restore to local government some 
of its powers. 

This discussion, spurred on primarily by the municipalities, strong- 
ly suggests that the time has come for very careful study of the whole 
framework of North Carolina's government. The record of the con- 
centration of power and financial responsibility at Raleigh shows little 
evidence in support of the theory that the state government sought to 
take on new power for the sake of exercising the power itself. Usually, 
fiscal circumstances led to willing surrender of authority to the state 
by local governments as they struggled with problems such as roads 
and schools. 

In the course of this political evolution, the areas of taxation oc- 
cupied by the state, as compared with those areas left to local govern- 
ment, have been clearly defined in some instances. In other instances 
they have been loosely indicated with some overlapping. The state gave 
up ad valorem taxation of real property and restricted local govern- 
ment in certain other areas. The time is near, if not immediately at 
hand, when we must make a critical survey of our situation with a 
view to determining more definitely and expertly how the costs of 
government should be divided. This thinking leads inevitably to con- 
sideration of the haphazard, uneven valuation of property in the 
counties and cities for ad valorem levies. 

The mercurial character of the state's tax levies, as well as the 
mounting costs of state services under the present constitutional and 
statutory responsibilities demand that we deliberate with great care 
all proposals to load the central state with large new obligations at 
the instance of local government. I say this while recognizing, with 
sympathy and understanding, that local government is entitled to the 
best we can do in equity and fairness to afford relief. 

I have suggested the surrender by the state of a limited portion of 
the tax field wherein revenue now is derived from business licenses 
without state supervision or service of the business so licensed. By 
release of this revenue source to local governments under statutory 
limitation, substantial local government aid could be provided. I am 
also recommending, that the road maintenance funds allocated to 
city streets be doubled. 

Knowing that greater demands will be made upon the Legislature 
for aid of local governments, including the demand that the state help 
with the construction of needed school buildings, I trust that the 
General Assembly will confide to a special or sub-committee the duty 
to make a prompt study of this pressing problem. I hope that this 



Messages to the General Assembly 13 

will be done early in the session, in order that all legislative proposals 
for new aid to local government may be scrutinized and acted upon 
with an eye not only to immediate needs, but also to long-range policy. 
15. Federal Cooperation. We are now receiving millions of dollars 
each year from the federal government for our road, school, health, 
and other programs. This aid may be increased. We should take full 
advantage of it. We have the campaign pledge of the Democratic Party 
that such federal aid will be extended without interference with state 
administration in accordance with custom. 

Some of these proposals I have outlined involve a substantial in- 
crease in spending, but the people understood that when they encour- 
aged me in my campaign. / have not and do not now minimize the cost 
of the major items in this "go forward" program. 

We know from experience that these things cannot be had cheaply. 
We know from experience, too, that social progress cannot far outrun 
material progress. 

Our tax income is now at the highest place in our history, but we 
have little assurance that our revenues will continue to climb as they 
have climbed in recent years. Our sales, income, and utility taxes are 
extremely sensitive to economic conditions. They mount rapidly in 
good times. They could drop rapidly in adverse times. We must bear 
that in mind as we match our spending against revenue. 

There are certain injustices in our present general tax schedule. I 
have pledged my support for their removal. These include abandon- 
ment of the present sales tax on meals served in public eating places 
in order to place such meals on tax equality with those served at home. 
This would complete the movement begun several years ago of taking 
the sales tax off all food. I also advocate the equalization of the sales 
tax upon farm and industrial machinery. These recommendations 
would entail some loss of revenue. To keep our budget in balance, 
and it is imperative that we do so, we are faced with the need to 
obtain good value for our tax dollars in every case. 

This will mean, aside from improving administrative efficiency 
wherever possible, the winnowing of services merely desirable from 
those urgently necessary. 

The program of permanent improvements authorized by the Gen- 
eral Assembly of 1947 has scarcely been started because of the con- 
stantly increasing building costs. It is manifest that this program 
should be completed and the additional funds necessary should be 
provided. With respect to further permanent improvements at our 
various state institutions, it is necessary that the need be evaluated 
realistically and in relation to other needs. It is my belief that money 



14 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

we invest in better roads and in better schools and in better health 
facilities will go further and faster, in the immediate future, toward 
creating new taxable wealth and in social well-being essential to the 
progress our people desire. I have, therefore, placed roads, schools, 
and health first. 

A "go forward" program calls first for long-range planning. 

Every farmer will not get his all-weather road as soon as he would 
like it, and every community will not get a modern hospital this year. 
New and needed school buildings will not spring up every where im- 
mediately, and new factories will not rise in every community. 

We are a great state and a large state. We have over three and one 
half million people and nearly thirty-two million acres of land and 
inland waters. We are inclined to judge a program by what is tran- 
spiring at our doorstep. You will see some of the things I am advo- 
cating materialize sooner than others. Some people inevitably wonder 
at the slowness of their government to get to them. 

But this I pledge: With the cooperation of the Legislature, the 
things I have promised will be done in an orderly manner and as 
rapidly as our resources will permit. We will make North Carolina, 
in the four years ahead, a better place in which to live, in which to 
invest, and in which to play after the work is done. 

To do this, we must bring our over-all efficiency current with the 
times. Governments can no more maintain a competitive position with 
methods of a decade ago than can industry. Where I see our govern- 
ment in a rut, I shall do everything in my power to get it out. If this 
means reorganization or even abolition of time-honored practices, I 
shall not hesitate to recommend such changes as appear in the public 
interest. 

Nor shall I hesitate to slash red tape or push aside tradition, if it is 
necessary to eliminate bottlenecks. 

Government should never be remote. The people are entitled to 
know what is going on. It is my purpose to go on the radio from 
time to time and make first-hand reports of my stewardship. I shall 
also make information about our government available as fully and 
completely as possible through the reporters of the press and radio. 
Secrecy has no place in a people's government. 

I come into office with no skeletons in my closet, and I shall strive 
zealously to see that none creep into the state's closets while I am 
governor. 

The door to the governor's office will continue to be open during 
my administration. 



Messages to the General Assembly 15 

I am most acutely aware of the fact that both the office of the 
governor in the Capitol and the Executive Mansion, and all the in- 
stitutions and departments of government, belong to you — the peo- 
ple — not to me whom you have designated as tenant in the office 
of governor for the next four years. 

In conclusion, I would not be speaking with candor if I did not 
say in no uncertain terms that I am proud of the progress made by 
our state under the guidance of a long line of distinguished men who 
have served as governor during the past fifty years. 

I have had the opportunity of serving the state in the administra- 
tion 1 of our last four governors — Ehringhaus, 2 Hoey, 3 Broughton, 4 
and Cherry. 5 I cherish the opportunity to carry on the high tradition 
of public service established by my predecessors. I know that you, 
Ladies and Gentlemen of this General Assembly, also succeed a long 
line of patriotic citizens who have served the state faithfully as mem- 
bers of the legislatures which have been the authors of the state's 
charter of progress. The record of our predecessors is a challenge to 
us to work shoulder to shoulder in the interest of all our people. 

Let's go forward. 



POSTWAR RESERVE FUND 
Special Message 
January 12, 1949 

I am transmitting herewith a report of postwar reserve fund and 
general fund temporary investment account, submitted to the Gen- 
eral Assembly through the governor's office by the treasurer of North 
Carolina, dated December 31st, 1948. 

Report of Postwar Reserve Fund and General Fund Temporary 
Investment Account Submitted to the General Assembly of North 
Carolina by the Governor and Council of State — December 31, 
1948. 

To the Members of the General Assembly of North Carolina: 

The General Assembly of 1943 created a postwar reserve fund of 
$20,000,000.00 (Public Laws, 1943, Chap. 6) and authorized the 
governor and Council of State to invest said fund as therein provided. 



1 Commissioner of Agriculture, January 7, 1937-February 14, 1948. 

2 John Christoph Blucher Ehringhaus, governor, January 5, 1933-January 7, 1937. 
8 Clyde Roark Hoey, governor, January 7, 1937-January 9, 1941. 

4 Joseph Melville Broughton, governor, January 9, 1941-January 4, 1945. 

5 Robert Gregg Cherry, governor, January 4, 1945 -January 6, 1949. 



16 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

The governor and Council of State were by said enactment required 
to submit to the General Assembly a report of such investments made 
in pursuance of this enactment. 

In accordance with this provision we submit herewith a detailed 
statement showing the investments and earnings of this fund for 
the period December 16, 1946, through December 31, 1948. 

As shown by this report, this fund amounted to $20,680,654.84 at 
our last report on December 15, 1946, including North Carolina 
bonds worth $859,307.73, United States Treasury seven-eighths per 
cent certificates of indebtedness worth $19,820,852.92, and uninvested 
cash of $494.19. 

The 1947 General Assembly appropriated an additional $9,300,- 
000.00 to this fund and the earnings during the period amounted to 
$630,686.17, making the fund worth $30,611,341.01 on December 31, 
1948. 

The governor and treasurer, with the approval of the Council of 
State, have invested $38,159,955.88 of the general fund in one and 
one-eighth per cent United States Treasury certificates of indebtedness 
as authorized under Public Laws, 1943, Chapter 2. 

R. Gregg Cherry, Governor. 

Harry McMullan, Attorney General. 

Thad A. Eure, Secretary of State. 

Henry L. Bridges, State Auditor. 

Clyde A. Erwin, Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Chas. M. Johnson, State Treasurer. 

Forrest H. Shuford, Commissioner of Labor. 

Wm. S. Hodges, Commissioner of Insurance. 

D. S. Coltrane, Commissioner of Agriculture. 



BUDGET REPORT 

Special Message 
January 13, 1949 
Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, and Members of the General Assembly: 

I submit herewith the budget of the State of North Carolina, as 
required by the executive budget act, for the biennium beginning 
July 1, 1949. I am also transmitting the budget revenue bill and the 
budget appropriation bills printed and submitted according to law. 

Former General Assemblies have established the revenue bill as 
a continuing and permanent revenue act. The changes recommended 
by the Advisory Budget Commission, and former Governor Cherry as 



Messages to the General Assembly 17 

director of the budget at the time this budget was prepared, include 
certain administrative and procedural amendments. The revenue bill 
provides for certain reductions in taxes. It provides for no new taxes. 
The budget as submitted calls for appropriations from the general 
fund of $258,752,032 for the ensuing biennium. This represents an 
increase of approximately $68,000,000 over the total appropriated for 
the present biennium. It is the largest appropriations bill in the 
history of the state. This recommended budget is balanced against 
estimated tax collections for the fiscal years 1949-1951. 

The appropriations bill provides for general state administration 
services the sum of $17,286,000. This reflects increased salaries for 
state employees. Altogether some 52,000 school teachers and other 
state employees would be the beneficiaries of this proposal. In ad- 
dition you are receiving a supplemental appropriations bill calling 
for $11,275,000 for salary adjustments, retroactive to November 1, 1948, 
and for the remainder of this biennium. These funds would come 
from the general fund surplus. 

For our public schools, the recommended budget calls for $167,- 
521,000 in the next biennium. This is about $39,000,000 more than 
was appropriated for schools during the present biennium. 

For higher educational institutions, the budget provides for 
$22,000,000 — an increase of $8,000,000 over the allocation for this 
purpose during this biennium. 

Charitable and correctional institutions would receive, if this 
budget is adopted, a total of $22,331,000 from the state. This repre- 
sents an increase of $7,000,000. 

There is provision in this budget for more than $8,000,000 for 
old age assistance and needy children — an increase of over $3,000,000 
on the part of the state. This, however, is only part of the picture. 
The state appropriations, combined with federal and local contribu- 
tions, would give the aged and needy a total of nearly $45,000,000 in 
the two years ahead. This would be $12,000,000 more than they re- 
ceived during the present biennium. 

For road building and improvement, the proposed budget sets up 
expenditures of $98,000,000. This is $11,000,000 less than was ap- 
propriated for this biennium, when the highway fund reflected the 
accumulated wartime surplus. This would provide for less road con- 
struction than was budgeted for the current biennium. Obviously 
this would fall far short of accomplishing the broad-scale program 
of all-weather road building which I propose, and could not meet 
the expressed desire of the people for dependable school bus routes 



18 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

and service roads for industry and agriculture. I call this to your 
attention at this time, but I shall present a special message on this 
subject at a later date. 

The permanent improvements bill provides for expenditures 
totalling nearly $72,000,000. This is $22,000,000 more than was al- 
located for this purpose two years ago, but again this figure does not 
tell the whole story because $27,000,000 of it is earmarked to supple- 
ment appropriations of the current biennium which were insufficient 
in the face of increased building costs. 

For extending hospital facilities to areas not now adequately 
served, this recommended budget provides for nearly $7,000,000 — 
but this is only a fraction of the sum that would be available for 
this purpose, because, with federal and local contributions, plus re- 
assignment of approximately $4,000,000 of federal funds allocated 
for state buildings but not used in the current biennium, the total 
available for the hospital building program will total approximately 
$28,000,000. 

All of the monies appropriated for permanent improvements 
come from the accumulated general fund surplus, which it is esti- 
mated will amount to $86,000,000 as of June 30, 1949. Another 
$11,000,000 of this surplus is allocated in the supplementary ap- 
propriations bill for the salary and wage adjustments, and $2,793,000 
is left unappropriated. 

No part of the general fund surplus is taken into account in the 
recommended budget appropriations bill. The entire $258,000,000 
proposed for the operation of state services during the next biennium 
is based on anticipated general fund tax collections. I draw your at- 
tention emphatically to this. The Advisory Budget Commission has 
recommended spending almost to the limit of revenues in sight on 
the basis of current collections, which the Commission is inclined to 
believe represent a peak for the time being. 

The Advisory Budget Commission did not commit itself without 
recognition of the possibility that state revenues may decline in the 
next biennium. In addition to retaining $2,750,000 in the general 
fund surplus, the Commission recommends retaining the $30,000,000 
postwar reserve fund intact. This fund is now invested in United 
States bonds that are yielding interest more than $300,000 a year to 
the general fund. 

There can be no doubt as to the desirability of protecting ap- 
propriations based on anticipated revenues in times as uncertain as 
these. Should we have a sharp drop in revenues, the nearly $33,000,- 



Messages to the General Assembly 19 

000 held in reserve would serve as a cushion to prevent repetition of 
such a disastrous situation as confronted the state in the panic of the 
early 1930's, but it is for the General Assembly to decide whether we 
are justified in holding back all of this money in the face of unfilled 
service needs to the people. We must remember that the reserve 
fund was established to meet emergencies. 

No revenue machinery bill is transmitted because the Advisory 
Budget Commission recommended no change. The machinery bill, 
like the revenue law, is a continuing act. I suggest at this time, how- 
ever, that serious consideration be given to providing for payroll de- 
duction of the state income tax on the basis now employed by the 
federal government. I am confident that this would not only increase 
income tax collections, but would serve to distribute the tax more 
equitably among those obligated by law to pay income tax. I feel that 
a change to this method would serve in the long run to lighten the 
tax burden on many taxpayers by bringing to the state's tax rolls 
those who for one reason or another are not now contributing their 
proper share to the expense of the public services they enjoy. I do 
not feel that a change to this method would impose any great ad- 
ditional burden upon employers, because they already have facilities 
to handle this in order to meet federal requirements for various pay- 
roll deductions. 

I would also suggest a searching scrutiny of our state tax collection 
procedures to bring about stricter collection of taxes due the state. 
Everything possible should be done to make certain that none pay an 
undue part of the cost of public services while others escape their just 
obligations. This should produce additional revenue without addi- 
tional taxes. 

The recommended budget provides for reduction of the franchise 
tax on corporations from $1.50 to $1.25 a thousand dollars of deter- 
mined value. This would entail an estimated revenue loss of $800,- 
000 during the next biennium. Also proposed is a reduction of the 
tax on farm machinery from three per cent to one-twentieth of one 
per cent, which is the rate presently paid upon industrial machinery. 
It is estimated that the loss from this reduction would amount to 
$1,650,000. This is one way of equalizing this tax. I strongly advo- 
cate removal of inequity wherever it is apparent. 

I point out at this time that I advocate certain tax reductions 
which are not reflected in this budget. These include removal of 
the three per cent sales tax on meals served in public eating places, and 
the surrender of part of the schedule B license yield to our financially 



20 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

hard-pressed cities and counties. Adoption of these recommendations 
would cause loss to the state of about $10,000,000 or more in the next 
biennium. 

The Advisory Budget Commission did not explore possible new 
sources of revenue. Nor is it customary for it to make such sugges- 
tions. It deals largely with estimated revenues from present levies, 
and it has recommended spending these fully. 

In view of the greatly increased appropriations recommended, I 
point out at this time that certain important phases of the "Go For- 
ward" program I have outlined are not to be paid for out of general 
fund tax monies. , 

The rural electrification and telephone programs will be financed 
by other than state funds. 

The road program will be paid for directly by those who use and 
enjoy the benefits of better roads. 

On the other hand, raising the standard of our public schools as 
far as we can meet the requirements of the times, would require a 
great increase in general fund expenditures. The appropriation rec- 
ommended for public schools, although $39,000,000 more than ever 
before allocated to this purpose, does not provide for the $2,400 
minimum salary for teachers or increments that our educational 
leaders contend are essentia] to retaining qualified and experienced 
teachers in our classrooms. There is no provision for a state-financed 
school building program. 

As I mentioned in my inaugural address, we may have substantial 
federal aid in improving our schools, but we have no definite as- 
surance of this. The recommendations of the Advisory Budget Com- 
mission, while cutting the pattern of appropriations for schools as 
fully as the revenue cloth would permit, still fall short of the edu- 
cational goal. 

I say this in full realization that we must have no deficit spending. 
My desire is to use the state's tax resources to the fullest safe point. 
Obviously, we must allocate these resources as equitably as possible 
among all necessary services and every need and appropriation should 
be weighed in relation to other needs and appropriations. 

A study of the budget report will show that the Advisory Budget 
Commission emerged from the hearings relative to the needs of the 
state convinced that the tax resources the people have accumulated in 
Raleigh should be transmuted into the most urgently needed services. 



Messages to the General Assembly 21 

The recommendations of former Governor Cherry, as chairman, 
and the members of the commission, are that the bulk of accumu- 
lated funds and all anticipated revenues to be committed as nearly 
up to the hilt as sound planning can justify. 

I sat with the commission during its hearings, and I am unable to 
point to any gross inequities in its report. In the main, it is my be- 
lief that the commission has been guided by patriotic wisdom and a 
fine sense of equity in formulating the proposals for distribution of 
the resources in contemplation. 

I recommend your careful study of the statement of the com- 
mission accompanying the budget which reveals clearly the reasoning 
of the group. 

As I have said, the commission is justified in being cautious in 
planning expenditures in anticipation of increases in revenue from 
present tax levies. 

Those who fight for increased appropriations must base their 
hopes upon new revenue or aid from Washington, or both. It must 
be realized that these budget proposals are the largest in the state's 
history. It must also be realized that we cannot in the aggregate go 
further safely without new taxes. 

I have the greatest confidence in the devotion of the members of 
the General Assembly to the cause of public service, and I have equal 
confidence that by working together in the closest cooperation we 
will justify the faith of the people who elected us to serve them. 



SECONDARY ROAD BOND ISSUE 

Special Message 
January 17, 1949 

Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, and Members of the General Assembly: 

When I delivered the Advisory Budget Commission report and 
recommendations to you, I stated that a special message would be 
forthcoming on roads. I come before the joint session of the General 
Assembly now with that promised message. I do this to give as much 
emphasis as possible to a problem which is not dealt with effectively 
in recommendations now before you. 

Throughout the primary and general election campaigns of last 
year, as I went from one end of this state to the other, I found the 
people more acutely aware of the disabling condition of secondary 
roads than of any other deficiency in public service. A great per- 



22 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

centage of North Carolina's population is rural. Masses of the peo- 
ple are living on dirt roads — many of which become impassable in 
bad weather. This condition affects the lives of so many of our peo- 
ple, and it affects them so importantly that the need for secondary 
road improvement is foremost in their thinking. 

It is difficult for the man who lives in town, or on a hard-surface 
road, to appreciate the plight of his brother whose home is on a mud 
road; but it is not difficult for these more fortunate citizens, after 
they know the facts, to realize that the "Mud Tax" is also a great ob- 
stacle to bettering their own economic status. Many thousands of 
North Carolina families are bogged down today as surely as the en- 
tire state was bogged down in those years preceding the first great 
road building push which was instituted under the leadership of 
Governor Morrison 1 little more than a quarter of a century ago. 
These masses of the people have waited patiently while the state 
recovered from the drain on its resources occasioned by building its 
now great framework of principal highways. But there is a notable 
lessening of that patience now. The people are demanding that some- 
thing be done to lift them out of the mud. 

No one who followed closely the course of the recent campaign 
could fail to sense the strength and significance of the people's in- 
terest in a proposal to make our great network of school bus routes 
and farm-to-market roads dependable in all kinds of weather. As a 
candidate for nomination and for election, I made building and im- 
provement of our secondary roads a paramount issue. It was an issue 
understood and appreciated, as men always understand and appreciate 
a condition that seriously affects their cultural and economic well- 
being. 

The problem has now been lifted up where everyone can see it. 
Everyone interested in a fair deal for the people and the rounded de- 
velopment of the state's resources should be deeply concerned over 
this road issue. 

The steady and satisfactory use of our consolidated schools and 
other cultural institutions is dependent upon improvement of these 
secondary roads. Also dependent upon it is the profitable market- 
ing of the farmer's goods, and the growth of cities and towns 
which benefit from the trade of rural and suburban dwellers. Better 
secondary roads will mean not only the successful marketing of what 
the farmers produce now, but they will mean increased production 
of milk, truck, and meat as rural enterprise is stimulated. Better 



1 Cameron Morrison, governor of North Carolina, 1921-1925, under whose administration 
the program of hard-surface roads from county seat to county seat was inaugurated. 



Messages to the General Assembly 23 

roads may be relied upon, also, to facilitate the use by factories of 
the great diffused labor supply of this state. We cannot build a 
great state without full development of our resources and resource- 
fulness. 

Our nation is entering the Atomic Age. The scientist's hands are 
at work harnessing an almost unlimited supply of new energy. 
Because society has not solved the issues which could lead us to war, 
there exists a great and growing danger from the concentration of 
people and industrial production. Our state, with its many small 
towns — no large cities — and its thickly populated countrysides, is 
among the ideal areas for decentralized industry. North Carolina's 
labor supply is great. These workers should be able to live in rural 
areas and still reach the factory — whether that factory is located in 
town or country. Dependable secondary roads leading to the homes 
of this good labor supply should attract more industry to the state. 

I have referred to mud roads as the greatest bottleneck to North 
Carolina's progress. A great deal of courage was required to borrow 
the money to inaugurate the state highway program in the 1920's. At 
that time many people were fearful of the outcome of this bold ap- 
proach to our road problem. We know now that the investment re- 
turned a handsome yield. As the people were unshackled by the new 
roads, their increased production brought the state great new tax 
resources. 

The Advisory Budget Commission has recommended budgeting 
the estimated income, and the now small reserve of the state high- 
way and public works fund in such a way as to assure that the gov- 
ernor and the Highway Commission can use them in full. But these 
resources are substantially less than were available during the last 
four years. They are grossly inadequate to do what the people have 
asked us to do. It is clear that more must be provided if North Caro- 
lina is to speed up its progress in secondary road building. It is also 
clear that further financial provisions must be made if the rate of 
secondary road building is increased to meet the needs of the people. 

This brings us squarely face to face with the question of ways 
and means. We cannot do the job that needs to be done, or any 
great part of it, without increasing taxes or borrowing money. In 
view of my insistence upon building these roads as rapidly as sound 
practice and our resources will permit, I see it is my duty to come to 
you promptly with the problem. I see it as my duty, also, to share 
fully with you the responsibility for determining ways and means. 



24 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

We have a 63,000 mile road system in the state that must continue 
to grow. Only about 16,000 miles are hard-surfaced. A great portion 
of the remaining mileage has not been strengthened with enough 
stone, gravel, and other stabilizing materials to make it dependable. 
These inadequately treated roads are bearing a great deal of the 
school bus, market, and business traffic essential not only to country 
life, but to our whole economic and social advance. 

The budget you now have before you calls for spending more 
tax money for schools than anything else. No one disagrees with the 
wisdom of this distribution. But I do raise the question as to how 
well we are spending tax money on schools when we do not have 
the roads in many cases to get our children to them on a dependable 
basis. 

I am conscious of the fact that the state cannot hard-surface or 
surface-treat all of this mileage in the four years ahead, but I be- 
lieve that we should set as our goal now the completion of 12,000 
miles of the most important of these roads with surface treatment. 
I also believe that we should improve the rest of our rural roads 
sufficiently to make sure, by the end of the next four years, that bad 
road conditions cannot interrupt school bus service, nor seriously 
impede transportation of farm produce to market — or workers to 
industry. 

For this undertaking we will need substantial funds in addition 
to our present resources in reserve and taxes allocated for highway 
building and maintenance. Therefore, I come before you with the 
urgent recommendation that you enact a law providing for a bond 
issue for secondary roads in the amount of $200,000,000 to be sub- 
mitted to the people in a special election to be held as early as pos- 
sible. I further recommend that the proceeds from this bond issue 
be earmarked for the one purpose of improving secondary roads — 
and no other — and that you provide by statute that there be no 
spending of any highway taxes during the life of these bonds for 
any purpose except those presently financed, and that this anti-di- 
version clause be written into the act providing for the referendum. 
This safeguard would permit continuation of the primary road pro- 
gram without interruption while the secondary roads are being im- 
proved. 

I also recommend an increase of one cent a gallon in the gasoline 
tax to help pay off these bonds as we use the roads. 

The debt service on a $200,000,000 bond issue would average 
about $14,500,000 a year under provisions for its full retirement in 
20 years, based on the present favorable bond market. Present debt 



Messages to the General Assembly 25 

service requirements of the highway fund will dwindle to a small 
amount by the time the new bond issue requirements would become 
large, since the bonds would be marketed gradually as the money is 
needed to pay for the new roads. This means that one cent a gallon 
additional gasoline tax, producing some $7,000,000 a year, plus an 
amount equal to the present debt service of the old bonds, would 
in large part take care of the bond issue I recommend. 

All that I am asking the General Assembly to do at this time is 
to give the governor the privilege of taking to the people this pro- 
posed method for building the roads, and levying an additional one 
cent a gallon on gasoline. I am well aware of the fact that our con- 
stitution, as recently amended, requires a vote of the people on 
such a bond issue. I am in complete accord with that constitutional 
safeguard. In fact, I voted last November against its repeal. 1 It is 
just and proper that the people decide by majority vote whether they 
wish to ratify this road bond issue. But it is urgent that you, as their 
lawmakers, and I, as their governor, know as promptly as possible 
whether the money will be available. 

Before making these recommendations to you, I have investigated 
other means of financing. All other proposals, naturally, would re- 
quire heavy additional taxation. 

I arrived at the conclusions presented to you in this message 
after consulting with numerous groups representing a fair cross-sec- 
tion of our people. These included leaders in the fields of education 
and public health, highway transport, and road construction, county 
commissioners and members and employees of the State Highway 
Commission, farmers and rural mail carriers, industrialists and 
small business men, and representatives of the petroleum industry. 

I found almost unanimous agreement that the combination of 
borrowing money at low interest rates, and a moderate increase in 
the gasoline tax would be the best method to do the job in the fairest 
and least burdensome manner. 

I ask you now for your cooperation in activating this vital phase 
of our "Go Forward" program. 



i-See Session Laws of 1947, Chapter 784, which authorized a vote of the people on amend- 
ing Article V. Section 4, of the State Constitution, giving to the General Assembly the power to 
contract debts and to pledge the faith and credit of the state. 



26 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

DOMESTIC RELATIONS STUDY 

Special Message 

January 18, 1949 

Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, and Members of the General Assembly: 

I am transmitting herewith the report of the Commission to Study 
the Statutes Relating to Domestic Relations which is submitted in 
accordance with joint resolution No. 19 of the General Assembly of 
1947. 1 



SCHOOLS AND SCHOOL BUILDINGS 

Special Message 
February 10, 1949 
Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, and Members of the General Assembly: 

I am grateful to you for holding this joint session tonight so that 
we can consider together the urgent problems facing us in the field 
of public education. 

Our state recognized the need for uniform educational opportunity 
half a century ago. Legislators of another generation wrote this 
principle into our constitution. We have made substantial progress, 
but we are faced now with a large and growing deficit in this vital 
public service. 

The Legislature of two years ago authorized Governor Cherry to 
appoint a commission to survey our public school problem from every 
angle and report to this General Assembly. That report has 
been submitted to you. It points out the urgent need of acting with- 
out delay to bring our school system current with the times. 

The Education Commission and the State Board of Education 
join in recommending that $50,000,000 be made available for fund- 
ing our deficit in school buildings. 

In my opinion, our present school building deficiencies constitute 
an emergency which justify putting to use the $30,000,000 of tax 
monies collected during the war period and now held idle in the 
postwar reserve fund. I recommend that such action be taken to 



Resolution No. 19 provided for continuation of a commission authorized by a joint resolu- 
tion (43) of the General Assembly of 1945 to study the Domestic Relations Laws of North 
Carolina. Resolution No. 19 added the provision that the commission was to study statutes re- 
lating to correctional institutions and any other laws pertaining to the welfare of children, and to 
develop recommendations thereon. The commission consisted of the attorney general, the com- 
missioner of public welfare, the commissioner of correction and training, one person from 
among the clerks of the superior courts, one person representing the North Carolina State Bar 
Association, and four other persons. State of North Carolina, 1949, Session Laws and Resolutions 
passed by the General Assembly at the Regular Session, Resolution 19. 



Messages to the General Assembly 27 

make this, and other money that may be earmarked for this purpose, 
available to the counties for school buildings in a manner to be de- 
cided upon by this Legislature that best meets this need. 

I recommend this use of the postwar reserve fund in the full 
realization that this money may be needed to protect appropriations 
for the next biennium against disaster such as occurred in the early 
1930's when state revenues fell below appropriations, and I do so 
only upon condition that such a revenue cushion be retained by 
another method. 

I recommend that this be done by authorizing submission to the 
people of a fifty million dollar bond issue to be submitted at the 
same time that the two hundred million dollar road issue is voted 
upon. This issue would be submitted with the provision that none 
of the bonds be sold until the $30,000,000 of tax money now idle in 
the reserve fund is used up, or in the event that it is necessary to 
replenish the reserve fund to prevent reductions in appropriations 
due to insufficient general fund tax collections. Should it be necessary 
so to replenish the reserve fund, proceeds from the sale of these bonds 
would be used up to the full amount of $30,000,000 for this purpose. 

By this method, we can put practically all the remaining 
general fund surplus to work in fulfilling a vital public service need, 
and at the same time retain a safety valve to protect us from disrup- 
tion of all state services in the event tax collections fall below budget 
estimates. 

We can meet this school building emergency without additional 
taxes in the next biennium. But as to school teacher salaries and 
school operating expense it is another story. 

We must face that problem, too, and we must face it now. 

Both the State Board of Education and the State Education Com- 
mission recommend a starting salary for teachers holding standard 
certificates of $2,400 a year, and annual increments enabling standard 
certificate teachers to attain a maximum salary of $3,600 in twelve 
years. 

I am committed to such a salary schedule, and many of you are. 
It is the goal we wish to attain with the least possible delay. We are 
faced now with the question of how to pay the bill. 

For teachers' salaries and all other school operating expenses paid 
by the state, the Advisory Budget Commission recommended $83,000,- 
000 for the next year, and $84,500,000 for the year following. This 
would provide a salary increase for teachers averaging about twenty 
per cent. 



28 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

I have conferred with a good many teachers and educational 
leaders and some have expressed the opinion that it would be best 
not to jeopardize future federal aid by moving too fast toward at- 
tainment of this goal. I am in agreement to the extent that it would 
be best to try at this time to lay the groundwork for full utilization 
of federal aid or increased state revenues when the situation is clearer 
than it will be during this session of the General Assembly. There- 
fore, I am suggesting an interim salary schedule which could be in- 
creased if federal aid becomes available at a later date. I would not 
hesitate to call the Legislature back into special session to deal 
promptly with any situation that might arise in this connection. 

For our immediate consideration, I have received estimates on 
an increased salary schedule that we may find it possible to pay 
without federal aid. 

To provide a salary schedule ranging from $2,200 to a top of 
$3,100, and for other school operating expenses, an appropriation 
of approximately $104,000,000 a year — or nearly $21,000,000 more 
than allocated by the Advisory Budget Commission — will be needed. 

State tax money is not now in sight even for these reduced figures, 
but under the Foundation Plan of the State Education Commission 
the cost could be divided eighty-five per cent from the state and 
fifteen per cent from the counties upon the basis of their ability to 
pay. Under such a division of costs between state and counties, an 
increase of about $7,500,000 a year over the Advisory Budget recom- 
mendations would be necessary. 

Added to this $7,500,000 increase for the public schools is another 
$2,500,000 for items not included in the budget recommendations, 
but which are urgently necessary. These include $1,650,000 for 
much needed public relief under our welfare program, and $455,000 
for agricultural services already approved by the Agricultural Com- 
mittees of the House and Senate. 

This makes a total of at least $10,000,000 needed over and above 
Advisory Budget Commission recommendations and estimated tax 
revenue for the next year — and this is before any deductions in 
revenue are made to equalize tax inequalities, to provide for sharing 
certain taxes with municipalities to aid them in relieving their fi- 
ancial distress, or for further raises for state employees other than 
school teachers. 

The situation boils down to the unpleasant fact that we have 
considerably greater demands for money for worthy and necessary 
purposes than we can meet without additional revenue. 



Messages to the General Assembly 29 

I do not feel that I would be discharging my responsibility as 
governor if I dumped this problem in your lap without transmitting 
with it the best advice I have been able to get on how to raise more 
money. 

One way to do it would be to stop tax leaks, and I favor granting 
the request of the State Revenue Department for $48,000 to employ 
additional auditors. I have received estimates that a $1,000,000 a 
year additional can be collected through their services. 

But this still would be only a drop in the bucket, and this morning 
I met at length with Mr. Suiter and Dr. Rae of the State Tax Re- 
search Department, and with other tax experts. They suggested ad- 
ditional sources of revenue. 

You are entitled to this information developed by your own Tax 
Research Department for the most serious consideration in meeting 
the problems at hand. I give it to you for careful study and not as 
specific recommendations from me at this time. There may be other 
and better methods that you will develop in your deliberations. It 
is my belief that we should leave no possibility unexplored in our 
efforts to meet fair and urgent demands for public service with the 
least burden to our taxpayers, and to avoid the necessity of the state's 
re-entering the field of ad valorem taxation. 

Here are the suggestions of the Tax Research Department: 

1. One cent a bottle on soft drinks and one cent on each fountain drink. It 
is estimated that this would raise $4,000,000 a year. 

2. Ten per cent tax on all amusements. Estimates are that this would raise 
$1,700,000 a year. 

3. Raise personal income tax brackets from three to seven per cent to four to 
eight per cent. It is estimated this would bring in $5,000,000 a year. 

4. Tax cigars from one to three cents, depending upon price. Estimates are 
that this would raise $1,200,000 a year. 

5. Tax cigarettes one cent a package. It is estimated this would net $3,000,000 
a year. 

6. Raise the tax on spirituous liquors from eight and one-half to fifteen per 
cent. Estimates are that this would yield $2,500,000 a year. 

The Tax Research Department also has figures — which are too 
complex or qualified to present in detail here — for increasing gen- 
eral fund revenues by disallowing present exemption of stocks of 
certain corporations, a gross receipts tax on hotels, a stock transfer 
tax; a motor vehicle title transfer tax, an excise tax on banks, an un- 
incorporated business franchise tax, an insurance premium tax, and 
from the collection of income taxes by payroll deduction. 

Details on all of these proposals are available in the Tax Research 
office. 



30 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

To "Go Forward" we must provide adequately for our public 
schools and other public services. To "Go Forward" it is now obvious, 
after five weeks of this General Assembly, that we must find more 
tax money. 

I believe we can do both if the people are fully informed that to 
obtain these public services they must pay more taxes. 

There is no point in playing hide-and-seek with this problem. 
Let's get it in the open and thresh it out. I have no fear as to our 
ability, working together, to arrive at solutions that are just and in 
the best interest of our state. 



THE LIQUOR REFERENDUM 

Special Message 
February 23, 1949 

Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, and Members of the General Assembly: 

I come before you to discuss the matter of our joint responsibility 
with respect to a liquor prohibition election that is being demanded 
by a large percentage of the people. My part of the responsibility 
exists because I pledged myself to do all that I could, if elected gov- 
ernor, to insure a referendum. Your part of this responsibility is the 
decision whether the demand shall be granted or denied. 

Bills are already before you to submit to the voters of North Caro- 
lina, in a special election, the issue of the legal sale of whiskey. One 
of these bills would allow the people to decide between the total 
prohibition of whiskey and the present plan of Legislative control 
under which local option is permitted. With all the earnestness I 
possess I urge you to enact this measure, or other suitable legislation, 
to let the people make that decision. 

The question of how any citizen would vote in the election is 
not pertinent to debate. The referendum itself is the issue. Ours is 
a representative form of government, and the people are sovereign. 
When they speak in a constitutionally held election, their voice is 
the supreme law. Our State Constitution does not amplify sov- 
ereignty — it is a self-imposed limitation on it — but that constitu- 
tion points a steady finger to a duty of those chosen by the people to 
represent them and to govern them — the duty to let the people 
speak. 

I would not say that an election should be held whenever a small 
segment of the people manifests discontent with a law or a policy of 



Messages to the General Assembly 



31 



government. But I do say that when the demand for a referendum be- 
comes strong enough to raise an honest and reasonable doubt as to 
the will of the majority of the people, that to deny an election is to 
subject our democratic form of government to contempt that is both 
unjust and dangerous. 

I have referred to the fact that our State Constitution is a self- 
imposed limitation on popular sovereignty. Yet it bears in its text 
a reminder, if any be needed, that the people are the real rulers. The 
constitution stipulates that "For the redress of grievances and for 
amending and strengthening the laws, elections should be often held." 
This admonition of frequent elections is not in our constitution by 
accident. It expresses the purposefulness of our democratic spirit. 
It recognizes and emphasizes the true source and residence of po- 
litical power. 

There must be an honest and reasonable doubt in every one of 
us as to what a majority of the people will do if this election is 
called. In this light, it is arrogance for anyone vested with authority 
by the people to withhold from them the right to decide a question 
when they are clamoring to decide it themselves. North Carolinians 
are a stubborn people when their rights are invaded or withheld. 
As governor, I cannot call this election. All that I can do is to urge 
you to act. 

There is limitless room for differences of opinion as to the best 
way to police and control the liquor traffic. There is room for wide 
variation of opinion as to where the boundaries should be set for 
operation of the democratic process of decision. But there can be 
no division as to who has the right under our law to decide. That 
right lies with the people — the makers and fashioners of all political 
subdivisions within the state. 

The facts and reasoning which impel much of the opposition to 
prohibition are well known to the people. The people know the 
bootlegging problem. They know that legal whiskey is available across 
the state borders on nearly all sides. The people can evaluate the 
plea that the counties be allowed to make their own decisions as to 
legalizing the sale or prohibiting the sale of liquor. The people also 
know the extent of the revenues derived from liquor profits and 
taxes. 

All of these considerations would have their effect when the people 
cast their ballots, but I submit that they should not influence you 
now in deciding whether to order an election or not to order it. They 
are matters for discussion in the campaign that an election would 



32 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

precipitate — not in determining whether the constitutional right to 
have an election shall be honored. 

The single point of my appeal to you is the people's right to be 
the jury. Our governors for three administrations have promised 
to do all they could to assure an election. The people are resentful 
of the delay. I most respectfully call upon you not to withhold the 
right of election any longer. 



MEMBER OF THE UTILITIES COMMISSION 
Special Message 

March 2, 1949 
To The President and Members of The Senate of North Carolina: 

There is transmitted herewith to you the name of Fred C. Hun- 
ter 1 of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, to succeed himself as a 
member of the North Carolina Utilities Commission for a term of 
six years, beginning February 1, 1949. 

Pursuant to the provisions of General Statutes, Section 62-1, I re- 
quest your honorable body to approve and give your consent to this 
appointment. 



MEMBERS OF THE STATE PLANNING BOARD 
Special Message 

March 22, 1949 

To the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of 
Representatives: 

I am this day in accordance with House Resolution 2 No. 452 

naming the following members of the Special Legislative Commission 

to investigate the establishment of a permanent State Planning Board 

and to report to this General Assembly: 

Senator Frank M. Parker, Buncombe County. 
Senator J. Hampton Price, Rockingham County. 
Representative H. Clifton Blue, Moore County. 
Representative J. V. Whitfield, Pender County. 
Representative F. M. Averitt, Cumberland County. 



x The Senate confirmed the appointment on March 2, 1949. Journal of the Senate of the 
General Assembly of the State of North Carolina, Session 1949, 205. 

sThe General Assembly of 1947 had failed to make an appropriation for the State Planning 
Board and this resolution was an effort to revive the board. The commission was authorized to 
investigate and report to the General Assembly on March 15. This commission recommended the 
re-establishment of the Planning Board, and a bill to that effect was passed in the Senate, but 
received an unfavorable report from the House committee on April 27. See Journal of the 
House of Representatives of the General Assembly of the State of North Carolina, Session 1949, 
1153. 



Messages to the General Assembly 33 

MEMBERS OF THE STATE 
BOARD OF EDUCATION 

Special Message 
April 22, 1949 

To The General Assembly of North Carolina: 

I have the honor to transmit herewith a list of appointments made 
by me to the State Board of Education, which appointments are re- 
quired to be confirmed by the General Assembly in joint session. 1 

4th District — Paul S. Oliver, Marietta. 

5th District — Santford Martin, Winston-Salem. 

7th District — Claude Farrell, Elkin. 

Member at Large - Dr. H. L. Trigg, Raleigh -St. Augustine's College. 



MEMBERS OF THE UTILITIES COMMISSION 
Special Message 
April 23, 1949 
To the Honorable Senate of North Carolina: 

I have the honor to transmit herewith appointments made to the 
Utilities Commission, under authority of House Bill 2 No. 343, Session 
of 1949, which appointments are required to be confirmed by the 
Senate: 

Edward H. McMahan, Brevard — Attorney. 
Joshua S. James, Wilmington — Attorney. 



BIENNIAL MESSAGE DELIVERED BEFORE A JOINT SESSION 
OF THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

January 4, 1951 

Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, and Members of the General Assembly: 

We are assembled here in a period of national emergency to plan 
the course of our state for the two years immediately ahead. Although 
we pray for the secure establishment of peace, we must support with- 
out stint our country's purpose to be prepared for any eventuality. 
All the plans we make here must be subject to revision as we fit our- 
selves into the national defense program. 

Z% °696 ^ ASSemWy COnfirmed these appointments on April 22. 1949. Journal of the Senate, 
1949, 708 confirmed the appointments, April 23. 1949. Journal of the Senate. 



34 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Many of you were members of the 1949 Legislature when I began 
my service as governor. All of you come fresh from the people with 
information about their needs and desires. I reaffirm my conscious- 
ness of our partnership in responsibility for the state government. If 
the state were a private corporation, the governor would be its busi- 
ness manager and you its board of directors. Mine is the duty to rec- 
ommend policy and to carry it out. Yours is the duty to determine 
very largely what that policy shall be. 

The uncertainties of the times suggest more frequent examination 
of fundamental principles. I find myself inclined to scrutinize my 
own more earnestly at the halfway post in my four years as governor. 
There is a great ferment in the world of 1950-1951. People are rest- 
less, governments are growling at one another, and dissension is very 
general inside our own country. We have come to the end of the 
first half of the twentieth century. During this period we have mas- 
tered many obstacles in the physical realm, but we have made less 
apparent progress in the spiritual realm. We seem to have less confi- 
dence in ourselves and in our neighbors now than existed in the 
beginning of these eventful fifty years. Material successes have not 
conquered fear. Deep concern about how human society is to be safely 
ordered is manifest everywhere in our country. 

These general conditions must affect us profoundly as we go 
about our work here. We will be influenced by them, but we should 
not permit them to confuse us or to divert us unnecessarily from our 
course in the state. One of our principal responsibilities is to remain 
strong at home. We must not neglect it. 

As I come before you to discuss my stewardship for the past two 
years and to advise with you about the second half of my term of 
office, I think that it is not out of order to say something about my 
own creed — the fundamental principles which have been guiding 
me — and to which I turn frequently in self-examination. 

I believe that the proper objective of our country is preservation of freedom 
under God, and that our state must be ready to support this objective at all 
costs. 

I believe that although the present world unrest is extremely dangerous to 
us, testing both our faith and our statesmanship, it can prove to be the travail 
of a better society. 

I believe that we must start at home when we want to build a better world; 
and although some of our plans for North Carolina may be affected temporarily 
by the general emergency, we must be firm in our purpose to continue improve- 
ment of public service. 

I believe in the high quality of the natural values of our state; that both 
people and material resources are worthy of great investment. 



Messages to the General Assembly 35 

I believe that the North Carolina of 1950 with more than four million in- 
habitants will be a state of eight million or more by 1980, and that we should 
plan with such probable increase in mind. 

I believe that proper management of this state to provide a good life for 
its present and prospective population demands not only the improvement of 
schools and roads, ports and other conventional facilities, but also the scientific 
development of every large river drainage area we have. 

These are articles of my own faith. I have tried to chart a course 
in the light of these beliefs. When I asked the people to give me the 
responsibility of the governorship, I discussed a specific program. I 
advocated the extension of our road system to form a state-wide chain 
of paved secondary highways. I promised to strengthen our public 
school system. I advocated that the financial reserves that had ac- 
cumulated and were lying without interest in the banks be put to 
work for service of the people. 

I thought I knew how the people felt about these things. I was 
not surprised when, in the road bond election, they placed the value 
of these roads above the amount of money required to build them. 
The people believed, as I believe, that an investment in North Caro- 
lina is a wise investment. The people believed, as I believe, that no 
better investment could be made than through extension of public 
service calculated to develop and market the creative potential of all 
of our people. 

As the practical effect of this "go-forward" program is felt, I am 
hearing more and more from the people that they like it. This ad- 
ministration is carrying out a program of progress under direct man- 
date from the people. Every effort to impeach it has failed and will 
fail. 

For a long time the people had been telling me their needs. The 
Legislature of 1949 recognized the merit in the contention that pub- 
lic service should be improved to the extent of our reasonable capacity, 
and it authorized the program. Also, during the first two years of 
this administration, I have enjoyed close cooperation with our delega- 
tion in Congress. On several occasions I have gone to Washington to 
discuss our problems face-to-face with our Senators and Representa- 
tives, and to seek their counsel and assistance. Therefore, what has 
occurred has been the result of the cooperation of the people and 
their lawmakers with the governor. 

I will discuss certain particular areas of progress as I proceed, but 
at this time I want to make special reference to one of the practical 
points in my creed. 

I refer to efforts I have made to enlist the help of the federal gov- 
ernment in river valley development in this state. I want to be as 



36 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

emphatic with you as possible in asserting the importance of the sur- 
face water of North Carolina. It can be destructive, or it can be 
magnificently constructive — depending upon how we manage it. 
For generations our rivers have been wasting the physical state in- 
to the Atlantic as our top soil has washed away. We are beginning 
to stop this great drain on our resources with improved methods 
of erosion control, but we have not yet planned to make the most of 
our water potential. 

I have been charged with a socialistic attack on private enterprise 
because I dared to invite the attention of a department of the fed- 
eral government to our needs in connection with multiple-use dams 
for our rivers. Resourceful propagandists have accused me of a de- 
sire to block private development of the rivers and to misinterpret the 
conditions with respect to the power production and other derivatives 
to be expected from water resource control. 

I believe in free enterprise. I have great faith in the power of 
its drive against incompetence and error, but I believe also that there 
are some areas of development and conservation of our natural re- 
sources in which the people dare not leave the whole responsibility 
to private enterprises. A comprehensive program for the protection 
and development of our surface waters in this state falls in that area. 
As I ask this Legislature to consider favorably moderate protective 
legislation concerning our waters, I point to the fact that valuable 
rivers in highly industrialized states are dead rivers today as a con- 
sequence of dependence on the private corporation to protect them 
while in competitive pursuit of dividends. At this time when great 
industries are turning more and more to the waterways of this state 
for location of plants, I recommend that we adopt a water-use policy 
with a view to being hospitable to such enterprise, but also to pro- 
tecting all the people's interests in these streams. 

More particularly to the point of multiple-use dams, I want to 
say that I regard electric power development from them as little 
more than a rich by-product, and that I am in favor of that product 
being marketed not by the government, but by private utilities, 
municipal corporations, and rural electric cooperatives. I am in- 
sisting and shall continue to insist: First, that "enough" electric 
energy is not sufficient for this state — we need an abundance of 
power; and secondly, that the protection of these waters, and their 
development for their full value for the people of North Carolina, 
must not be left entirely to the private utility corporations. 



Messages to the General Assembly 37 

When I say that "enough" power is not sufficient, I am thinking 
of the constructive challenge of excess power to the private business 
enterprise looking for location. I have in mind that even now TVA 
is being called on to double its power production to meet immediately 
prospective needs. I am dwelling upon this matter because I do not 
want the vital issue of water-resource development in this state to 
be confused by controversy as to the extent of my personal faith in 
private enterprise. I see no inconsistency in depending upon private 
enterprise for its mighty contribution to our economy, and at the 
same time asking that North Carolina be given even-handed treatment 
in the highly significant river basin development plans that are being 
financed by the federal government. 

Something has been said by way of criticism of this administra- 
tion that I have encouraged the state to assume an unprecedented 
debt burden. I am charged with having allocated or spent accumu- 
lated reserves in excess of $200,000,000. I am charged with having 
gone far with the expenditure of $225,000,000 of borrowed money in 
the past two years. I did advise the people of the state to authorize 
in an election the borrowing of $225,000,000 and to procure its 
prompt use. I also urged the Legislature to convert tax accumula- 
tions largely into service institutions for the people. In my cam- 
paign for the governorship, I charged that nearly $200,000,000 lying 
unused in the banks of this state represented a failure of vision as 
to the people's needs. I campaigned upon the proposition that tax 
money should be converted to public service. I contended that such 
portions of it as remained unspent during the conversion should 
draw interest. I report to you now that not only did your predeces- 
sor, the Legislature of 1949, support this position by making appro- 
priations converting the reserves into services — that the people 
went to the polls and authorized the debt of $225,000,000 I advo- 
cated — but also that the treasurer of this state has been handling 
the state's balances so capably that he has proved that my charges of 
loss due to tax monies being left without interest in banks really 
were very conservative. 

I affirm here my belief in a proper balance between income and 
expenditure in operating the state government. I contended two 
years ago that North Carolina did not have a true $200,000,000 sur- 
plus, but that it was keeping that amount of money in banks at the 
expense of a great deficit in public service. The Legislature's ex- 
amination of the state's needs confirmed this. As to the charge that 
our $200,000,000 road bond debt constitutes the heaviest burden of 



38 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

debt this state has borne, I point out to you that this burden is less 
than I conservatively estimated for the people that it would be. In 
my advocacy of the bond issue, I never promised that we would sell 
the bonds under an average interest rate of 1.75 per cent. I used the 
conservative estimate of $7,500,000 a year new income from the 1 cent 
gasoline tax. We have sold $125,000,000 of these bonds at rates that 
average approximately 1.50 per cent. The income from the 1 cent gas- 
oline tax is more than $8,500,000 for its first year. So, the actual burden 
of the debt — in terms of interest charges and refunds available from 
the tax levy to begin paying it off — is far less than the burden of 
the $115,000,000 of original road bonds which this state marketed at 
an average of about 5 per cent. The interest on $100,000,000 at 5 per 
cent is $5,000,000 a year. The interest on $200,000,000 at 1.5 per cent 
is only $3,000,000 a year. If our judgment was right that the people 
were entitled to these new secondary roads, and that they and their 
energies would make the investment pay, I believe that the same kind 
of confidence in the character of the securities shown by the buyers of 
the bonds is justified among the people of the state itself. 

The courageous development of North Carolina through use of 
the power of the state government did not begin with my administra- 
tion. It will not end with it. We have been fortunate in having gov- 
ernors and legislators who had faith in the people of this state and 
in the state's resources. What I want to advocate strongly to you 
now is that there be no halting of the advance — that we move 
steadily forward, building by plan and with confidence in the future. 

I am proposing consolidation of the advance we have made, but 
not that we dig in for stoppage of the advance. I am urging as strong- 
ly as I can that you look forward with courage and confidence to 
the returns to be expected from daring investment in building up 
our state. It is my recommendation that you study our tax laws 
with the view toward removing inequities in the interest both of 
fairness and of obtaining increased revenue necessary to carry on 
essential public service. I ask your help in further strengthening 
the collection of taxes. While we have sought to reduce the waste 
in government and can specify accomplishments of merit in that 
area, we have striven to close the loopholes through which justly 
due taxes were escaping. The figures indicating success speak for 
themselves and they will be laid before you. 

I believe in a balanced budget, but I believe also that it is as 
important to balance the state's budget of social and economic needs 
as it is to balance its income and expense account. Let us strive to 
avoid the costly deficits that imperil the well-being of our people 




Governor Scott, on March 21, 1949, congratulates his Senatorial appointee, Dr. Frank P. Graham. 
The announcement was made at the O. Max Gardner Award dinner at Chapel Hill. 



Messages to the General Assembly 



39 



and defeat their cultural and economic growth. We must not bury 
the people's talents. 

We are investing large sums, but we are getting a full dollar's 
worth for our money in building and service. At the same time 
we are reducing petty wastes in government. We must work together 
to keep our progress free of inefficiency and waste. To this end I 
invite suggestions from the members of this Legislature, and from 
any citizen of our state at any time. 

I turn now to a brief topical report of progress and of need. 

Civil Defense 

Our nation is no longer free from the threat and danger of 
sudden attack. War may involve all in its hazards. An effective civil 
defense program is vital to our security. 

Shortly before the outbreak of the Korean conflict, at the request 
of the federal government, I appointed a Civil Defense Council 
under the authority of the North Carolina Emergency War Powers 
Act. Later, a full-time director was appointed and funds appropri- 
ated from the Contingency and Emergency Fund to operate this 
agency until ten days after the convening of the 1951 General 
Assembly. 

To continue our present program and achieve effective civil de- 
fense will require legislation. The legislation needed has been 
drafted by the State Civil Defense Council. I urge you to give it 
immediate consideration. 

Roads 

We have emphasized better roads as one of the most important 
goals of this administration. I am glad to report the attainment of 
what I regard as great progress. The State Highway Commission has 
completed slightly more than 45 per cent of the $200,000,000 dollar 
secondary road paving program outlined as an objective twenty-four 
months ago. Nearly 6,000 miles of new hard-surfacing have been 
added to the state's secondary road system. The remainder of the 
program — plus extensive stabilization mileage — should be com- 
pleted within the next two years unless work is interrupted. When 
it is completed, a network of farm-to-market and farm-to-school roads 
will extend into every section of North Carolina. 

The road bonds sold up to this time — $125,000,000 worth — 
have been selling to bear very low interest rates, and the income 
earmarked for their retirement is exceeding estimates. Earlier this 
week the first $6,000,000 worth were retired. Indications are that 



40 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

other repayments will be made without drawing on regular highway 
income. This is contingent, of course, on continuation of current 
traffic volume. 

The per-mile cost of our new roads has been considerably under 
original estimates. If this trend continues, more miles of road will 
be built than were first planned. The mileage built has been con- 
structed to standards calculated to render excellent service for many 
years with reasonable maintenance cost. We have not skimped on 
construction. The best engineering practices of the Highway Com- 
mission have been employed in the construction of these secondary 
roads. Quality has not been sacrificed for mileage. 

Furthermore, the State Highway Commission has initiated and 
finished more work on the primary highway system during the past 
two years than in any other period in our road-building history. 
The freeing of regular highway income from demands of rural road 
improvements has made it possible to concentrate these funds on 
the primary system. All surplus funds accumulated during this ad- 
ministration have been earmarked for major projects on our main 
highways. 

To give you some idea of how much the Highway Commission 
has stepped up its pace of road building, I quote these comparative 
figures: During 1950 the commission let $58,000,000 worth of high- 
way projects to contract compared with $24,000,000 in 1949 and 
$25,000,000 in 1948. In addition, an estimated $35,000,000 was spent 
by the commission on force account work during 1950 including 
paving and stabilization. These figures apply to work both on pri- 
mary and secondary roads. 

Looking to the future, I must voice a warning concerning the 
general needs of our highway system. Traffic has increased so rapidly 
as to make it necessary to revise plans in designing new highways. 
In the interest of safety and convenience, we must think in terms 
of heavy traffic highways, by-passes, underpasses, overpasses, and other 
expensive items of highway construction. More than 300 major 
bridges are obsolete. This means that our regular highway income 
ought not to be spread out too thin. If we have new road needs, we 
must make new provisions for financing them. 

I say this in connection with the report submitted to this General 
Assembly by the State-Municipal Roads Commission with the assist- 
ance of the Institute of Government and other agencies. I agree 
with the general principle set forth in this report. I also agree with 
the commission's conclusion that new sources of revenue should be 
found if the state is to assume additional responsibilities for city 



Messages to the General Assembly 41 

streets. It would not be wise to put this additional responsibility on 
the Highway Commission — as the county roads were in 1931, with- 
out providing new revenue sources. North Carolina's problem is 
but part of a national problem. We have already accomplished 
more than we promised, but we have not solved the road problem. 

Public Education 

We met courageously a crisis of first importance in the state's 
schools two years ago. A Legislative majority increased teachers' pay 
in an effort to stop the disintegration of the teacher force and lift 
its morale. We did not succeed in establishing the teacher on the 
secure professional level he should occupy, but we made an advance 
towards that objective. We should now consolidate the advance 
made on a contingency basis two years ago, and I urge that the teacher 
salary schedule of $2,200 to $3,100 be provided along with incre- 
ments fairly designed to hold highly qualified individuals in the 
service. 

The state is devoting $50,000,000 to a public school building pro- 
gram, and the local school districts have voted $66,000,000 more 
during the two-year period for this purpose. We are improving 
greatly the functional value of these new buildings by employing 
improved architectural plans. We are leading the nation in school 
building design. We must not fail our children by entrusting their 
education to underpaid, dispirited teachers. 

Study of individual cases involving failure to pass selective service 
mental tests, almost without exception, has shown that the individual 
had a history of irregular class attendance in his public school career. 
This points to the urgency of a strengthened compulsory school at- 
tendance law. Present legislation on this subject was enacted in 
1913 and seems to be inadequate. I urge that you study the need 
for a new law. 

Health 

Two years ago, in my inaugural address, I said that selective 
service physical examinations emphasized the importance of improv- 
ing our general health program. Today, selective service has been 
reactivated and rejections are still too numerous. 

We have made progress, but there are still serious deficiencies 
in hospital facilities for the people, particularly in those counties 
and areas least able to finance a hospital building fund. It is in these 
poorer counties that the need is most urgent, and we should re- 
examine our program to determine how best to deal with this 



42 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

problem. There are 17 North Carolina counties totally without 
hospital facilities. 

I urge the General Assembly to study and to appraise the possi- 
bility of equalizing health service for the people, regardless of the 
particular county in which they live, as has been done in education 
and highways. 

Four years ago North Carolina embarked upon a program of 
expansion of hospital facilities for the treatment of citizens suffering 
from tuberculosis. A total of 462 additional beds have been added 
at the state's three tubercular sanitariums. Another 222 beds will 
become available when projects now under contract are finished. 
With completion of the 100-bed tubercular wing at Chapel Hill, the 
long waiting list of patients seeking admission to our tubercular 
institutions should be eliminated. 

Our hospitals for the mentally sick must be improved and staffed 
with properly trained personnel. It is my earnest hope that the 1951 
General Assembly will take action to reduce the deficit of service in 
this field. It is my firm conviction that through the establishment 
and operation of a psychiatric wing at Chapel Hill, much will be 
accomplished in the service to the mentally ill. Such a wing, in 
addition to the many other benefits which would come from it, would 
provide a training center for personnel to staff the state mental in- 
stitutions. The lack of such trained personnel is a serious problem. 

In the field of preventive medicine the State Board of Health 
is making outstanding progress. Twenty-five years ago the chief 
killing diseases in North Carolina were the infectious diseases — but 
last year the five leading killers were in the non-infectious group. 
This demonstrates the continuing effectiveness of our preventive 
medicine program and the wisdom of maintaining this service to the 
people at a high level. 

Public Welfare 

With a public welfare program which is providing financial 
assistance and other welfare services to approximately 150,000 of the 
men, women, and children of the state each month, the state has 
accepted heavy responsibility. 

Our humanitarian programs must be such as to insure that mini- 
mum subsistence needs are provided for those who through old age, 
disability, or the dependence of childhood are unable to provide the 
necessities of daily living for themselves. Rising costs affect this 
group even more severely than other economic groups. Moreover, 
because of the growing proportion of older people in our state and 



Messages to the General Assembly 43 

rising caseloads due to economic difficulties, it has not been possible 
to reach the level of average monthly grants, namely $24 for needy 
aged persons and $18 per dependent child, which were set by the 
1949 General Assembly. Therefore, the State Board of Public Wel- 
fare has submitted appropriations requests to meet the established 
level of state responsibility. 

We are just now entering a new field of state participation in 
helping meet the needs of the totally and permanently disabled. 
Hitherto this needy group has been entirely dependent on county 
aid. Thus, we are broadening in this administration the acceptance 
of responsibility by the state for the economic and social protection 
of its citizens. The several welfare grant programs for helping take 
care of as many of our needy people as possible in their own homes 
and in their own communities relieve some of the pressure upon the 
already overcrowded institutional facilities of the state. This policy 
has proved to be an economical plan for care of such persons and 
adds to their happiness and general well-being. 

The commission set up to study domestic relations laws, which 
studied legislation affecting children and families in the last two 
General Assemblies, has again been at work during the past bienni- 
um. We should give serious consideration to its current recommen- 
dations. 

We have made substantial progress during this biennium in im- 
proving jails throughout the state through the active interest and 
cooperation of local officials with the State Board of Public Welfare. 
I recommend careful study of legislative proposals to strengthen the 
steps being taken by local governmental units to provide more effec- 
tively against abuse of their prisoners. 

There are needs for certain permanent improvements in the 
welfare program which I shall discuss in my budget message. 

Public Utilities 

Gratifying progress has been made in the past two years in the 
extension of the benefits of electric energy to the people in our rural 
areas through the combined efforts of the REA, the municipalities, 
and the public utility companies. Electric power has now been taken 
to all but 32,844 North Carolina farms. 

Despite the progress scored, too many of our people still are 
without the service. Areas, where firm power is not sufficiently avail- 
able at reasonable rates, constitute a dead space in our economic 
structure. The low per capita income of these areas means not 



44 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

only a lower standard of living for the people living within them, 
but also higher taxes for the rest of the state's taxpayers. 

Progress has also been made in telephone service expansion dur- 
ing the past two years. This expansion must be continued. The 
public interest demands that those utility companies which have 
been dragging their feet in North Carolina's march of progress be 
required to get in step with the rest of the state. 

To justify their position of privilege and freedom from com- 
petition, our public utilities corporations should provide the service 
to which the people are entitled and at a cost not in excess of that 
necessary to permit a fair and reasonable return on investment. 

The people of North Carolina, through their General Assembly, 
have delegated to the Utilities Commission general regulatory and 
rate making powers in the public utility field. Many companies, 
particularly telephone companies, do not hold franchise certificates 
directly from the Utilities Commission and their service areas are 
vague and undefined. 

I recommend that legislation be enacted requiring all public 
utilities to apply for formal franchise certificates from the State 
Utilities Commission. These franchise certificates should clearly and 
accurately define the geographical franchise area which the respective 
companies are privileged and obligated to serve. Such legislation 
will afford the necessary machinery whereby the Utilities Commission 
may perform its duty of securing better state-wide distribution of 
vital utility services. 

Natural Resources 

Development of deep water ports at Wilmington and Morehead 
City made possible by a bond issue authorized by the 1949 Legis- 
lature is stimulating development along our seaboard of large bene- 
fit to the national defense and to our economic future. 

Preliminary surveys made by the Department of Conservation 
and Development indicate the possibility of locating a steel plant 
in the vicinity of the port of Wilmington. A survey already made 
by the special committee set up by the 1949 General Assembly indi- 
cates that raw materials are available for the production of cement. 
One of the largest manufacturers has evidenced interest in establish- 
ing a plant in the state to produce this essential commodity. 

Our forests and our surface water resources are very great, but 
we are neglecting these to the ultimate danger to industrial develop- 
ment and land use. I re-state that I favor flood control over all 



Messages to the General Assembly 45 

major streams and where feasible complete basin development. This 
calls for multi-purpose dams, which are not likely to become the 
concern of private companies engaged only in the business of gen- 
erating and marketing power. These multi-purpose dams are proper- 
ly the concern of government as has been successfully demonstrated 
in other areas. Power generated by government dams should, I 
believe, be distributed through existing agencies; such as municipali- 
ties, cooperatives, and public utilities. Private utilities distributing 
this government-generated current are under the regulation of the 
State Utilities Commission, which can require performance dictated 
by the public interest. Municipal and cooperative systems are owned 
and operated by the people they serve. 

Not only should our streams be dammed for flood control and 
for production of electric power, but we need also to take positive 
steps to curb stream pollution that impairs the usefulness of our 
streams, and is a growing health hazard. Legislation to deal effectively 
with this basic state problem constitutes one of the challenges before 
this Assembly. I urge your attention to it as a matter of prime 
importance. 

North Carolina is the principal producer of mica and other min- 
erals essential to defense production. Its commercial fishing resour- 
ces are of tremendous value in the increased production of food, 
feed, and oil essential to the war economy. Recommendations to 
bring about more effective utilization of our natural resources will 
be offered by the Department of Conservation and Development. 

Agriculture 

Agriculture is one of the most important elements of our economy, 
and the welfare and prosperity of our farmers is a matter of concern 
to all of us. 

Thanks to a fine tobacco crop and record high prices, our receipts 
from the sale of farm products have been considerably higher during 
the past year than expected. The recession in farm income that was 
well under way a year ago has since been offset by a general upturn 
in demand and prices. 

Unfortunately, however, our cotton farmers have suffered two 
poor crop years; and their production this past season was the 
smallest since reconstruction days. As a result, many farmers who 
still cling to cotton as their principal crop now find themselves in 
dire circumstances. But we, as a state, face a challenge to produce 
more cotton in our defense effort. 



46 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Our farmers generally have made remarkable progress in soil 
conservation, pasture improvement, expansion of livestock and 
poultry production, general diversification, and better living condi- 
tions. Our production potential in agriculture is at an all-time high, 
and I feel that North Carolina farmers are in even better position 
now to meet the stepped-up demands of wartime conditions than 
they were in the early days of World War II. 

I should like to point out that our achievements in agriculture 
have not occurred through chance development. 

I feel that every dollar the state has spent to help the farmer 
has returned handsome dividends, and I strongly urge you to bear 
this in mind in considering the needs of agriculture for the future. 
A continued strong research program is essential. Programs now 
under way should be continued, with greater emphasis on livestock 
production and improved processing and marketing facilities for 
various farm products. 

The new pattern of financing for the State Department of Agri- 
culture, as approved by the last General Assembly, has worked well 
and simplified the problem of budget-making. There should be no 
question about continuing to treat this department the same way 
we do other departments in the state government. The old system 
of financing the functions of the Agriculture Department, many of 
which are non-agricultural, largely from inspection taxes is outmoded. 

Commerce And Industry 

Business prospers in North Carolina under efficient labor and 
progressive management. 

We have achieved the transition from a largely agricultural 
economy to a position of balance between industry and agriculture. 
Our most spectacular progress has been made in industry during the 
past ten years. The value of our output during that period has more 
than trebled, and we have attained national leadership in textile, 
tobacco, and wooden furniture manufacturing. Our non-agricultural 
employment is now in excess of 900,000 men and women — the 
highest in our history. But we have made only a good start towards 
our logical goal of production. 

During the last year industry invested or earmarked more than 
$100,000,000 for new factories in North Carolina, and indications at 
this time are that even greater investments are under consideration 
for the year ahead. 



Messages to the General Assembly 47 

Our new industries are well distributed geographically, with some 
of the largest entering the coastal plains. Improved deep water ports 
and prospects for procurement of natural gas greatly enhance our 
attraction for industry. 

No state in the union offers the safe decentralization combined 
with equal accessibility of markets, materials, and labor that North 
Carolina does. The volume and diversity of new industries locating 
in the state in the last year testify to a new appreciation of that truth. 

Labor And Management 

Relations between North Carolina labor and management were 
peaceful and productive during the last two years. Ninety per cent 
labor-management disputes were settled without work stoppages. 
Actually, only 37 work stoppages occurred during the entire bienni- 
um. These involved 6,483 workers. 

Despite the fact that our average industrial wage rose from $41.50 
a week in October 1948 to $46.50 in October 1950, our wages are 
only about 75 per cent of the national average of factory earnings. 
One of our greatest needs and most challenging jobs is to raise the 
level of our earnings — not just wages but per capita income as 
well. Assuming no critical break in our economy, the phenomenal 
growth of industry in the state during the last two years and the 
even greater expansions which lie ahead should bring greatly in- 
creased production, higher per capita income and, of course, larger 
state revenues which may be used wisely to make up some of our 
deficits in services to the people. 

One reason for our low income level is the fact that we have a 
minority of workers in local service and retail trades who are paid 
wages of fifty cents an hour and less. Healthy citizenship cannot be 
sustained upon that kind of income. 

A state minimum wage statute should be enacted to place a floor 
under the incomes of these low-paid workers who are not covered by 
the federal wage-hour law. This would place intra-state business 
in fair competitive status with other business while protecting a con- 
siderable labor force. 

I recommend that you examine the workmen's compensation law 
with a view to the need of an upward revision of the scale of bene- 
fits. There has been no increase since the original adoption of the 
scale. 



48 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Government Structure 

The people approved in the November election an amendment 
to the constitution transferring from the governor's office to that 
of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court the responsibility for 
assigning the superior court judges. 

When this judicial function originally was placed in the Execu- 
tive Department, doubtless there was good reason for it, but under 
present conditions the transfer was logical. This might well suggest 
a study of further changes in structure and work-load in the interest 
of efficiency and economy. 

Government is the biggest single business in our state. Its serv- 
ices have multiplied and must continue to expand to keep pace with 
the demands of the people, but it has been a haphazard growth rather 
than expansion smoothly designed to avoid overlapping and dupli- 
cation. 

This Legislature can take the initiative in speeding up the 
processes whereby our government may be reorganized where it is 
found desirable for greater efficiency. 

A study of our state government made by Dr. Roma S. Cheek 
of the faculty of Duke University has been made available to you. 

Election Laws 

The present limitations on the campaign expenses of candidates 
for office in our primaries is unrealistic. It is a matter of general 
knowledge that the present law is very largely ignored. Violators 
justify themselves by the theory that the limits are so low as to deny 
the candidate a chance to inform the people of his views and pur- 
poses. I recommend revision of the law to permit reasonable ex- 
penditure for using newspapers, radio, the mails and other media 
of public information. 

No specific limit, but stricter enforcement of the requirement 
that the source and use of campaign funds be publicized might be 
more in the interest of honesty and fair practices than our present 
law. If new limitations are to be written in the law, they should 
be high enough for a candidate to maintain headquarters and carry 
on his information campaign in such way as to enable him to get his 
story to the people. 

I recommend action in this matter because I believe the law 
should be what will be regarded generally as fair and in the public 
interest. The present tendency to condone flagrant violation of our 



Messages to the General Assembly 49 

act derives in part from the belief that it is neither reasonable nor 
in the public interest. 

I am deeply concerned over the indifference of many of our people 
to their duty to vote. We should make voting as simple a process 
as possible while protecting the polls. If legislation is needed to 
simplify registration or voting, by splitting large precincts or other- 
wise, I commend the matter as worthy of your serious consideration. 

Voting Age 

The sons and daughters of North Carolina, 18 years of age and 
older, are faced with military service. Some of them as young as 18 
already have given their lives defending democracy. All young men 
at 18, if they meet the fitness requirements, are subject to military 
service. I am firm in my conviction that if a young man is old 
enough to be sent into battle, he is old enough to vote. I recommend 
that you enact legislation to submit a constitutional amendment 
lowering the minimum voting age in North Carolina from 21 to 18 
years of age. 

Alcoholic Beverages 

Two years ago I urged the General Assembly to order a state-wide 
referendum on the question of legal sale of alcoholic beverages. On 
this matter, I stand where I always have stood. The people are sover- 
eign and have the right to vote on such questions. It lies within your 
province to determine when and how that right shall be exercised in 
respect to the traffic in alcohol. No matter how the people decide this 
issue, the effectiveness of law enforcement will be of utmost import- 
ance. I earnestly urge this General Assembly to examine this field 
of law enforcement with a view to strengthening the hands of our 
officers and courts — state and local. 

During the past two years, the State Alcoholic Board of Control 
has made progress in enforcing the law covering the sale of alcoholic 
beverages. The flood of liquor imported into the state for boot- 
legging has been reduced at its source. The 1949 General Assembly 
wisely set up a division to regulate the sale of beer in counties and 
municipalities where the sale of beer is legal. The work of this di- 
vision has resulted in considerable improvement of control in these 
counties and municipalities. 

Highway Safety 

Last year nearly 1,000 persons lost their lives on North Carolina 
highways. This increasing death and property toll caused by motor 



50 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

vehicle accidents is a challenge to each of us. The need for safety 
legislation is urgent. 

A comprehensive study of highway safety has just been completed 
by an advisory committee, and I commend to you for your considera- 
tion the recommendations of this committee. 

I particularly recommend that this General Assembly enact leg- 
islation to carry out the recommendations of the advisory committee 
with respect to a workable motor vehicle mechanical inspection law, 
the addition of 105 men to the State Highway Patrol, and such re- 
vision of our criminal statutes as is deemed necessary to curb the 
carnage on our highways. 

The old inspection law had its faults, and in some respects was not 
properly carried out. It is a fact, however, that our rate of motor ve- 
hicle accidents declined while the law was in effect, and began to 
rise immediately when mechanical inspection ended. Safety officials 
believe that the reinstatement of workable mechanical inspection 
will contribute toward saving at least 100 lives in the first year after 
the inspection lanes are reopened. 

It is my opinion that a complete new troop of 105 men should be 
added to the State Highway Patrol in order to help it cope more 
effectively with its increasing burden brought about by new road 
mileage and the rapidly rising number of motor vehicles traveling 
our highways. 

We should bear in mind always the importance of making our 
highway safety laws fit, insofar as possible, into a pattern of uni- 
formity with other states. 

Prisons 

The prison problem is one that no state has truly solved. The 
MacCormick report recommends organic separation of the prison 
and the highway commission. This is consistent with the judgment 
of most experts on prison management. But Mr. MacCormick states 
that the reforms he recommends can be accomplished in our present 
framework. 

North Carolina has tried both separate management and the 
present arrangement without achieving control fully satisfactory to 
the enlightened interest of the state. If there were outstanding ex- 
amples in other states of triumph over prison management problems 
that might be attributed to some one system, I would recommend 
that we fashion our own system by it. But I know of no convincing 
case. 



Messages to the General Assembly 51 

It is my belief that we have not matured our experience with the 
present setup sufficiently to be sure it is not a good one when pro- 
per understanding and skill are infused into it. This is especially 
true in view of the economic and therapeutic importance of the work 
opportunity for prisoners provided by the expanding road system. 
Therefore, in confidence that we have erected new humanitarian 
safeguards, I recommend that you encourage sensible reforms now 
planned and leave the prison under the State Highway Commission 
for the present. 

The question of finances I shall discuss in my budget message. 

It is obvious that more money will be necessary to meet new and 
continuing needs, but I am hopeful that this can be accomplished 
in large measure by anticipated increase in revenues; by the removal 
of certain tax exemptions and inequities and more uniform col- 
lections. 

The program I have outlined is designed to keep North Carolina 
strong and to help make America stronger. 

Our future population deserves more — much more — than is 
contemplated here. We cannot let needed services and facilities dam 
up, but we should do as much as possible each two years. Even at 
our utmost, it is a never-ending job in a growing state, and every 
dollar invested in permanent improvements creates new and con- 
tinuing expenses of maintenance. But without these constant and 
continuing expenses, we can have no progress. Our civilization 
would stagnate. By keeping abreast of the needs of the people, we face 
a vigorous and a growing state. We will be building a better North 
Carolina next year and for the years to come. 



APPOINTMENTS TO STATE BOARDS 

Special Message 
January 5, 1951 

To the Honorable Senate of North Carolina: 

I have the honor to transmit herewith a list of appointments 
made to fill vacancies of the boards of trustees or directors of the 
various state institutions, the appointments for which are required 
to be forwarded to the Senate for confirmation. 



52 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

The appointments 1 made by me as governor during the past two 
years for particular boards requiring approval of the Senate are 
shown on the attached list. 

State Board of Agriculture — General Statutes 106-2 

J. E. Winslow, Greenville Expiring May, 1955 

O. J. Holler, Union Mills Expiring May, 1955 

J. Muse McCotter, New Bern Expiring May, 1955 

Glenn G. Gilmore, Julian Expiring May, 1955 

Charles F. Phillips, Thomasville Expiring May, 1953 

State Banking Commission — General Statutes 53-92 

James R. McKenzie, Laurinburg Expiring May, 1951 

Reade R. Pickler, Albemarle Expiring May, 1951 

Garland Johnson, Elkin Expiring May, 1951 

North Carolina Hospitals Board of Control — General Statutes 122-7 

Mrs. Reba Gavin, Kenansville Expiring April, 1953 

Dr. W. H. Kibler, Morganton Expiring April, 1953 

Dr. Yates S. Palmer, Valdese Expiring April, 1953 

Francis A. Whitesides, Gastonia Expiring April, 1953 

Kelly E. Bennett, Bryson City Expiring April, 1953 

John S. Ruggles, Southern Pines Expiring April, 1952 

H. W. Kendall, Greensboro Expiring April, 1953 

Board of Trustees, Teachers' and State Employees' Retirement System — 
General Statutes 135-6 

W. W. Jones, Raleigh Expiring April, 1953 

H. L. Stephenson, Smithfield Expiring April, 1952 

Appalachian State Teachers College — General Statutes 116-66 

Wm. J. Conrad, Jr., Winston-Salem Expiring May, 1953 

W. W. Mast, Boone, Route 1 Expiring May, 1953 

Mrs. J. M. Lackey, Taylorsville Expiring May, 1953 

Fred N. Colvard, Jefferson Expiring May, 1953 

C. C. Faw, Sr., North Wilkesboro Expiring May, 1953 

D. W. M. Roberts, Lenoir Expiring May, 1953 

B. C. Brock, Mocksville Expiring May, 1953 

Mrs. Harry B. Caldwell, Greensboro Expiring May, 1953 

Sam Jones, Statesville Expiring May, 1953 

East Carolina College — General Statutes 116-59 

Jane Hall, Raleigh Expiring June, 1955 

R. J. White, Conway Expiring June, 1955 

Charles F. Carroll, High Point Expiring June, 1955 

Janet Palmer, Hookerton Expiring June, 1955 

Uran Cox, Greenville, Route 3 Expiring June, 1953 

Elizabeth City State Teachers College — General Statutes 116-103 

G. R. Little, Elizabeth City Expiring May, 1953 

Miles L. Clark, Elizabeth City Expiring May, 1953 

Dr. E. L. Hoffler, Elizabeth City Expiring May, 1953 



^The appointments contained in the governor's message were unanimously approved and confirmed 
for the position stated and for the time specified. 



Messages to the General Assembly 53 

J. Carter Perry, Elizabeth City Expiring May, 1953 

Dr. N. C. Newbold, Raleigh Expiring May, 1953 

H. L. Mitchell, Gatesville Expiring May, 1953 

Harry Ferebee, Camden Expiring May, 1953 

W. C. Chappell, Belvedere Expiring May, 1953 

J. W. Davis, Edenton Expiring May, 1953 

North Carolina School for the Deaf — General Statutes 116-121 

Dr. Howard E. Rondthaler, Winston-Salem Expiring April, 1953 

Rev. James R. Fortune, Durham Expiring April, 1953 

W. P. Elliot, Marion Expiring April, 1953 

W. S. McCord, Charlotte Expiring April, 1953 

Mrs. Frank P. Tate, Morganton Expiring April, 1953 

Howard Moose, Newton Expiring April, 1953 

James Pons, Valdese Expiring April, 1953 

North Carolina Schools for the Blind and Deaf, Raleigh — General Statutes 116-106 

James Penland, Asheville Expiring May, 1953 

Ben R. Roberts, Durham Expiring May, 1953 

George D. Richardson, Raleigh Expiring May, 1953 

T. F. Nance, Sanford Expiring May, 1953 

Mrs. Charles G. Doak, Raleigh Expiring May, 1953 

A. B. Currin, Dunn Expiring May, 1953 

Mrs. T. C. Ringgold, Raleigh Expiring May, 1953 

R. H. McLawhorn, Sr., Winterville Expiring May, 1953 

S. Linton Smith, Raleigh Expiring May, 1953 

D. T. Redfearn, Wadesboro Expiring May, 1953 

Tom L. Pendergrass, Durham Expiring May, 1953 

Fayetteville State Teachers College — General Statutes 116-103 

Dr. M. E. Bizzell, Goldsboro Expiring October, 1953 

B. G. Bullock, Autryville Expiring October, 1953 

Clarence F. Hedrick, Fayetteville Expiring October, 1953 

Dr. Miriam N. Muldrow, Whiteville Expiring October, 1953 

Mabel Powell, Clinton Expiring October, 1953 

Dr. C. W. Furlong, Smithfield Expiring October, 1953 

Quill Moore, Clarkton, RFD Expiring October, 1953 

John H. Cook, Fayetteville Expiring October, 1953 

W. E. Horner, Sanford Expiring October, 1953 

Pembroke State College — General Statutes 116-81 

Hardy Well Locklear, Fairmont, Route 1 Expiring April, 1953 

George Emmanuel, Lumberton, Route 1 Expiring April, 1953 

A. G. Lowery, Rowland, Route 1 Expiring April, 1953 

Lester Bullard, Maxton, Route 1 Expiring April, 1953 

Harry W. Locklear, Pembroke Expiring April, 1953 

J. Oliver Brooks, Fairmont Expiring April, 1953 

Carl Manor, Pembroke Expiring April, 1953 

James A. Sampson, Pembroke Expiring April, 1953 

John L. Carter, Pembroke, Route 1 Expiring April, 1953 

North Carolina College at Durham — General Statutes 116-99 

Dr. R. L. Flowers, Durham Expiring May, 1953 

Robert M. Gantt, Durham Expiring May, 1953 

Bascom Baynes, Durham Expiring May, 1953 



54 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

C. C. Spaulding, Durham Expiring May, 1953 

Malcolm McLeod, Sanford Expiring May, 1953 

Walter Jones, Jr., Rockingham Expiring May, 1953 

Dr. J. M. Hubbard, Durham Expiring May, 1953 

Dr. Robert M. Hendrick, Asheville Expiring May, 1953 

Mrs. Lillie Braxton Dean, Louisburg Expiring May, 1953 

B. I. Satterfield, Timberlake Expiring May, 1953 

Spencer Murphy, Salisbury Expiring May, 1953 

Fred A. Smith, Zebulon Expiring May, 1953 

Western Carolina Teachers College — General Statutes 116-46 

Mrs. Jerry Davidson, Murphy Expiring May, 1953 

Lee Penland, Hayesville Expiring May, 1953 

Arnold Hyde, Robbinsville Expiring May, 1953 

Frank Weaver, Asheville Expiring May, 1953 

Mrs. Charles E. Ray, Waynesville Expiring May, 1953 

W. H. Crawford, Sylva Expiring May, 1953 

E. J. Whitmire, Franklin Expiring May, 1953 

Ralph Brimley, Winston-Salem Expiring May, 1953 

William Martin, Bryson City Expiring May, 1953 

Winston-Salem Teachers College for Negroes — General Statutes 116-103 

Winfield Blackwell, Winston-Salem Expiring June, 1953 

Burke Wilson, Rural Hall Expiring June, 1953 

Curtis Todd, Winston-Salem Expiring June, 1953 

T. £. Story, Wilkesboro Expiring June, 1953 

Clark S. Brown, Winston-Salem Expiring June, 1953 

G. Y. Tucker, Winston-Salem Expiring June, 1953 

Harmon Linville, Winston-Salem (or Kernersville) Expiring June, 1953 

O. Arthur Kirkman, High Point Expiring June, 1953 

Dr. Rufus S. Hairston, Winston-Salem Expiring June, 1953 

Sanatoriums for Treatment of Tuberculosis — General Statutes 131-62 

Hardy Talton, Pikeville Expiring April, 1955 

Carl C. Scott, Newland Expiring April, 1955 

J. Elmer Long, Durham Expiring April, 1955 

Mrs. Sadie L. McCain, Southern Pines Expiring April, 1955 

A. E. Gibson, Wilmington Expiring April, 1951 

State Board of Correction and Training — General Statutes 134-90 

Miss Pearl Thompson, Salisbury Expiring July, 1955 

Jesse C. Fisher, Concord Expiring July, 1955 

Joseph W. Nordan, Raleigh Expiring July, 1955 



BUDGET REPORT 

Special Message 

January 8, 1951 

Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, and Members of the General Assembly: 

Last week in my biennial message, I reviewed the remarkable 
progress North Carolina has made. I urged that while we consoli- 



Messages to the General Assembly 55 

date our gains, we also insure the continuation of our progress to the 
best of our ability under existing conditions. 

At the time that I presented the "Go Forward" program to the 
General Assembly of 1949, of which many of you were members, we 
looked forward to a future that promised peace. All of us are aware of 
the terrible truth that I appear before you tonight under vastly differ- 
ent circumstances. Our state and our nation face the gravest emer- 
gency that has ever confronted us. This Legislature and this ad- 
ministration face challenges as great, if not greater, than any in the 
past. 

The one thing that we can be sure of in this dark hour is that 
everything we do must be first in the interest of our preservation as 
a people and as a democratic nation. 

Anything else — everything else — is secondary. 
It is my belief that this is no time for new borrowing, or for new 
forms of taxes. It is also my earnest belief that neither should we 
jeopardize our future by permitting our services to deteriorate. 

I believe, further, that by working together we can balance the 
budget not alone in dollars, but also in terms of the people's needs. 
The times call for the most critical examination of our services and 
our resources. I believe we can consolidate our gains without halting 
our progress. 

In the first half of this century, North Carolina moved up from 
near the bottom rank among the states of the American union to a 
position of leadership among the states of the southeast. During 
each of these years, in which we made investments in North Carolina 
in the form of better schools, better roads, better hospitals, and better 
public services of all kinds, we have been richly repaid with increasing 
dividends. 

In the last decade alone, the population of our state increased 
nearly half a million. It is now more than four million and ranks tenth 
among the states. During the same ten years the value of our manu- 
factured products was soaring from less than a billion and a half to 
more than four billion a year. Our farm income more than tripled, 
and our tangible tax values increased from about $2,500,000,000 to 
more than $4,000,000,000 in the same period. 

It is worth-while noting now, as we approach the task of balancing 
the budget for the biennium ahead, that our productivity is growing 
at the highest rate in our history. The money we have invested in 
public services should produce tax dividends at a rate we would not 
have dared dream of a decade ago. During the last year alone, manu- 



56 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

facturing industry selected our state for building new factories costing 
over $100,000,000. These new factories will employ about 10,000 
workers and add around $25,000,000 a year to our industrial pay 
rolls. In addition to this, major expansions are being made by busi- 
nesses already located in the state. Our non-agricultural work force 
is at the highest point in its history — approaching a million men 
and women. Agriculture, with the exception of our cotton farmers, 
is generally prosperous. Business as a whole in North Carolina is 
at an all-time peak. 

Our population continues to expand. I believe the estimate I 
made in my biennial message, that we would be a state of eight mil- 
lion persons by 1980, is conservative. 

Our record for the half century proves that any investment we 
are able to make in the future of North Carolina is a good investment. 

With that thought foremost, let us consider the budget for the 
biennium beginning July 1, 1951, which I am submitting to you 
tonight in compliance with the executive budget act. At the same 
time, the budget maintenance appropriation bill and the budget 
revenue bills are being transmitted. 

In this new budget, operation of our public schools alone calls 
for nearly $185,000,000, but this does not include bringing teachers' 
salaries up to the $2,200 — $3,100 scale as is being accomplished in 
this biennium on a contingency basis. To establish teachers' salaries 
at this level on the basis of present teacher load would require ad- 
ditional amounts' estimated at $8,058,381 for the first year of the 
new biennium, and $9,563,276 for the second — or a total of $17,621,- 
657. I regard it as imperative that we bring our teachers' pay scale 
up to at least the $2,200 — $3,100 bracket without attaching con- 
tingency appropriation strings to it. 

This budget appropriations bill does not provide for salary in- 
crements for state employees, other than school teachers, paid from 
the general fund. This would require an estimated $641,423 for the 
first year and $1,304,162 for the second year of the biennium, or a 
total of $1,945,545. I consider this vitally important to the success 
of the personnel plan instituted this biennium. Provision for such 
increments is already included in the highway budget. 

Neither does the budget appropriations bill make provision for 
carrying on the Medical Care Commission hospital building pro- 
gram, which is scheduled for completion in this biennium, but will 
leave the people in at least 17 counties without proper hospital fa- 
cilities. Two previous administrations, as well as this one, are com- 



Messages to the General Assembly 57 

mitted to rounding out this medical care program. It is estimated 
that at least $6,419,042 will be required to carry this work forward 
during the next biennium. 

There is no provision for civil defense since estimates of require- 
ments could not be assembled in time for presentation to the Ad- 
visory Budget Commission; but these requests, I am informed, will 
be made in a special bill calling for a minimum of $200,000. 

Also, no appropriation is made for additional field auditors and 
deputy collectors in the Revenue Department. The last Legislature 
saw the need for increasing this staff and authorized additional men. 
In the last two years, the addition of 90 field auditors and deputy 
collectors has resulted in collection of tax monies at a rate of 
nearly $18 for every dollar the additional personnel cost the state. 
The Commissioner of Revenue is asking for additional auditors, and 
I recommend that his staff be increased in accordance with reasonable 
possibilities for improving tax collection. 

Neither is there provision in the budget for permanent improve- 
ments. In the program authorized for this biennium, $80,000,000 
worth of building is now under contract or completed, leaving $44,- 
000,000 to go. With building costs already up an average of 30 per 
cent, it is obvious that a deficiency appropriation will be required 
to complete this program. While it would take in excess of $15 000- 
000 to complete the job as planned, I believe we can depend upon 
the Budget Bureau to make adjustments and consolidate projects so 
that $10,000,000 will do the job. 

In addition to making up the deficiency between original estimates 
and current building costs, which would permit finishing most es- 
sential permanent improvements already authorized, including con- 
struction of the tubercular hospital at Chapel Hill, I urge the 
members of this General Assembly to give serious consideration to 
appropriations for the following new permanent improvements- A 
primary classroom building at the School for the Deaf in Morganton 
to cost $358,000, a psychiatric wing to the new hospital at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina to cost $660,000, a diagnostic laboratory 
for the service of our growing poultry and livestock industries to be 
located at North Carolina State College to cost $400,000, and a spastic 
hospital wing at Durham to cost $30,000. 

It is the course of wisdom to keep public services current with 
clearly demonstrated needs. It is not good management to let back- 
logs jam up where they can be avoided - either in the just com- 



58 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

pensation of those who work for the state, or in necessary building 
for institutional, educational or administrative purposes. 

I have discussed our position growing out of the national emer- 
gency with business and financial leaders here in the state and in 
Washington and New York. I find generally at the top rank belief 
that we will have a defense or war economy for at least 10 years. 

I do not assume the role of a prophet, but I do feel in view of this 
probability of an extended period of abnormal conditions that we 
should commit ourselves to a reasonable amount of permanent im- 
provements each biennium. Waiting for lower prices is speculative. 
A consistent, year-by-year building program will not only better dis- 
charge the obligations of government to its taxpayers, but prove a 
stabilizing force in keeping our economy on an even keel. I realize, 
of course, that in time of national emergency, funds, materials, and 
labor may not be available for meeting specifications written far in 
advance; and I suggest that the governor and the Advisory Budget 
Commission be given more leeway to make such changes and trans- 
fers in permanent improvements appropriations as are necessary to 
avoid bottlenecks in carrying out the intent of the General Assembly. 

The approximate total of these things that I have itemized over 
and above those specified in the budget appropriations bill is $38,- 
000,000 for the biennium, which can be divided about equally into 
$19,000,000 new money needed for each year. That brings us face to 
face with the problem of how to raise the money. 

The Advisory Budget Commission requested the commissioner of 
revenue and the Tax Research Department to explore this field. The 
revenue commissioner's report is available in full form to all of you, 
and certain tax information assembled by the Tax Research Depart- 
ment is included in condensed form as an appendix to the budget. 

The revenue commissioner's report reveals, among other things, 
that the number of individual income tax returns increased 115,000 
last year, but that this brought the total to only 505,000 or roughly 
one-eighth of our population. This clearly reflects the need for fur- 
ther improvements in collection and checking methods, including 
comparison of state and federal returns, to stop leaks and increase 
appreciably the collection of taxes justly due the state. 

The survey also reveals that North Carolina is not getting the 
proportionate return on its sales tax that some of the other twenty- 
seven states levying this tax are receiving. The case of Tennessee is 
notable. With only a 2 per cent rate and a population only 80 per 
cent as large as ours, Tennessee in 1949 collected over a million dol- 



Messages to the General Assembly 59 

lars more than we did with a 3 per cent rate! Why such a large dif- 
ference? The answer is exemptions! 

Exemptions in our sales tax not only reduce yield, make administra- 
tion difficult for both merchants and the state, but foster gross inequities. 
An instance of this is the $15 ceiling placed on the sales tax on a single 
article. This operates to make the working man who buys a $500 
jalopy pay the full tax, whereas the millionaire who purchases a 
limousine for $5,000 is forgiven $135 in taxes he would pay if all were 
taxed alike. 

In the fiscal year of 1949-1950, a 3 per cent retail sales tax with- 
out exemption/s would have yielded approximately $66,000,000, 
whereas actual collections were only $39,513,140. For the same year, 
a 3 per cent retail sales tax with exemptions only for food for home 
consumption would have yielded $56,648,561, according to estimates 
of the Tax Research Department. 

Our 3 per cent sales tax with the food exemptions limited to 
basic food products, as was the case in the original version adopted 
by the Legislature oi 1933, would yield considerably more than that. 

All of these yields would have been larger during the current 
fiscal year, and with generally higher prices, could be expected to 
attain a higher level next year. 

The Tax Research and Revenue departments are prepared to 
work with you in revising the sales tax law to produce more revenue, 
and I recommend such revision as the principal source of additional 
revenue. 

I also recommend that you restore a fair tax upon motion picture 
theatres. The theatres persuaded the Legislature of 1943 that they 
faced great hardships as a result of World War II and got their gross 
receipts tax removed. The theatres were not affected as represented, 
but they are continuing to enjoy special tax privileges. The Tax Re- 
search Department estimates that a 3 per cent gross receipts tax would 
yield $537,074 a year after allowing for offsetting present license taxes. 
The department also estimates that a 10 per cent levy would yield 
$2,463,931 a year over present license taxes. This would not be a 
new form of taxation, but a restoration of a tax from which a business 
was excused because it claimed a hardship which did not materialize. 

As I have said, I do not favor entering new fields of taxation at 
this time, and I am not proposing them. 

Our revenue act needs certain administrative improvements. Rev- 
enue administration extends beyond the duty of collecting taxes. The 
commissioner of revenue is constantly conducting hearings to deter- 



60 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

mine tax liability. This experience has brought out ambiguities 
which need clarification not only to bring about better enforcement, 
but also to define more clearly the rights, as well as the liabilities, of 
taxpayers. The commissioner of revenue has compiled a number of 
administrative changes in the revenue act which will be presented 
to you. I commend these changes for your consideration on their 
merits. 

In the course of your deliberations you will receive reports from 
several study commissions. These reports will contain meritorious 
recommendations. Among them will be the proposal of the High- 
way Safety Committee, which has been approved by the Highway 
Commission, that 105 men be added to the State Highway Patrol 
for protecting our highways. Provision already is made for this in 
the budget. 

Another proposal deserving the most serious consideration will 
come from the State-Municipal Roads Commission with regard to 
construction and maintenance of city streets. As I said in my biennial 
message, should the Highway Commission be given this additional 
responsibility, it should be given additional funds. This would re- 
quire search for new revenue in the highway fund, about which 
there are suggestions in the commission's report. 

State taxes levied for the general fund and highway fund are 
for entirely different purposes, and it is of the greatest importance 
that we maintain the integrity of our separate funds. 

During the current biennium, the Budget Bureau has exercised 
such close supervision over expenditures that actual outgo will be 
nearly $5,000,000 less than appropriations. These savings have been 
achieved without loss of efficiency, and the people of our state may 
be assured that every safeguard is being exercised to ensure that they 
get value received for every tax dollar. 

There are further economies, consolidations and telescoping of 
projects that can be worked out to reduce somewhat the formidable 
chart of expenditures that confront you. You may count upon the 
complete cooperation of the Budget Bureau wherever this is possible. 

On the other hand, we are increasing our institutional patient 
care, and we must not overlook that this will require substantial ap- 
propriations for additional custodial care. 

It would be gratifyingly simple if tonight we could say with finality 
that $10,000,000 or $15,000,000 or even $30,000,000 additional revenue 
is needed to maintain the state sevices without loss of efficiency. But 
all of us realize we cannot reduce our budget problems to anything 



Messages to the General Assembly 61 

so simple at the beginning of this law-making session. Numerous 
proposals will be made to you for spending money and for raising 
taxes. Many arguments will be made to you why this and that should 
not be taxed. Some of these arguments will be compelling. All of 
them must be heard. 

One thing that we face with crystal clearness tonight, however, is 
that some additional monies will be needed to balance a budget for 
reasonable and necessary services. How much and from what source 
are the questions that will challenge the collective leadership and 
intelligence of this General Assembly in the days ahead more than 
any other problem. 

The task of balancing this budget is going to be a difficult one, 
but I know we are in agreement that the budget must be balanced. 
You will find me eager to work with you to achieve this end by any 
just and reasonable means. 

In essence, I am recommending these things: 

1. That we consolidate our gains upon a firm basis, but take care 
not to weaken the firm foundation we have built over the last half 
century by failure to provide for continuing essential services to meet 
constantly growing needs. 

2. That we authorize no new borrowing and no new forms of 
taxes, but that we obtain such additional revenue as is needed by 
removal of exemptions and favoritisms in our tax laws, and by the 
most equitable collection possible of all taxes justly due the state. 

The budget you are receiving tonight represents an enormous 
amount of work by the members of the Advisory Budget Commission. 
It is a good budget — and I earnestly hope that every member gives 
the report and recommendations of the commission the careful con- 
sideration that they deserve. It is only because the budget as sub- 
mitted does not cover fully the state services I believe to be essential 
that I am bringing these deficiencies to your attention with sugges- 
tions for financing them. 

In view of heavy federal tax increases for defense purposes, I re- 
peat that I do not believe North Carolina should enter new fields 
of taxation in the critical biennium ahead, or add a single dollar of 
taxes that is not absolutely necessary for maintaining the public 
services of a rapidly growing state. 

I am confident that the leadership represented in this law-making 
body will balance our revenues against necessary expenditures with- 
out undue hardship on anyone. 



62 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

To keep America strong, each o£ the forty-eight states must re- 
main strong. To keep North Carolina strong, we must meet squarely 
our responsibilities of educating our children and improving our 
health standards. We cannot neglect these responsibilities without 
retarding our people and our state. We cannot neglect them without 
lessening our contribution to the national security. 

North Carolina attained its leadership by daring advances in 
public service. Every such advance has paid handsome dividends. 
We simply cannot afford to choke off progress now because the pat- 
tern of the future is not certain. It never has been. Two years ago 
we based our estimates on the assumption that we faced a business 
recession that would reduce state revenues drastically. This did not 
materialize. This year we face baffling uncertainties, but we also 
face the certainty that North Carolina is growing both in people and 
productivity. 

Let us take counsel of courage in this time of fear. Let us keep 
our faces confidently to the future that beckons beyond the clouds 
of war. I have faith in North Carolina. I believe in North Carolina — 
I believe in it just as fervently as my friend and counsellor, Dr. 
Clarence Poe, who said, and I quote: 

I believe in North Carolina, in her limitless potentialities, in the glory of her 
destiny; I believe that whatever of good or beauty or nobleness men and women 
in any other land or era have achieved, we men and women of North Carolina 
today and tomorrow, in the providence of God, may ourselves achieve in tribute 
to the Commonwealth we love and serve. 

These ringing words were uttered in the forepart of the half 
century during which our state began its remarkable progress on 
the foundation of public education laid by that great governor and 
immortal North Carolinian, Charles Brantley Aycock, who was in- 
augurated fifty years ago next Monday. More and more, these words 
of Dr. Poe become the "Credo for North Carolinians"; and tonight 
I leave them with you as a challenge to the best that is within us 
as we prepare to resume our advance in full stride when peace and 
goodwill again reign upon this earth — as they surely will. 



Messages to the General Assembly 63 

DOMESTIC RELATIONS STUDY 
Special Message 
January 17, 1951 
Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, and Members of the General Assembly: 

I am herewith transmitting the report of the commission to study 
the domestic relations laws of North Carolina, appointed by me in 
accordance with joint resolution* No. 39 of the General Assembly of 
1949. ; 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES' 
RETIREMENT ACT 

Special Message 
January 17, 1951 
Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, and Members of the General Assembly: 

I am submitting herewith the report of the commission under a 
joint resolution^ of the 1949 General Assembly entitled: "A Joint 
Resolution to Provide for a Commission to Study the Law Establish- 
ing the Local Governmental Employees' Retirement System." 



STUDY OF THE CARE OF THE AGED 

Special Message 

January 17, 1951 
Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, and Members of the General Assembly: 

I am submitting herewith the report of the commission to study the 
problems relating to the care of the aged and the intellectually or 
physically handicapped in accordance with Chapter 3 121 of the 
Session Laws of 1949. 

^19€7^^'h^^ l £^^ m 'tS^ ^y. the General Assembly of 1 9 45 
laws pertaining to the wdfarebf Sren^h^?£ff ° f elat,ons - fo , r furth « study of any other 
This was Resolution C 3 6 in he tel P Sf t 7 fo/o UPO , laWS ^l in ? to guardianship, 
composed of the chairman of the board nfr,cr <: ^ ^ 49 l l } P rovlded for a commission 

ment System as ex oE chairman 1p ^ ° f £ - he J e t° her ? and State Employees' Retire 
Municipalities; one person aDDointed hv ,£ ™ app ? mted ^y.the North Carolina League oi 
Charlotte, one from GuXrd Tounrv oL LT'^'T of insurance; and one person from 
the governing author.^ o ? each Tn'i, m m ^«-„ G reenvllle - and °™ from Durham appointed by 
Government Employed Retirement Art Z " W * S *> J ** a thorough study of the Local 
as well as the bSXttrSTwftn t" £ *« deSZ* wW^ 7 M ZC ^ M bases of the law 
be made in the said act and to deterrrW Jh-hi S w h«her or not any amendments should 

larger benefits can be m"de to members of saTd ^ sv.tem LT ," u^™ ^ be perfected whereb y 
on a safe and sound actuarial bat™ Y d at the same tlme ma intain the system 

^tf^%[^!^'^ d ^^^^^^^oaio t the study of problems relat- 
1949, Session U w <^s%Ll?^^ 



64 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

PORTLAND CEMENT PLANT STUDY 
Special Message 

January 30, 1951 

Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, and Members of the General Assembly: 

I am submitting herewith a report of the commission under au- 
thority of H. B. 1 211, North Carolina General Assembly of 1949, cre- 
ated for the purpose "to study the advisability of establishing within 
the State Highway and Public Works Commission a Portland cement 
manufacturing plant and providing for the establishing of such a 
plant if the Governor and the Commission . . . find it to be to the best 
interest of the State to do so." 



LEGISLATION FOR BETTER ENFORCEMENT 

OF PROHIBITION LAWS 

Special Message 

March 27, 1951 

Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, and Members of the General Assembly: 

I have the honor of transmitting herewith to the members of 
your respective legislative bodies the report 2 of a special committee 
which has made a study of the enforcement of prohibition laws and 
has prepared accompanying legislation designed to effect better en- 
forcement of such laws in our state. 

This special committee was appointed by me at the request of 
North Carolina Law Enforcement Officers, who met here on October 
12, 1949, to discuss ways and means of combating the illicit liquor 
traffic in this state. Law enforcement officers from practically every 
section of North Carolina attended this meeting, which was called 
by me at the suggestion of law enforcement officers and other citizens 
interested in better enforcement of laws dealing with the illicit traffic 
in alcoholic beverages. 

The group unanimously adopted a resolution recommending that 
the governor appoint a committee from the various law enforcement 
agencies, state and local, and including competent laymen to study 
the law enforcement situation and to make appropriate recommenda- 
tions for legislation to be proposed to the 1951 General Assembly. 



'This law provided for a five-member commission appointed by the governor to confer with 
the Highway and Public Works Commission, the Department of Conservation and Development, 
and individual firms as to the needs and advantages of establishing a state-owned cement plant, 
'This message and report were referred to the Committee on Judiciary No. 1 in the Senate. 



Messages to the General Assembly 65 

This report I now transmit to the House and Senate at the re- 
quest of the special Committee to Recommend Legislation for the 
Better Enforcement of Prohibition Laws. Heading the committee as 
chairman is the Honorable Henry L. Stevens, Jr., of Warsaw, judge 
of Superior Court. It is my opinion that Judge Stevens and his fine 
committee have done an excellent job and that the accompanying 
bills designed to carry out their recommendations have considerable 
merit and deserve careful consideration by the honorable members of 
the North Carolina Senate and House. 

We all know that there is considerable sentiment among the 
best citizens of our state for more effective legislation to curb the 
illicit liquor traffic in North Carolina. This feeling is not confined 
to the so-called Drys in our state, but is shared by the so-called Wet 
element, which favors legal control of alcoholic beverages. In short, 
the finest elements of our citizenship are united in being extremely 
interested in the passage of legislation which will effectively tighten 
law enforcement as it pertains to the illicit traffic in alcoholic bever- 
ages. 

While the report and the proposed legislation were not prepared 
by the administration, I consider it my duty to state my emphatic be- 
lief in the merits of the bills and to give them my wholehearted sup- 
port as a North Carolinian interested in the general welfare of the 
state and its citizens. 

Therefore, it gives me pleasure to transmit to your honorable 
members, as requested by Judge Stevens and his splendid committee, 
this important and well-prepared report. I respectfully urge this 
General Assembly to give serious consideration both to the report and 
to the legislation proposed therein. 



KRESS FOUNDATION GIFT 

Special Message 

April 10, 1951 

To the Members of the General Assembly: 

In view of the rare opportunity now offered to the State of North 
Carolina, we respectfully invite your serious consideration of House 
Bill 1086, providing for acceptance of the Samuel H. Kress Founda- 
tion's gift of pictures to the North Carolina State Art Gallery. 



66 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Never in North Carolina's history has such an opportunity been 
ours. 

A million dollars of outstanding Italian Renaissance art is now 
ours, if we act favorably. No further appropriations are required; 
only the acceptance of art, in lieu of cash, as satisfying the conditions 
of the act of 1947, is necessary. 

This proposition permits North Carolina to receive not only a 
million dollars worth of Renaissance pictures, but cooperation with 
one of the wealthiest foundations in the world that will bring us 
through the years, without any cost to us, additional pictures and 
services of immense value. 

Such an offer is indeed rare. In our measured judgement, we 
simply cannot afford to reject it. In the one hundred and seventy- 
five years of our history, the state never has been able to establish a 
great art gallery; but it is now within our grasp. Any state of this 
union would not only welcome such an opportunity, but would also 
exert itself zealously to obtain it. Surely, it would be unwise for us 
now to fumble the ball. 

Mr. Kress assures us that the foundation proposes to make North 
Carolina the greatest art center in the southeast of the United States. 
The million dollar appropriation of the 1947 Legislature, that a 
North Carolina Commission will spend in selecting and acquiring 
masterpieces of the American, British, French, Spanish, Flemish, and 
Dutch schools, added to the Kress million dollar collection of Italian 
pictures, will make the North Carolina gallery unique in the South. 
Space now exists in the Art Society's gallery to house the art to be 
purchased with the 1947 appropriation. 

Such an appropriation is an investment in education — visual 
education, which not only will create a profound cultural apprecia- 
tion of art among all our people, but will also produce a lasting in- 
fluence upon their standards of values and spiritual life. School 
children will come by the tens of thousands every year to see these 
pictures. Those who are gifted may be trained to become great artists. 

The investment will be self-liquidating. Tourists, coming to 
visit our gallery, will reimburse this appropriation to North Caro- 
lina many times over a period of years. The ultimate cost to the 
state will be absolutely negligible. Commercial art, now approaching 
millions of dollars in value annually, would be highly stimulated 
and more productive to the state and its citizens. 

We earnestly request that no diversion of these funds be made to 
any project, however worthy. To destroy the constructive work of 



Messages to the General Assembly 67 

one state agency for the benefit of another is, in our opinion, a 
questionable method of attempting progress. 

We urge, therefore, that the members of this General Assembly 
weigh seriously the advantages of this offer to the people of North 
Carolina. When opportunity knocks, it should be heeded. This is 
North Carolina's greatest hour in the field of art. Not only do we 
acquire art treasures of priceless value for the enjoyment of our peo- 
ple, but a source of endless inspiration to our children. 

We approve House Bill 1086 and commend it to your favorable 
consideration subject to such amendments as the General Assembly 
may deem proper and expedient for the safeguarding of the funds. 

W. Kerr Scott, Governor. 

H. P. Taylor, Lieutenant Governor. 

W. Frank Taylor, Speaker, 
House of Representatives. 



APPOINTMENTS TO THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION 

Special Message 
April 13, 1951 
To the General Assembly of North Carolina: 

I have the honor to transmit herewith a list of appointments 1 to 
the State Board of Education, which are required to be forwarded to 
the General Assembly in joint session for confirmation. 

Dr. Roma S. Cheek, Durham — Term expiring April 1st, 1959 

Miss Margery Alexander, Charlotte — Term expiring April 1st, 1959 



APPOINTMENT OF COMMISSIONER OF BANKS 

Special Message 

April 14, 1951 

To the Honorable Senate of North Carolina: 

I have the honor to transmit herewith the name of W. W. Jones 
as Commissioner of Banks 2 for a term of four years, expiring April 1, 
1955, which appointment is required to be forwarded to the Senate 
for confirmation. 



^The joint session of the House and Senate which had met to vote on trustees for the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina voted to approve the report of the committee on trustees of the Greater 
University of North Carolina. The next item for the consideration of the joint session was the 
above appointments, the record reads, "On motion of Mr. Bost, the Joint Session dissolves. The 
Senate returns to its Chamber and the House resumes consideration of its business." Journal of 
the House of Representatives of the General Assembly of North Carolina. Session 1951, 984. 
a Appointment was approved April 14, 1951. Senate Journal, 1951. 664. 



- 



PROCLAMATIONS 



ROAD AND SCHOOL BONDS 

Executive Department 

Raleigh 

A Proclamation by the Governor 

April 27, 1949 

Under and by virtue of the power and authority imposed by 
chapter 1250 of the Session Laws of the General Assembly of 1949 en- 
titled, "An act to authorize the issuance of $200,000,000 of bonds of 
the state to provide for the construction of secondary roads, subject 
to a vote of the people of the state," and chapter 1020 of the said 
Sessions Laws entitled, "An act to settle a long-standing debt owed by 
the state to the counties of the state by appropriating funds to aid 
in the construction and repair of school plant facilities," I, the under- 
signed, W. Kerr Scott, governor of the State of North Carolina, do 
hereby fix Saturday, June 4, 1949, as the time for the holding of the 
election in accordance with the general election laws of the State of 
North Carolina as to the issuance of the two hundred million dol- 
lars ($200,000,000) State of North Carolina secondary road bonds 
referred to in the above-mentioned act known as the Secondary 
Road Bond Act of 1949 and of the twenty-five million dollars ($25,- 
000,000) of bonds known as the State of North Carolina School Plant 
Construction Bonds. 

I do hereby call upon the State Board of Elections, the County 
Boards of Election in the several counties of the State of North Caro- 
lina and all other duly constituted election officials to proceed to hold 
the said election on the date so fixed in accordance with the said 
acts of the General Assembly. 

Done at Raleigh, in the county of Wake, this the twenty- 
[seal] seventh day of April, 1949. 

W. Kerr Scott, Governor. 
By the Governor: 
Charles J. Parker, Private Secretary. 



72 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

BANKING HOLIDAY 

Executive Department 

Raleigh 

A Proclamation by the Governor 

November 30, 1949 

Whereas, December 25, 1949, Christmas Day, a state and national 
holiday, falls on Sunday; and 

Whereas, by general consent, many businesses will enjoy Monday, 
December 26, 1949, as a holiday; and 

Whereas, a request has been made by representatives of the bank- 
ing interests of the state that Tuesday, December 27, 1949, be de- 
clared a banking holiday, 

Now, therefore, I, W. Kerr Scott, governor of North Carolina, by 
and with the advice and consent of the Council of State, under and by 
virtue of authority of Section 53-77 of the General Statutes of North 
Carolina, do hereby designate Tuesday, December 27, 1949, as a 
banking holiday. During such period of holiday, all of the ordinary 
and usual operations and business of all banking corporations, state 
and national, in this state, shall be suspended, and during such pe- 
riod no banking corporation shall pay out or receive deposits, make 
loans or discounts, transfer credits, or transact any other banking 
business whatsoever except such acts as are authorized by the afore- 
said law. 

Done at our capital city of Raleigh, this thirtieth day 
of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine 
[seal] hundred and forty-nine, and in the one hundred and 

seventy-fourth year of our American Independence. 

_ , _ W. Kerr Scott, Governor. 

By the Governor: 

John Marshall, Private Secretary. 



SPECIAL REGISTRATION OF MEDICAL, DENTAL, 

AND ALLIED SPECIALISTS CATEGORIES 

Executive Department 

Raleigh 

A Proclamation by the Governor 
October 10, 1950 

Whereas, the act of September 9, 1950, Public Law, 779, Eighty- 
first Congress, amending the Selective Service Act of 1948, empowers 



Proclamations 73 

the President of the United States to designate the times and places 
for the special registration of certain medical, dental, and allied spe- 
cialist categories; and 

Whereas, the President of the United States, by proclamation 
dated October 6, 1950, has called for the special registration of the 
persons hereinafter designated, to-wit: 

Every male person who participated as a student in the Army specialized 
training program or any similar program administered by the Navy, or was de- 
ferred from service during World War II for the purpose of pursuing a course 
of instruction leading to education in a medical, dental, or allied specialist cate- 
gory, and has had less than twenty-one months of active duty in the Army, the 
Air Force, the Navy, the Marine Corps, the Coast Guard, or the Public Health 
Service subsequent to the completion of, or release from, such program or course 
of instruction (exclusive of time spent in postgraduate training), and who, on 
the day or any of the days hereinafter fixed for his registration — 

(a) shall have received from any school, college, university or similar institu- 
tion of learning one or more of the degrees of bachelor of medicine, 
doctor of medicine, doctor of dental surgery, doctor of medical dentistry, 
doctor of veterinary surgery, and doctor of veterinary medicine, 

(b) is within any of the several states of the United States, the District of 
Columbia, the Territory of Alaska, the Territory of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, 
or the Virgin Islands, 

(c) is not a member of any reserve component of the armed forces of the 
United States, and 

(d) shall not have attained the fiftieth anniversary of the day of his birth; and 

Whereas, the President in said proclamation has called upon the 
governor of the State of North Carolina to do and perform all acts 
and services necessary to accomplish the effective and complete regi- 
stration in this state; 

Now, therefore, I, W. Kerr Scott, governor of the State of North 
Carolina, in response to the call made upon me in the proclamation 
of the President of the United States, and by virtue of the power vested 
in me as governor of the State of North Carolina, do proclaim the 
following: 

1. That any male person residing in North Carolina who is required to 
submit to registration, as hereinabove set forth, shall, on the day or any of those 
days designated below, between the hours of 8:00 A.M. and 5:00 P.M., present 
himself for and submit to registration before a duly designated registration 
official or Selective Service local board having jurisdiction in the area in which 
he has his permanent home or in which he may happen to be on that day or 
any of those days: 

(a) Persons who shall have received any of the degrees above referred to on 
or before October 16, 1950, shall be registered on Monday, the 16th day 
of October, 1950. 

(b) Persons who receive any of the degrees above referred to after October 
16, 1950, shall be registered on the day they receive any such degree, or 
within five days thereafter. 

(c) Persons who shall have received any of the degrees above referred to and 
who enter any of the several states of the United States, the District of 



74 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Columbia, the Territory of Alaska, the Territory of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, 
or the Virgin Islands after October 16, 1950, shall be registered on the 
day of such entrance or within five days thereafter. 

2. That a person subject to this special registration who, because of circum- 
stances beyond his control, is unable to present himself for and submit to regis- 
tration during the hours of the day or any of the days fixed for registration, shall 
do so as soon as possible after the cause for such inability ceases to exist. 

3. That every person subject to registration pursuant to this proclamation, 
who has heretofore registered in accordance with Presidential Proclamation No. 
2799 of July 20, 1948, issued under the Selective Service Act of 1948, as amended, 
and the regulations thereunder, shall present himself for and submit to registra- 
tion as required by this proclamation, notwithstanding such prior registration; 
and that the duty of any person to present himself for and submit to registra- 
tion in accordance with Presidential Proclamation No. 2799 of July 20, 1948, 
issued under the Selective Service Act of 1948, as amended, and the regulations 
prescribed thereunder shall not be affected by this proclamation. 

4. That every person subject to registration under this proclamation is re- 
quired to familiarize himself with the rules and regulations governing such 
registration and to comply therewith; and that severe penalties are provided in 
the Selective Service Act of 1948, as amended, for those who neglect or refuse 
to register. 

5. That the several Selective Service local boards of North Carolina are hereby 
charged with the responsibility of conducting this registration in their respective 
areas; and they are hereby directed to provide the necessary facilities for the 
registration of the men required to register pursuant to the Proclamation of the 
President of the United States dated October 6, 1950. 

In order that there may be full cooperation in carrying into effect 
the purposes of the act of September 9, 1950, Public Law 779, Eighty- 
first Congress, I urge all employers and government agencies of all 
kinds — federal, state, and local — to give those under their charge 
sufficient time in which to fulfill the obligations of registration in- 
cumbent upon them under said act and proclamation. 

In witness whereof, I, W. Kerr Scott, governor of North 
Carolina, have hereunto set my hand and caused the 
Great Seal of the state to be affixed, in the city of Raleigh, 

[seal] North Carolina, this the tenth day of October, 1950, in 

the one hundred and seventy-fifth year of our American 
independence. 

W. Kerr Scott, Governor. 

By the Governor: 

John Marshall, Private Secretary. 



Proclamations 75 

THANKSGIVING DAY 

Executive Department 
Raleigh 

A Proclamation by the Governor 

November 19, 1950 

The observance of a national Thanksgiving Day is uniquely an 
American custom and is rooted in the heritage of our republic. This 
country was settled by God-fearing and God-worshipping people 
who at the harvest season gave God thanks for the fruits of their 
own labors because they knew that human effort without divine 
approval and divine aid comes to naught. The descendants of these 
settlers have followed the same example set by their forefathers by 
designating a day of thanksgiving in recognition of the same truth; 
a truth which our nation's history has strengthened and confirmed. 

While men ought every day of the year to give thanks to God for 
His manifold blessings, it is right and proper that one particular day 
be officially proclaimed and set aside for that purpose. It serves to 
focus attention upon our collective blessings, which surpass the sum 
total of those blessings individuals receive. This year the President 
of the United States, following the established practice of his prede- 
cessors, has proclaimed November 23 as Thanksgiving Day and has 
called upon the people of the United States to observe it as such. 

There is much this year for which our nation and our state 
should give thanks. True it is that we are living in a perilous era 
of world history and a time of national crisis. We are even now 
engaged in a limited war which may develop into another catastro- 
phic global conflict. And there are serious internal conflicts and 
domestic problems which harass us. Nevertheless, we are enjoying 
an abundant domestic prospertiy and an expanding world prestige. 

Let us not forget that our young people on the fields of battle 
need our prayers as well as the materials of war. Torn away from 
their families and loved ones, our men and women in uniform need 
the armor of religion and an inner spiritual security. Our religion 
and their religion, regardless of faith or denomination, and our de- 
mocracy are strong and can never be destroyed except by the dry rot 
of neglect and indifference. 

Therefore, I, W. Kerr Scott, governor of North Carolina, do call 
upon the people of this state to heed the proclamation of our Presi- 
dent and to join with the people of our sister states and all our 
territories in observing November 23 as Thanksgiving Day, and I 



76 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

do hereby proclaim November 23 as a legal holiday in North Carolina 
and a day of general thanksgiving. 

In witness whereof, I, W. Kerr Scott, governor of North Carolina, 
have signed and caused the Great Seal to be affixed hereto, in our 
city of Raleigh, this seventeenth day of November, in the year of 
our Lord one thousand nine hundred and fifty, and in the one hun- 
dred and seventy-fifth year of American independence. 

W. Kerr Scott, Governor. 
[seal] 

By the Governor: 
John Marshall, Private Secretary. 



REWARD FOR MURDER 

Executive Department 
Raleigh 

A Proclamation by the Governor 
August 7, 1951 

Whereas, on the 14th day of May, 1951, Mrs. Dorothy J. Maxwell 
of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, was brutally murdered 
while asleep in her home on Route 9, Peachtree Road, near Charlotte, 
North Carolina; and 

Whereas, after diligent and thorough investigation by state and 
local officers of this most infamous and brutal killing, the name and 
identity of the perpetrator of this crime has not been satisfactorily 
determined; and 

Whereas, the chairman and Board of County Commissioners of 
Mecklenburg County have requested the governor to issue his pro- 
clamation and offer a reward to be paid to the person who shall ap- 
prehend the perpetrator of this crime: 

Now, therefore, I, W. Kerr Scott, governor of North Carolina, 
under and by virtue of the authority contained in General Statutes 
15-53, do hereby offer a reward of four hundred dollars ($400.00) 
to be paid to the person who shall apprehend or who shall furnish 
information leading to the arrest and conviction of the party or 
parties guilty of the murder herein referred to. 



Proclamations 77 

The reward herein offered does not extend to any peace officers 
of the state or any of its political subdivisions. 

Done at our capital city of Raleigh, this the seventh day 
of August, in the year of our Lord, one thousand nine 
[seal] hundred and fifty-one. 

W. Kerr Scott, Governor. 
By the Governor: 
John Marshall, Private Secretary. 



SERVICE IN THE NATIONAL GUARD 

Executive Department 

Raleigh 

A Proclamation by the Governor 
October 29, 1951 

Whereas, Public Law 759 of the 80th Congress, also known as 
the Selective Service Act of 1948, as amended by Public Law 51, 82nd 
Congress, known as the Universal Military Training Act, provides in 
Sec. 6 (c) (2) A, that in any case in which the governor of any state de- 
termines and issues a proclamation to the effect that the authorized 
strength of any organized unit of the National Guard cannot be 
maintained by enlistment or appointment of persons who are not 
liable for training and service under such act, or any persons who 
served honorably on active duty between September 16, 1940, and 
June 24, 1948, for a period of ninety days or more but less than 
twelve months in the Army, the Air Force, the Navy, the Marine 
Corps, the Coast Guard, the Public Health Service, or the armed 
forces of any country allied with the United States in World War II 
prior to September 2, 1945, any person, who prior to attaining the 
age of 18 years and six months, and prior to the issuance of orders 
for him to report for induction, enlists or accepts appointment in 
any such organized unit shall be deferred from training and service 
under this act so long as he continues to serve satisfactorily as a 
member of such organized unit; and 

Whereas, I have determined that the authorized strength of certain 
organized units of the North Carolina National Guard cannot be 
maintained by the enlistment or appointment of persons in the 
categories referred to above: 



78 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Now, therefore, I, W. Kerr Scott, governor of North Carolina, 
in accordance with Public Law 759, 80th Congress, as amended by 
Public Law 51, 82nd Congress, and by virtue of the authority vested 
in me as governor of the State of North Carolina, in order that the 
North Carolina National Guard may discharge its responsibility to 
the security of the nation, do hereby proclaim that the authorized 
strength of certain organized units of the North Carolina National 
Guard cannot be maintained through the enlistment or appointment 
of persons referred to in Sec. 6 (c) (2) A. 

And I hereby direct the adjutant general of North Carolina to 
maintain a current list of those organized units of the North Carolina 
National Guard which have not reached or cannot be maintained at 
their authorized strengths as designated from time to time by the 
adjutant general under my direction. 

I also invite young men from the age of seventeen to eighteen 
years and six months to enlist in those organized units of the North 
Carolina National Guard which are not at authorized strength and 
thus meet their obligation of service to their country while at the 
same time they continue their education or employment. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Great Seal of the State of North Carolina to 
[seal] be affixed, this twenty-ninth day of October, in the year 

of our Lord, one thousand nine hundred and fifty-one. 

W. Kerr Scott, Governor. 
By the Governor: 
John Marshall, Private Secretary. 



THANKSGIVING DAY 

Executive Department 
Raleigh 

A Proclamation by the Governor 
November 22, 1951 

Whereas, the President of the United States, in accordance with 
custom deeply rooted in the American traditions and ideals, has pro- 
claimed November 22, as a day of national thanksgiving and has 
called upon the people of this republic to give thanks on that day 
to Almighty God for His manifold blessings: 

Now, therefore, I, W. Kerr Scott, governor of the State of North 
Carolina, do hereby join with the President of the United States in 
proclaiming November 22, as Thanksgiving Day and urge the people 



Proclamations 79 

of this state to join those of our sister states in expressing gratitude 
to the Heavenly Father for all His beneficences. 

As individuals, 

Let us give thanks for food, raiment, and shelter. 

Let us give thanks for friends, and loved ones, and family ties. 

Let us give thanks for toil and its reward; for rest, and play, and 
all that makes for rich and abundant living. 

Let us give thanks for hopes and dreams and everything which 
inspires and encourages us to strive for right and to resist the wrong. 

Let us give thanks for the opportunities which come to us to 
serve our fellow men and to make some contribution to the better- 
ment of mankind and the advancement of the Kingdom of God on 
earth. 

As a people, 

Let us give thanks for a goodly land in which to live. 

Let us give thanks for the harvests of our fields, the natural re- 
sources of our country and the products of our manufacturing plants. 

Let us gi\e thanks for a noble heritage transmitted to us by fore- 
fathers who opened up this country and developed it, established our 
democracy and nourished it. 

Let us give thanks for our present-day opportunity to defend, pro- 
tect, and expand what has been handed down to us that we may in 
turn transmit to our own posterity an even nobler heritage, and also 
that we may be able to share our blessings with the peoples of all 
the earth. 

Let us give thanks for the Christian religion and all that it teaches 
us about the goodness and the love of God; for the daily strength it 
gives us and the comfort it offers us in times of sorrow; for the abiding 
faith, hope, and love it keeps alive whde all else changes in the flood 
of time. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the Great Seal of the State of North Carolina to be 
[seal] affixed at Raleigh this twentieth day of November in the 

year of our Lord, one thousand nine hundred and fifty- 
one and in the one hundred and seventy-sixth year of 
American Independence. 

W. Kerr Scott, Governor. 
By the Governor: 
John Marshall, Private Secretary. 



80 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

BANKING HOLIDAY 

Executive Department 
Raleigh 

A Proclamation by the Governor 
December 3, 1951 

Whereas, December 25, 1951, Christmas Day, a state and national 
holiday, falls on Tuesday; and 

Whereas, by general consent, many businesses will enjoy Wednes- 
day, December 26, 1951, as a holiday; and 

Whereas, a request has been made by representatives of the bank- 
ing interests of the state that Wednesday, December 26, 1951, be de- 
clared a banking holiday, 

Now, therefore, I, W. Kerr Scott, governor of North Carolina, by 
and with the advice and consent of the Council of State, under and 
by virtue of authority of Section 53-77 of the General Statutes of 
North Carolina, do hereby designate Wednesday, December 26, 1951, 
as a banking holiday. During such period of holiday, all of the 
ordinary and usual operations and business of all banking corpora- 
tions, state or national, in this state, shall be suspended, and during 
such period no banking corporation shall pay out or receive deposits, 
make loans or discounts, transfer credits, or transact any other banking 
business whatsoever except such acts as are authorized by the afore- 
said law. 

Done at our capital city of Raleigh, this third day of 
December, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine 
[seal] hundred and fifty-one, and in the one hundred and 

seventy-sixth year of our American Independence. 

W. Kerr Scott, Governor. 
By the Governor: 
John Marshall, Private Secretary. 



REWARD FOR MURDER 

Executive Department 

Raleigh 

A Proclamation by the Governor 
January 3, 1952 

Whereas, at 8:10 A. M. on the thirty-first day of December, 1951, 
William Homer Cochrane, Jr., of Surry County North Carolina, was 



Proclamations 81 

brutally murdered while he was attempting to start his truck in the 
performance of his duties as a vocational agriculture teacher and an 
instructor in the program of G. I. training in his county; and 

Whereas, this young man had dedicated his life to the work of 
training young men and young women in vocational education and 
during the course of his work in this capacity had attained unbounded 
success and had also gained the confidence, respect, and unbounded 
affection of the young men and women with whom he became as- 
sociated; and 

Whereas, after diligent and thorough investigation by state and 
local officers of this most infamous and brutal killing, the name and 
identity of the perpetrator of this crime has not been satisfactorily 
determined; and 

Whereas, the mayor and Board of Commissioners of the town of 
Mount Airy have requested the governor to issue his proclamation 
and offer a reward to be paid to the person who shall apprehend the 
perpetrator of this crime, 

Now, therefore, I, W. Kerr Scott, governor of North Carolina, 
under and by virtue of the authority contained in General Statutes 
15-53, do hereby offer a reward of four hundred ($400.00) to be paid 
to the person who shall apprehend or who shall furnish information 
leading to the arrest and conviction of the party or parties guilty of 
the murder herein referred to. 

The reward herein offered does not extend to any peace officers 
of the state or any of its political subdivisions. 

Done at our capital city of Raleigh this the third day of 
[seal] January, in the year of our Lord, one thousand nine 

hundred and fifty-two. 

W. Kerr Scott, Governor. 
By the Governor: 
John Marshall, Private Secretary. 



IMPORTATION OF FOREIGN BONE MEAL 

Executive Department 
Raleigh 
A Proclamation by the Governor 

June 19, 1952 

Whereas, anthrax, a contagious and infectious disease of domestic 
animals is widespread throughout certain sections of middle western 
states; and 



82 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Whereas, the disease known as anthrax is known to affect man 
and most classes of livestock, including cattle, sheep, swine, horses, 
and mules; and 

Whereas, evidence at hand shows that the recent anthrax outbreak 
in the several states originated from imported foreign bone meal; and 

Whereas, bone meal contaminated with anthrax organism and 
used in agricultural fertilizers would contaminate the soil; and 

Whereas, there is no known method of sterilizing soil contamin- 
ated with anthrax organisms; and 

Whereas, it is recognized that negative laboratory tests of samples 
taken from portions of bone meal are questionable for reliably estab- 
lishing the absence of viable anthrax spores in an entire lot so 
sampled and tested; and 

Whereas, this whole problem is primarily one of disease control 
yet it is of such magnitude it can be successfully met only by con- 
certed action; 

Now, therefore, I, W. Kerr Scott, governor of North Carolina, 
under and by virtue of the authority contained in General Statutes 
106-304, 305, 306, do hereby authorize the commissioner of agricul- 
ture to make rules and regulations forbidding the movement into or 
within the State of North Carolina of bone products intended for 
use as animal feedstuffs, mineral feeds, fertilizers, or admixed with 
or to be admixed with other ingredients for such uses, unless such 
bone products have been processed in a manner rendering them free 
from viable anthrax spores. 

In addition to the above authorization, the commissioner of 
agriculture may provide rules and regulations prohibiting the im- 
portation of animal by-products that originate in foreign countries 
intended for use as animal feedstuffs, mineral feeds, fertilizers, or 
admixed with or to be admixed with other ingredients for such uses, 
unless such animal by-products have been processed in a manner 
rendering them free from viable anthrax spores. 

W. Kerr Scott, Governor. 
[seal] 

By the Governor: 
John Marshall, Private Secretary. 



Proclamations 83 

CONTROLLING THE MOVEMENT OF SWINE 

Executive Department 

Raleigh 

A Proclamation by the Governor 

August 1, 1952 

Whereas, vesicular exanthema, a highly infectious and contagious 
virus disease of swine has developed into a serious threat to the swine 
industry of the United States and in spite of the fact that the United 
States Bureau of Animal Industry and the state livestock control 
agencies in the states where vesicular exanthema was first diagnosed 
were in full cooperation in trying to control this disease, it has spread 
to sixteen or more states since June 17, 1952, and 

Whereas, this disease manifests itself in swine twenty-four to 
seventy-two hours after exposure, the present inspection of swine be- 
fore being shipped is not adequate to protect the states of destina- 
tion. Some swine that were inspected and found free of disease at 
shipping points revealed lesions upon arrival at destination twenty- 
four to forty-eight hours later, and, 

Whereas, since all states adjoining the State of North Carolina 
have placed an embargo restricting the movement of swine into those 
states, North Carolina must adopt similar embargoes and regula- 
tions to protect the swine industry, and 

Whereas, the clinical symptoms of vesicular exanthema are the 
same as foot and mouth disease of swine, the Secretary of Agriculture 
of the United States has issued a federal quarantine order in coopera- 
tion with the livestock sanitary officials of each state for the purpose 
of the control and eradication of this disease. 

Now, therefore, I, W. Kerr Scott, governor of North Carolina, 
under and by virtue of the authority contained in General Statutes 
106-304-305-306, do hereby authorize the commissioner of agriculture 
to make rules and regulations either forbidding or controlling the 
movement of swine into or within the State of North Carolina. 
In addition to the above authorization, the commissioner of agri- 
culture may provide rules and regulations forbidding or controlling 
the movement of pork, pork products, raw garbage, swine fed on raw 
garbage and establish quarantine areas necessary to protect the swine 
industry of North Carolina. The commissioner of agriculture is 



84 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

authorized to make changes in these regulations from time to time, 

depending on the increase or decrease of the spread of the disease. 

r , W. Kerr Scott, Governor. 

[seal] 

By the Governor: 

Ben E. Roney, Private Secretary. 



THANKSGIVING DAY 

Executive Department 

Raleigh 

A Proclamation by the Governor 
November 21, 1952 

It is one of the best-loved traditions of Americans that we set 
aside each year in November one day in which we pause in our 
labors and return thanks to Almighty God for all the blessings be- 
stowed upon us. We hold the conviction, as did our forefathers who 
instituted Thanksgiving Day, that the Creator is the one true source 
of the good and abundant life. 

This year of 1952, finds us with many reasons to turn again to 
God with humble and sincere gratitude. We live in a free land, the 
greatest nation in the world — founded, preserved, and held by us in 
the strength of living faith in the Almighty. 

In these uncertain, strife-torn days, Thanksgiving Day calls on us 
to reaffirm our dependence upon the spiritual values by which we 
have gained strength as a state and a nation. Thanksgiving gives us 
a fresh awareness of the truth that only in religion can we find the 
inspiration and guidance we must have in our daily lives. 

Therefore, I, W. Kerr Scott, governor of North Carolina, do here- 
by proclaim November twenty-seventh a legal holiday in North 
Carolina and a day of general Thanksgiving, and I call upon all our 
people to observe die day as one of solemn and public thanksgiving 
to Almighty God for past blessings and of supplication for His con- 
tinued kindness and care over us. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused 
the Great Seal of the State of North Carolina to be affixed 
at Raleigh this twenty-first day of November in the year 
[seal] of our Lord, one thousand nine hundred and fifty-two and 

in the one hundred and seventy-seventh year of American 
Independence. 

t, . ^ W. Kerr Scott, Governor. 

By the Governor: 

Ben E. Roney, Private Secretary. 



Proclamations 85 

BANKING HOLIDAY 

Executive Department 
Raleigh 

A Proclamation by the Governor 
December 2, 1952 

Whereas, December 25, 1952, Christmas Day, a state and national 
holiday, falls on Thursday; and 

Whereas, a request has been made by representatives of the bank- 
ing interests of the State of North Carolina that Friday, December 
26, 1952, be declared a banking holiday; and 

Whereas, it is the opinion of the representatives of the banking 
interests that there will be very little banking transacted on that day, 
following Christmas Day, 

Now, therefore, I, W. Kerr Scott, governor of North Carolina, by 

and with the advice and consent of the Council of State, under and 

by virtue of authority of section 53-77 of the General Statutes of North 

Carolina, do hereby designate Friday, December 26, 1952, as a banking 

holiday. During such period of holiday, all of the ordinary and 

usual operations and business of all banking corporations, state or 

national, in this state, shall be suspended, and during such period no 

banking corporations shall pay out or receive deposits, make loans 

or discounts, transfer credits, or transact any other banking business 

whatsoever except such acts as are authorized by the aforesaid law. 

Done at our capital city of Raleigh, this second day of 

December, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine 

[seal] hundred and fifty-two, and in the one hundred and 

seventy-seventh year of our American Independence. 

W. Kerr Scott, Governor. 
By the Governor: 
Ben E. Roney, Private Secretary. 



PRESIDENTIAL ELECTORS 

Executive Department 
Raleigh 

A Proclamation by the Governor 
December 3, 1952 

Whereas, the State Board of Elections of the State of North Caro- 
lina has canvassed the returns of the votes cast for electors for Presi- 



86 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

dent and Vice President of the United States at the general elections 
held on November 4, 1952; and 

Whereas, said State Board of Elections has prepared and certified 
an abstract of same to the secretary of state of the State of North 
Carolina; and 

Whereas, said secretary of state has under his hand and the seal 
of his office, certified to the undersigned governor of the State of 
North Carolina the names of as many persons receiving the highest 
number of votes for electors of President and Vice President of the 
United States as the State of North Carolina is entitled to in the 
Electoral College: 

Now, therefore, I, W. Kerr Scott, governor of the State of North 
Carolina, pursuant to the power and authority vested in me by the 
provisions contained in the General Statutes of North Carolina, Sec- 
tion 163-110, do hereby proclaim that the following persons have 
been duly elected as electors for President and Vice President of the 
United States: 

Electors at Large 

W. T. Joyner, Sr. David McConnell 

Elector Congressional District 

Clarence Griffin First 

Luke Lamb Second 

Dr. John D. Robinson Third 

Samuel Tilden Honeycutt Fourth 

Mrs. W. O. Spencer Fifth 

S. E. Blaine Sixth 

Robert Weinstein Seventh 

W. A. Leland McKeithen Eighth 

Mrs. R. S. Ferguson Ninth 

Marvin T. Leatherman Tenth 

O. M. Mull Eleventh 

G. Oscar Pitts Twelfth 

and each of the electors above named are hereby warned to attend 
a meeting at the Capitol in the city of Raleigh, North Carolina, at 
noon, on the fifteenth day of December, 1952, for the purpose of 



Proclamations 87 

voting for the President and Vice President of the United States as 
required by law. 

Done at our capital city of Raleigh, this third day of 
December, in the year of our Lord, one thousand nine 

[seal] hundred and fifty-two, and in the one hundred seventy- 

seventh year of our American Independence. 

W. Kerr Scott, Governor. 

By the Governor: 

Ben E. Roney, Private Secretary. 



ADDRESSES 



NOT DIMES, BUT DOLLARS 

Address Delivered Over Radio Station WPTF 

Raleigh 

January 13, 1949 

Not dimes, in 1949, but dollars. Last year the polio problem was 
almost ten times worse than in previous years; we must be ten times 
more prepared. Hence the new slogan, "not dimes, but dollars," de- 
manded by the new crisis — the worst epidemic of infantile paralysis 
in the history of North Carolina. As of December 31, 1948, 2,509 
known cases of polio were reported to the State Board of Health. 
More than two million dollars were spent for hospital and medical 
care alone. The infantile paralysis problem in North Carolina has 
outgrown the dime. In our 1949 fund-raising campaign our theme 
must be "not dimes, but dollars!" 

There is no way to predict the time, the place, or the extent of 
a polio attack. There is no way to battle the crippler of children 
except by preparedness. Acting on that belief, the National Founda- 
tion for Infantile Paralysis has conducted a professional education 
program in better management of polio epidemics. Training centers 
have been set up to help put into practice the newest discoveries in 
the treatment of polio. All over the country local chapters have or- 
ganized citizens into groups for vital services during epidemics. 

It is the problem of funds that remains most acute. To give the 
polio patients the multiple treatment and extended service required, 
sorely taxes any community's resources, regardless of its size and 
wealth. The 1948 epidemic, with its alarming 2,509 cases, quickly ex- 
hausted the funds held by our one hundred county chapters. Calls 
for help were sent to national headquarters. The response was im- 
mediate. By the end of 1948, North Carolina chapters had received 
from national headquarters a total of $1,366,000 for medical and 
hospital care of our polio victims. From private individuals and 
clubs came nearly four thousand dollars. County chapters with 
surplus funds contributed over $80,000 to chapters in the counties 
hard hit by polio. 

Here are a few statistics about the 1949 epidemic in North 
Carolina: 

Highest number of cases in one week (July 31) 210 

Physical therapists recruited 81 

Nurses recruited 738 

Resident physicians supplied 38 

Epidemiologists provided 5 



92 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Respirators (iron lungs) 26 

Hot pack machines 80 

Pounds of hot pack material 2,448 

Beds 484 

Cribs 507 

Other pieces of hospital room furniture 1,006 

At the present time we have in our hospitals, chiefly in Monroe, 
Greensboro, and Asheville, 500 polio patients. Three new cases were 
hospitalized during the first week of January. The present estimated 
total of funds held in all chapters in the state is only $25,000. Re- 
quests in the amount of over $91,000 have been received during the 
last month; there are no funds available to meet these requests. 
Each day now, the costs for our polio patient run to $6,000; weekly 
costs amount to $42,000. 

The need is desperate. The victims of the crippler are our 
children; we can help to give them their lives. The March of Dimes 
and Dollars must go over the top in North Carolina. The state goal 
is one million dollars, an amount which will not begin to meet the 
medical and hospital needs in 1949 even if we have no new cases 
of polio. 

This year we must be ten times better prepared. We need ten 
times a dime from every North Carolinian. The March of Dimes 
and Dollars must go on, for it will mean a march of more young 
legs without braces, and without fear. 



A STRONG DEFENSE IS BEST NOTICE TO AGGRESSORS 

Address 1 Delivered At Luncheon At Camp Lejeune 

Camp Lejeune 

February 2, 1949 

I think I speak for all the members of the North Carolina General 
Assembly, as well as myself, when I tell you that we are very happy 
to visit Tarheel headquarters of the distinguished United States 
Marine Corps. High praise of your branch of the service has been 
sung over the years — and with good reason. North Carolina is 
glad World War II produced this magnificent military encampment 
inside her borders which, I am informed, is the world's most com- 
plete amphibious training base as well as the home of the noted 
Second Marine Division. 



1 This is not the entire address, but it is all that was available. It was made when the General 
Assembly and state officials visited Camp Lejeune. 



Addresses 93 

Wars have brought the United States and the world many evils 
and horrors that live on after the guns are silenced, and here in 
America we are exerting every effort to prevent war. We believe 
that strong defense is the best notice to the rest of the world that we 
not only do not want war, but that we have the strength to deter any 
aggressor who might be so foolish as to try to start one. 

Our preparations against war have a bright side in North Carolina. 
World War I brought Fort Bragg and the army to our state. World 
War II brought Camp Lejeune and the marines. Let us hope it will 
not require another war to bring the navy and the expansion of our 
port facilities. We need to do that now for the peaceful expansion 
of North Carolina's commerce throughout the world. 

First-rate port facilities are a pressing need of our state as you 
gentlemen stationed in the coastal area well know. 

I was pleased to hear that an honor guard today is composed of 
young men who have volunteered for one year's service in the Marine 
Corps. Your organization achieves its high distinction as a military 
group chiefly, I believe, because all the men in training here have 
come of their own volition. You have set a standard of perfection 
as a fighting unit which makes young men willing to undergo their 
"trial by fire" at Lejeune in order to say, "I am a member of the 
United States Marine Corps." In this esprit de corps lies the secret of 
your success. Your high reputation draws into your ranks young 
Americans of the highest calibre who feel with justification that 
"making" the Marine Corps is a high and worthy goal. 

As governor of a great state that has set high standards of its own, 
I salute this spirit. I commend your efficiency, and on behalf of the 
General Assembly and myself I thank you for your gracious hospitality. 



THE ROAD BOND ISSUE 

Round-table Discussion Between Governor Scott, 1 

Jesse Helms, Elmer Oettinger, and Ed Kirk 

Raleigh 

February 7, 1949 

Mr. Helms: This is Jesse Helms of radio station WRAL and the Tobacco and 
Dixie FM networks speaking from the office of Governor W. Kerr Scott in Ra- 
leigh. Here in the governor's office tonight we are about to present a new pro- 
gram known as "The Governor's Round-table." Governor Scott will be asked 
questions about his proposed $200,000,000 bond issue for secondary roads, now 



x This program was scheduled as the "first in a series of radio broadcasts" from the gover- 
nor's office and was broadcast over the three local stations as well as a state-wide network. It was, 
however, the only "Governor's Round-table" broadcast. 



94 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

pending before the General Assembly. Also participating in the discussion to- 
night are Ed Kirk, News Director of WPTF, and Elmer Oettinger, News Director 
of station WNAO. 

Governor Scott proposed his special bond issue in a message to the North 
Carolina General Assembly several weeks ago. Bills covering his requests have 
been presented in both houses of the Legislature. If passed, they would give 
the governor authority to call a special election in which the people of the 
state would decide whether they favor the Scott program. Governor Scott has 
invited representatives of the press services and Raleigh newspapers to join us 
here in the governor's office for this opening program. And now here's Elmer 
Oettinger to lead off the discussion period. 

Mr. Oettinger: Governor, you made the need for all-weather secondary roads 
one of the major issues of your campaign last spring, and I believe most North 
Carolinians realize the critical nature of that need. A great many of the dis- 
cussions we hear about the program do not question the desirability of road 
improvements. Instead they ask how you plan to administer the additional funds 
and why you consider a road bond issue of $200,000,000 vital to the highway 
program. May I ask you first, then, how did you arrive at the $200,000,000 
figure? 

Governor Scott: Mr. Oettinger, I decided to ask the people to 
authorize a bond issue only after I studied the financial picture in 
the State Highway Commission very carefully. I weighed our income 
there against the deficit in services I observed during my campaign 
last year. I discovered that the Commission has been doing pretty 
much all it could with existing resources, but these resources aren't 
enough. We can't catch up with the accumulated needs of the war 
years and also move ahead without additional financing. 

I arrived at the $200,000,000 figure after conferring with many 
groups of citizens all over the state — the "branch head boys" and 
the city folks too. I also measured how much work I thought my ad- 
ministration ought to be able to do in the next four years. The ans- 
wer is pretty plain. My goal is to hard-surface about 12,000 miles of 
secondary roads. Some people call them "county roads," but I'm talk- 
ing about the same thing. I plan to put another 35,000 miles of dirt 
roads in all-weather condition. Figuring roughly by 1953 that 12,000 
miles could be paved or black topped at a cost of about $18,000 a 
mile or about $216,000,000 for the four-year period, I found that 
anything less than $200,000,000 would not be enough to provide all 
the good roads I think the people of North Carolina need now. I 
sincerely feel we ought not to do a half-way job. If two-thirds of our 
people get roads now, the other one-third will never get roads. I 
don't think all the people of our state who have been trying to get 
out of the mud for years can get out for anything less than $200,000,- 
000. I don't think I would be keeping the promises of my campaign 
if I compromised for anything less. 




Judge Susie Sharp appointed June 21, 1949 as North Carolina's first woman Superior Court judge. 
Judge Sharp's first term of court was held in Rockingham, her native county, July 25, 1949- 



Addresses 95 

Mr. Helms: Ed Kirk has a question. 

Mr. Kirk: Well, granted, Governor, that you couldn't get all the work done 
for less than that figure, do you think the Highway Commission can spend that 
much wisely, during the next four years, in addition to the program it already 
plans? 

Governor Scott: I want to emphasize that point about the bond 
issue. If the General Assembly lets the people vote on the program 
and they favor it, the bonds won't be issued until they're needed 
and until the money can be spent wisely, and economically by the 
State Highway Commission. I don't intend to issue any of the bonds 
until I'm sure — until all of us are sure — they can be spent wisely. 

If we discover prices are being jacked up for highway materials 
and producers are trying to bleed the state, then we'll order the pro- 
gram cut until the market situation improves. I won't allow the 
state to pay interest on funds we can't use in a businesslike way. 

I hope we can finish the major part of the road program during 
my administration. We can't foresee now how quickly the program 
will move, but we can make some pretty good guesses, and I have 
faith in the program. As I told you boys last week, it takes guts to 
go ahead and do these things. I figure if that's what it takes, then 
that's what we've got. But supposing we can't possibly use all the 
money, I still think we're doing the right thing to draw up an over- 
all blueprint for the whole program. The people out in the back 
country want to know where they stand, and I want them to know 
somebody is looking after their interests. I don't want to do a half- 
way job. Even if all the roads aren't built by 1953, the money will 
will be there to do it and the plans will be ready. That's why I'm 
fighting to get the authorization now. 

Mr. Helms: Another question often asked, and especially by city people, is 
this Governor: Will your secondary road program cut down the amount of work 
done on the primary highway system? 

Governor Scott: No, it won't. I don't intend to have the program 
for the primary system cut during the next four years by this addi- 
tional program. The Highway Commission budget for the next two 
years calls for a large-scale program of improvement and betterment 
for the principal highways. I realize how much we need this work. 
What we want to do is keep what we have in good shape, and give 
the little fellow on the back roads some help too. 

Mr. Oettinger: Some people have asked this question Governor: What will 
be the average cost per year for maintenance of this additional paving, and will 
the Highway Department have enough money to pay for it? 

Governor Scott: I think that's a fair question. I base my whole 
program on the principal that the state will enjoy a big upsurge in 



96 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

activity in our most undeveloped sections when roads are paved. 
People will build new houses along newly paved roads. More travel 
over better roads will lift the consumption of gasoline. You will 
find this has happened in every good roads program of which we 
have any record. It never fails. The highway engineers tell me the 
newly paved sections of the highway will add about $6,000,000 per 
year to our maintenance costs (that's figuring about $500 per mile) . 
I believe this added maintenance cost can be paid for four or five 
years from now when these new roads are finished and I believe it 
can be financed by the constant and steady increase in our income 
from gasoline tax and automobile use. Income from gasoline rose 
eight and one-half per cent between 1947 and 1948. We've had a 
steady increase in our highway income every year since the inaugura- 
tion of Governor Morrison's Good Roads program in the twenties, 
except in the worst depression years. I have faith in the future of 
North Carolina. I believe we can look forward to an expanding eco- 
nomy, not one that stands still. If we grab this opportunity to expand 
our industrial and agricultural potential, then I feel certain we can 
find the income to maintain our good roads. But we won't find it 
if we don't open the forgotten regions of this state to the outside 
world. I know many farmers right now who want to go in the dairy- 
ing business but they can't make a go of it until they get good roads, 
electricity, and telephones. If we have faith in the future of North 
Carolina, then we've got to fight to get these things. 

Mr. Kirk: Governor, you touched briefly on this question earlier, but I think 
you may want to enlarge on it: Can the Highway Commission expand its facili- 
ties in its planning and operations sufficiently to carry out its regular program 
along with your special program, and will there be sufficient materials available 
to handle the increased work? 

Governor Scott: Technicians of the Highway Commission have 
told me they are optimistic about their ability to carry this new pro- 
gram along with the old one. They don't claim it will be easy, but 
there are several reasons why they believe it can be done. During 
the last three years the size of the State Highway Commission plan- 
ning division has been doubled. Our Chief Highway Engineer, Mr. 
Rogers, 1 thinks it will be necessary to double these facilities again 
to take care of the new program. He believes it can be done, with 
the pending 20 per cent increase in salaries, he also believes the prob- 
lems of finding adequate personnel will be helped a lot. He thinks 
the department has resources to expand greatly its operations — and 
expand them economically, and in line with sound business practices. 



*W. H. Rogers. Jr. 



Addresses 97 

As for the materials situation, a lot of the department's progress 
will depend on the cooperation of the producers of crushed stone, 
sand, gravel, asphalt, and other bituminous materials. Already I've 
received heartening signs from some of these producers that they're 
willing to throw their full resources behind our program. That's en- 
couraging to me. But if they can't handle the demand, then the 
Highway Commission is ready to expand its own quarries and pits. 

The state equipment engineer tells me that deliveries on ma- 
chinery needed to speed up the highway construction program can 
now be had in 15 to 30 days. This opens a bottleneck that worried 
the commission for the last three years. 

Again, I tell you that the new program won't be pushed faster 
than we can safely do the work without waste. 

Mr. Helms: Governor, some people have been told that the Highway Commis- 
sion already has more money than it can spend, and they point specifically to 
$38,000,000 cash on hand as of July 1, 1948. What is the current situation? 

Governor Scott: The Highway Commission did have $38,000,000 
on hand last July, but that was a long time ago. That money repre- 
sented funds built up during the war years, when we couldn't get 
materials and manpower to keep our road system in topnotch snape. 
As of this coming July we think there'll be about $7,000,000. That 
means the current highway budget calls for expenditures on highway 
projects which will deplete any substantial funds we could use for an 
adequate secondary road program. That's why I've called for this 
bond issue. We don't have the funds to pay for a "Go Forward" 
program without the $200,000,000. We only have enough to let us 
barely creep along. I hope these answers have helped explain why I 
want the people of North Carolina to support my bond issue pro- 
gram. When they know the facts — and we're going to let them know 
the facts — I don't think they, or their representatives, will oppose 
a program designed to help the whole state. This road program will 
help everybody, the city people, and the country people. I don't 
think we could do anything in North Carolina this year that would 
help our state as much as the combined program of a small gasoline 
tax increase and a $200,000,000 bond issue. I think it's the keystone 
of our future. I think it's an issue everybody ought to support, be- 
cause it's a program, in the long run, to benefit everybody. 

Mr. Helms: Thank you, Governor Scott. This has been "The Governor's 
Round-table" a radio discussion of Governor Scott's road program, broadcast from 
the governor's office in Raleigh. The governor would like your comments on this 
program. More round-table discussions on other subjects will be planned if there 
is sufficient interest. This is Jesse Helms speaking from Raleigh. 



98 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

NEED FOR MORE PUBLIC SERVICES 

Address Delivered Over Radio Station WPTF 

Raleigh 

March 2, 1949 

My Friends all over North Carolina: 

The time is near for a showdown between a few of the hesitants 
in and outside of the General Assembly and the forces who believe 
North Carolina should take the steps necessary to build a better 
future. 

Efforts to discredit proposals for progress on the theory that they 
are dangerously expensive do not deceive the people. In the General 
Assembly are many new men fresh from the people who want to go 
ahead in courage and in faith to do what should be done. There 
are a few, some of whom have attained or been given places of 
leadership, who oppose every action they think might result in heavier 
taxation. 

While there are those who talk about dangerous spending, I 
think the time has come to give some thought to dangerous with- 
holding. Your Bible tells you that, "There is that scattereth, and 
yet increaseth; and there is that withholdeth more than is meet, but 
it tendeth to poverty." 1 

I have proposed nothing more radical than reasonable investment 
in the relief and the development of the state's true dependence — 
the people. Through the years I have watched a great percentage 
of them struggling with their economic and cultural adjustment 
handicapped by impassable roads, and I propose they be given 
relief now. 

During the past week, the lobby of the petroleum industry has 
broadcast a mass of propaganda designed to show that I have changed 
my mind about a bond issue to build secondary roads. Along with 
this dope has gone a plea to obstruct the program. They are wel- 
come to all the information, but they will find that my judgment as 
to how the job should be financed was not fixed. Let it be under- 
stood, here and now, that there will be no difficulty in finding proof 
of a flexible mind in me as far as ways and means are concerned. 
But, on the other hand, there will be no wavering in my insistence 
that the job be done. 

Spearheading this oil lobby is a corporation that accumulated 
two hundred and ninety millions of dollars of net profit the first 



iProverbs 11:24. 



Addresses 99 

nine months of last year trafficking in a dwindling natural resource 
over which there is no real public control. Without let or hindrance, 
that corporation and other gasoline producers frequently have ad- 
vanced prices without notice or explanation. The cost to the con- 
sumer for their product has risen several times more than the one 
cent extra tax I am proposing, and, I understand, without the slight- 
est division of the increase among the jobbers who handle gasoline 
in North Carolina. So long as I am governor, this oil monopoly, 
headed out of New York, will not be allowed to push our people 
in the mud. Let us run the affairs of North Carolina ourselves! 

The oil jobbers, nearer the people and more sympathetically con- 
scious of their road needs than are the mighty bosses of the oil indus- 
try, have recorded themselves as supporters of my road program. I 
believe the filling station boys, even closer to the people, also will 
ignore the big oil companies' lobby. 

The gas tax is a road toll. Everybody knows that. The insolent 
attack of rich outside corporations on the plan to substitute a slight 
increase in this toll for the huge mud tax the people of this state 
are paying, does not go unnoticed or without appraisal by the people 
who are paying it. 

I pass on to another vital proposal. I have watched the losing 
fight the school forces have been making to hold good teachers to 
train the great army of children to strengthen or weaken North 
Carolina. I am asking that we recognize the vital relationship of 
these forces to the state's present and its future and do something 
effective about them. 

You have witnessed the readiness with which the General Assem- 
bly has moved to increase handsomely the salaries of the judges and 
solicitors who are dealing with disagreement and crime among the 
people. I am calling on the lawmakers, who hold the controls in 
their hands, to put new emphasis on the work being done to reduce 
delinquency and promote good citizenship. I am asking them in the 
name of righteousness and common sense to reinforce the distressed 
servants of the people upon whom the state must depend to prove 
the folly of crime and disagreement. 

I want to cry out to the people of this state the eternal truth in 
the Proverb I quoted. Indeed, there is "that withholdeth . . . but it 
tendeth to poverty." The world is living dangerously, moving toward 
crises in which liberty and security will be at stake. I want the con- 
structive forces of this state armed and equipped for the mighty 
task of building up a citizenship of strong bodies and trained minds 
for whatever in God's providence is ahead of us. 



100 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

How long shall we ignore the fact, for instance, that we are not 
giving our children at the school age all the physical protection we 
accord hogs in a pen? A startling percentage of the children are 
infested with intestinal parasites which impair them as students and 
impede their growth into strong, healthy men and women. This 
should be corrected. In a test examination of some nine thousand 
school children in one of our richest counties, more than five thou- 
sand remediable defects were found. Little is being done about these 
conditions. 

We now know why the orphanages, where children are given 
minimum health service for correction of these conditions, supplied 
a greater percentage of physically fit men for the World War draft, 
while the state's record as a whole was poor. 

I want to do something about this situation, and do it now. 

I want us to quit trying to feed the bodies and the minds of 
children before getting them in condition to assimilate both physical 
and mental food. 

That's why I asked that an increased appropriation of $1,650,000 
be provided for strengthening local health departments for this work 
in cooperation with the state health service. 

I have also asked that an increase of $350,000 a year over the 
Advisory Budget Commission's recommendation be made for relief 
of the needy between sixteen and sixty-five. I regard neglect in this 
area as most unfortunate. 

This state cannot trudge its way through to economic and social 
greatness without courageous use of the over-all taxing power to 
change some of the basic conditions to which I have referred. I am 
proposing nothing more radical than reasonable sacrifice for the 
children of this state — a sacrifice of the kind that always has paid 
dividends and will continue to pay them. I am asking that the con- 
secrated forces which are aware of these needs and which can do 
something about them not be starved out. 

We cannot plead poverty, except of the spirit, in protest against 
these proposals while we spent more on alcoholic beverages and one 
or two other nonessentials than we spend guarding the health and 
educating the million school children of the state. 

Last year I spoke out in favor of a salary for school teachers that 
would range from $2,400 to $3,600 for holders of Grade A certificates. 
I still believe that is a reasonable and proper scale, but the obvious 
difficulties in financing that scale have caused me to accept a compro- 
mise suggestion that it be revised to the $2,200 to $3,100 range now, 
with the hope that federal aid later will permit us to go all the way. 



Addresses 101 

Therefore, I am urging that the Advisory Budget Commission's 
recommendation of an average of $83,500,000 a year for schools be 
lifted — not to the $110,000,000 average the School Commission re- 
quested — but to some $93,600,000 a year. Even this would require 
a fifteen per cent local government contribution to the budget in 
order that the salary scale be met. 

I recognize there is not enough money in sight from tax estimates 
to finance this appropriation in full. That is why I have suggested 
consideration by the Legislature of several new levies. 

I propose that the Legislature submit a $50,000,000 bond issue 
to the people to provide grants in aid for school buildings on an 
equitable formula for its distribution and use. By the time buildings 
can be planned and erected, the great need will be upon us. This 
shortage of school housing that is in prospect is due in large part to 
the great increase of the birth rate that was coincidental with the 
war. 

Many of the children for whom we must provide are the children 
of the men who left this state to defend the country in that great 
struggle. It ill becomes us to be slow in preparing reasonably for 
their education. It "is my opinion that the superior credit of the 
state should be invoked to relieve the local government of the 
absolutely certain burden of school housing that is immediately 
ahead of us. 

When the Legislature met nearly two months ago, a plan for 
financing public service was laid before it, signed by the retiring 
governor and the Advisory Budget Commission. The plan proposed 
the use of most of the state's reserves for plant expansion and the 
budgeting of nearly all the revenue anticipated from present levies. 
I spoke approvingly of the vision the commission has shown. I had 
no fault to find with those recommendations as they obviously sought 
to cut the cloth in sight as generously as was safe. 

In the main, I have accepted those Budget Commission proposals, 
and a study of the record will show that I have asked for relatively 
little increase in general fund appropriations above these recommen- 
dations — except in the one case of the public schools. It is my 
judgment that I have proposed the minimum we must provide for 
the schools. 

I respect all legislative hesitation due to concern as to whether 
our general fund revenues will continue to rise or begin to go down. 
We may hope that they will increase, but I do not believe it safe to 
base action on the assumption that they will do so. Furthermore, I 



102 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

am opposed to deficit spending; and I am further opposed to the 
adjournment of this Legislature without a balanced budget. A 
balanced budget is necessary to protect and preserve the sound credit 
of our state. This Legislature can do all that I have recommended 
and at the same time balance the budget. I repeat that I have 
pointed to several areas in which tax increase might be just and 
productive. While I am advocating no particular tax increase, I am 
insisting on the provisions for public service I have recommended as 
minimum. Ways to meet the need can be met by this Legislature — 
now. 

It is not my wish or purpose to scold those who do not agree 
with me about North Carolina's needs and ability to pay. I recognize 
that some of the hesitation in the General Assembly is due to honest 
doubt as to what should be done. 

As the will of the people becomes clearer, I hope to see enacted 
the essential proposals for this program to set North Carolina for- 
ward and upward again. 

These vital school and school building issues will be debated in 
a public hearing before a joint meeting of the Appropriations and 
Education committees of the Senate and the House in Raleigh at 
2:30 p.m. tomorrow. 

The time is here for you, the people, to make yourselves heard — 
and heard in unmistakable terms — in your Capitol. 

This is your opportunity to speak out. This is a public hearing 
called for the purpose of hearing you. It is my opinion now that 
there is no great difference between the judgment of your more 
forward-looking representatives here and your governor, but there 
is a hesitation over this vital matter of schools in which you take a 
personal, immediate interest. 

I want you to come to Raleigh tomorrow, Thursday, March 3, for 
this public hearing on the school program. While here, talk with 
your representatives and senators — keep them encouraged. They 
need your moral support. They need your help to offset some of the 
insidious propaganda that you hear around the Capitol. They need 
your help in charting a "Go Forward" program in health, roads, 
schools, electricity, telephones, and many other services. Be here to- 
morrow — Thursday, March 3. 

I am standing by the people. I need your help now. Be here 
tomorrow. 



Addresses 103 

NORTH CAROLINA IS PROUD OF HER 

VETERANS 

Golden Anniversary of Veterans of Foreign Wars 

Address Delivered Over State-Wide Radio Network 1 

Raleigh 

April 9, 1949 

It gives me great pleasure, as governor of North Carolina, to ex- 
tend greetings to the Veterans of Foreign Wars on the occasion of 
their Golden Jubilee anniversary. 

This organization has rendered valuable service to the state and 
the nation during its fifty years of existence. It has assisted ex- 
servicemen in obtaining government insurance, pensions, and com- 
pensation, hospitalization, vocational training and education, and 
other benefits to which they are entitled under the laws of the land. 
It has also given assistance to dependents who are entitled to benefits, 
and in particular it has provided a national home for the needy 
widows and orphans of many deceased veterans. These activities 
have been financed through contributions from members, proceeds 
of special post projects, and the sale of "Buddy Poppies" on Memorial 
Day and Armistice Day. 

In our hospitals at Fayetteville, Asheville, and in many other 
places throughout the nation, there are thousands of veterans who 
are still paying the price for our freedom. Some of these men have 
been patients as long as 18 years, and despite the skill of modern 
science, many of them will never walk again, never see again, or never 
have the use of their arms again. It is gratifying to know that an 
organization like the Veterans of Foreign Wars remembers these 
hospitalized veterans through every week in the year and does all it 
can to make life more comfortable for them. It is also good to know 
that in many towns the organization has trained funeral squads to 
assist in the burial of our war dead as they are returned from overseas. 

Although members of the Veterans of Foreign Wars are primarily 
concerned with the welfare of veterans, they have also done much 
for the betterment of their local communities. Both as individuals 
and as an organized group, they have participated in many worth- 
while civic enterprises, thus demonstrating their good citizenship 
and their continuing loyalty to the state and the nation. 

For these many outstanding achievements, I congratulate the 
leaders and members of the Veterans of Foreign Wars and extend 
to them my very best wishes for the future. We, North Carolinians, 



^This address originated over station WPTF. 



104 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

are proud of our veterans, and we realize that we owe them a debt 
of gratitude so large that it can never be fully paid in cash or by any 
other means. All that we can hope for is that by working together 
we can build a great state of which they and their children can be 
proud. Better roads, better schools, better hospital and medical 
facilities, telephones, and more electric power lines in rural areas — 
these and other improvements we seek for all our citizens, so that 
each individual will have a chance to work out his own destiny under 
the most favorable conditions an alert and intelligent state can 
provide. 

In this challenging program we shall rely heavily on the strength, 
the courage, the experience, and the intelligence of our veterans. 
By their exploits in time of war, these men have demonstrated that 
they are equal to any task which may confront them; I feel sure that 
they will be satisfied to do no less in time of peace. 



MINUTE MAN FITTING SYMBOL OF DEFENSE 

SAVINGS BONDS PROGRAM 

Address At Governor's Dinner Honoring Savings Bonds Volunteers 

On Patriots' Day 
Raleigh 

April 19, 1949 

Mr. Chairman, General Marshall, and My Friends from all over 
North Carolina: 

It is a personal pleasure as well as a patriotic duty to join in 
honoring the volunteers in the Savings Bonds program of the United 
States Treasury Department on this Patriots' Day — the anniversary of 
the battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775. 

Gathered with me here are members of the State Savings Bonds 
Committee, of which I am honorary chairman; and the County Savings 
Bonds Committee chairmen and other volunteers, representing the 
thousands of volunteers who promote and sell Savings Bonds in our 
state. Similar dinners are being held in all the forty-eight states to- 
night, simultaneously with a dinner in Washington, D. C, at which 
President Truman, our national honorary chairman, is the speaker. 
I am informed that the President's message will be carried on the 
four national radio networks and the television networks connected 
with Washington at ten o'clock tonight. 



Addresses 105 

Patriots' Day commemorates those clashes on the village green at 
Lexington and "by the rude bridge that arched the flood" 1 at Con- 
cord. Those historic encounters set off the spark that flamed into 
our Revolutionary struggle for freedom on the 19th day of April, 
1775 — just 174 years ago this morning. (Every school child knows 
how Paul Revere rode forth in the night to warn the countryside that 
the redcoats were coming to seize stores of weapons and gunpowder 
collected by local patriots.) 

The struggle that began at Lexington and Concord ended with 
the establishment of the United States of America as a new kind of 
nation. It launched a great experiment in democracy and opportunity 
for individual enterprise that has produced, with the help of millions 
of men and women who came here from every country on earth, this 
mighty nation whose spiritual, political, and material blessings we 
enjoy today. 

It is most fitting for the Treasury Department to adopt the statue 
of the Minute Man at Concord as the symbol of the Defense Savings 
Bonds program. 

It is fitting also, that, since 1941, we have called the Savings Bonds 
volunteers Minute Men and Minute Women, because they have served 
the cause of national and individual security in a most vital way. 
Leaders in every American city, county, and township are serving in 
this volunteer bond force, which during the war expanded to six mil- 
lion Americans. Theirs is a distinguished company, and every Amer- 
ican who joins their ranks in 1949 may deem it an honor and a 
privilege. 

We bought war bonds from 1941 to 1945 to strengthen the armed 
forces of our country in a two-hemisphere war against the enemies of 
freedom. We bought bonds to help our government raise money to 
buy guns and tanks and planes and ships. We bought them, also, to 
build up individual and family security against the future. 

Since the war's end we have continued to save and invest our 
savings in these safe and well-paying bonds, until there are more 
than fifty-five billion dollars worth outstanding. More than forty- 
seven and one-half billion dollars worth of them is in the hands of 
individual Americans, including more than thirty-two and two- 
tenths billion dollars in E Bonds alone. That is a remarkable record 
of thrift, of American good sense, and of American enterprise. 

The treasury tells me that ninety-eight per cent of the work of 
sales promotion and the actual selling of these Savings Bonds is done 



1 "The Concord Hymn," Ralph Waldo Emerson. 



106 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

by volunteers. This program is carried on in every state, city, county, 
and township by the Volunteer Minute Men and Women whom we 
are honoring tonight. 

The advertising and publicizing of Savings Bonds is done through 
voluntary contributions of newspaper, magazine, billboard, poster 
space, and radio time and talent. The bonds are issued without 
charge to the treasury or the public, by our banks, post offices, and 
other issuing agencies. Business and industry operate, also without 
cost to the government, the Payroll Savings Plan which is today en- 
abling some eight million of their employees to set aside part of their 
pay regularly for investment in Savings Bonds. Our commercial banks 
operate the Bond-a-Month Plan as a free service to their depositors. 
This is a cooperative enterprise for the public good. It is a typically 
American enterprise. 

I know the publishers and editors, the advertising managers and 
the local advertisers, the radio station managers and motion picture 
exhibitors, and the business firms and banks of this state can be 
counted upon to continue their active support of the Savings Bonds 
program, for they know its importance to the people and the com- 
munities they serve in building economic stability and future buying 
power. 

The continued success of this Savings Bonds program is one of the 
finest possible proofs of the power of democracy at work that we 
can give the world. You volunteers are truly Minute Men and Min- 
ute Women, dedicated to the preservation and improvement of a way 
of life for which the Minute Men of 1775, and all their successors 
through the years, have fought. 

The problems that confront vis in 1949 are vastly more compli- 
cated than those of 1775. Today we are leading a war-torn world 
back to recovery and peace, while we are stabilizing our own economy 
following the most costly war in history. 

The Minute Men of 1775 were too few to win the fights at Lexing- 
ton and Concord, but the people of the thirteen colonies, one of 
which was, of course, North Carolina, rallied to the cause and won 
by their combined efforts. The Minute Men and Minute Women 
in the Savings Bonds forces of 1949 need the help of every patriotic 
and farsighted American in their fight to build up the economic 
strength of the nation against whatever test the future may bring. 

Plans are now being made for the annual Spring Savings Bonds 
Campaign. It will be called the Opportunity Drive and will officially 
open May 16, and close June 30. What we Americans of 1949 ac- 
complish in this opportunity bond drive and our Savings Bonds 



Addresses 107 

program will be heard round the world, too, just as surely as the 
first shot of the embattled farmers at Lexington. 

Each bond drive is an open test of our willingness to work to- 
gether for the common good in peace as in war. In making and 
exceeding our bond quotas, we will be proving our determination 
to make our American system work. 

As your governor and your honorary chairman, I call upon all 
citizens in North Carolina to support this opportunity bond drive 
by purchasing extra Savings Bonds, by signing up on the Payroll 
Savings Plan where you work or the Bond-a-Month Plan where you 
bank, and particularly by volunteering for service with their local 
Savings Bonds Committees during the drive. 

And I want to say this to all citizens, and particularly to heads 
of chambers of commerce, industry and business, retail establish- 
ments, labor groups, farm leaders, officers and members of civic, 
service, women's, fraternal, and veterans' organizations in this state: 

This is your and my opportunity to serve our country, our state 
and our community in a practical way that will pay dividends in 
security, economic stability, and future opportunity. This is a cause 
for which we all can work and on which we can all agree. I know the 
people of North Carolina will respond. 

Now, let's "Go Forward." 



OUR STATE'S RESPONSIBILITY FOR ITS CHILDREN 

Address Delivered At The State Conference 
For Social Service 1 

Durham 
April 26, 1949 

It is appropriate in these first days after adjournment of the 1949 
General Assembly to take stock of the state's responsibility for its 
children and to evaluate how far we shall be able to advance in the 
next two years in meeting their needs and how much still remains 
to be done. The state cannot escape its responsibility to provide for 
certain basic needs of every child. Some children are privileged in 
that they are born into homes which can offer them every opportunity 
from the standpoint of social and economic resources. They live in 
areas which are readily accessible to all of the developments of our 
modern civilization. To a large extent these children can take ad- 



Kiovernor Scott was unable to attend the State Conference for Social Service in Durham because 
of the meeting in Raleigh to launch the road and school bond campaigns. He asked R. Mayne 
Albright, a member of the Conference, to represent him and read this address. 



108 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

vantage of the best which our state and our nation have to offer. But 
we must be concerned especially with the children who live in 
remote sections, who come from homes which may be lacking in 
even the necessities of everyday living. Such children may have just 
as great potentialities as children born into more privileged homes. 
It becomes the responsibility of the state, therefore, to see that where 
a child happens to be born and to grow up is not a limiting factor 
in terms of advantages being made available to him. 

We are properly concerned in this state about our human re- 
sources. We should see that our human resources in terms of children 
and youth are not only protected from the various hazards of grow- 
ing up, but also that they have the advantages of the stimulation and 
the opportunity which are provided through adequate facilities of 
many types. By and large, the progress of the state is dependent 
upon the quality of its citizenry. We know that we have quality of 
the highest grade in our boys and girls. We must see that they have 
the opportunity for full development. 

Although this is my first participation in a meeting with this 
State Conference for Social Service, I am informed that for more 
than thirty-five years this conference has been a focal point for persons 
throughout the state concerned with more adequate services for all 
the people. Your legislative programs have been broad and pro- 
gressive. 

In addition to my interest in this conference as an organization 
dedicated to the advancement of needed services for the people of 
our state, I am cognizant of the fact that you have accepted responsi- 
bility for leadership in the state's participation in the 1950 White 
House Conference on Children. 1 In your work toward stimulating 
and coordinating participation in that important national conference, 
I pledge you the support of my office. After all, we have the same 
objectives; namely, adequate services for children. 

Our state must "Go Forward." We cannot afford to go backward. 
As we review the situation today, it is clear that we face deficits in 
services — deficits that have increased rapidly in the past few years. 

Take, for example, the matter of roads. We need more all- 
weather roads for many reasons. This, might, at first, seem far afield 
from the welfare of children. Yet some of the , most compelling 
reasons for a better system of highways throughout the state have to 
do with children. Children must go to school. Children should not 
be expected to walk long distances in inclement weather or to have 
to wait for long periods of time by muddy roadsides in order to 

iSee page 407. 



Addresses 109 

obtain school bus transportation. In the second place we must have 
safety for busses. We expect a great deal of parents when we ask 
them to entrust their children to our care in busses driven many miles 
to the consolidated school. Those busses must have all-weather roads 
upon which to travel. Only as we expand our system of good roads, 
will we do away with the relative isolation of large numbers of 
children. Moreover, an improved highway system will affect children 
in other ways. We realize that it is important in terms of stimulating 
higher farm incomes and in general in improving the income and 
services available to all sections of the state. Therefore, the improve- 
ment of our highway system is a step directly related to child welfare. 

Let us look at those services for children, which are ordinarily 
called welfare services in a specialized sense. Last fall I met with the 
Advisory Budget Commission as it considered the appropriations for 
the various state programs. At that time I learned a great deal about 
the needs of the aid to the dependent children program. For this 
program, which makes it possible for children to remain in their own 
homes, we have recommended and shall make available increased 
state funds during the coming biennium. We would like to do more, 
but what we have done is an important step forward. We may also 
look to the counties to help the state meet the needs of children 
more fully than they have been met before. We should continue to 
place united emphasis on this program until funds are available from 
the various cooperating sources to meet minimum needs of children 
eligible for this type of assistance. 

As most of you know, during my campaign last fall I spoke 
consistently in terms of the need for a state appropriation for general 
assistance. The General Assembly has moved ahead in that area in 
terms of passage of a statute which makes possible state participation 
in this important field, and has made available a sum of money 
which can be utilized if federal matching funds become available. 
We are concerned about general assistance today in terms of two 
groups, in terms of those young people who reach an age when they 
are no longer eligible for aid to dependent children, but are still 
too youthful to become entirely self-supporting or who have some 
handicap which prevents such support. The state's responsibility for 
children who lack the necessities of everyday life should be sufficiently 
broad to offer protection to all children in financial need. 

In the field of social services for children, we realize that money 
to help take care of their needs is only part of the answer. In many 
cases it is a matter of working with children with special problems. 
This in turn calls for a staff, well trained and understanding of the 



110 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

needs of children. This is only one of the many significant reasons 
for increased state participation in the cost of public welfare admin- 
istration. The increased amount being appropriated for the next 
biennium will partially meet the needs of counties in this respect. 

I am particularly interested in the whole problem of rehabilita- 
tion of our young men and women who have become so involved in 
delinquencies that they have been committed to our state prisons. 
I supported a measure providing for a Prison Advisory Council and 
I am interested in the development of a new facility for young 
prisoners at Camp Butner. Both of these measures have tremendous 
potentialities in terms of the rehabilitation of youth who become 
state prisoners. Every effort will be made to see that the objectives 
of these two forward looking steps by our 1949 General Assembly 
are carried out. 

In all of our welfare programs, as in other programs for children, 
we must not forget that the great majority of our boys and girls live 
in the country and in small communities. This places responsibility 
upon each of us to see that services for children are geared insofar 
as necessary to the characteristics of rural living. 

Let us turn to schools. We have been giving education much 
attention in recent months, particularly in connection with the leg- 
islative session. In order to have an adequate number of teachers it 
is essential that we pay adequate salaries. It is not enough, however, 
simply to provide the needed number of regular teachers so that 
we may reduce the number of children in each school room to the 
size that one person can reasonably be expected to teach. It is also 
important that we have available various specialized types of instruc- 
tion, that we gear our school system to meet the needs of all the 
children. It is high time that we accepted the fact that such things 
cost money. 

Even though we have the necessary teachers with varied speciali- 
zations, it is important that we give attention to school buildings 
and that was one of the measures given particular attention by the 
1949 General Assembly. We are proud of the beautiful school build- 
ings in many of our cities and are equally proud of some of our con- 
solidated schools. We have many children, however, attending school 
in many of our cities and are equally proud of some of our consoli- 
dated schools. We have many children, however, attending school 
in buildings which are far from standard. I have visited buildings 
not even adequate in keeping out the rain and cold; all too often 
with sanitary provisions which would meet no standard whatsoever. 



Addresses 111 

It is important that our school children be adequately housed, and 
all of us can contribute to this by actively supporting the school 
building bond issue which will be submitted at the same time the 
road bond election is held, probably June 4. 

Our concern for all children extends to health. There are many 
ways in which our health program needs expansion, directed 
primarily to the needs of children. If we have children who are 
healthy, who are protected from physical diseases and disabilities, 
we shall have a healthier adult population. 

It is important that we strengthen our total public health pro- 
gram. We are proud of the fact that we shall soon have a health 
unit in every county in North Carolina as all counties have now 
voted for health programs. 

Along with the strengthening of the public health program, 
we are embarking upon a great school-health program. The best 
time after all to find out what the needs of children are, and to 
provide for remedial, protective, and preventive care, is while the 
child is in school and readily available for examination and for 
special treatment. 

Hand in hand with our improved program for diagnosis and 
prevention is the need for more hospital beds. Because we are con- 
cerned today with children, we may emphasize the need for more 
hospital beds for children. The program being developed under the 
leadership of the Medical Care Commission is moving rapidly in that 
direction, but even so, with present trends, there are large areas of 
the state which continue to be substandard in terms of available hos- 
pital beds or beds which may be made available within the reason- 
able future. 

It is not enough to think only in terms of the usual types of 
health care of children. We must also strengthen our special facili- 
ties. I am proud of the fact that within the next year we hope to 
complete a hospital for children with cerebral palsy, a new venture 
not only for this state, but also for any other southern state. We 
should look to providing not only for the great bulk of the children 
who are relatively typical with regard to their needs, but also seek 
adequate facilities for the children who have special needs of many 
types. 

We are also moving ahead in strengthening of services available 
through our State Recreation Commission to make it easier for 
communities to provide such recreation facilities as the communities 
consider desirable. 



112 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Because of the topic assigned to me, I have stressed particularly 
the responsibility of the state for all the children. At the same time 
we must recognize that this is a responsibility which the state shares 
with others and shares it broadly. First of all the state shares respon- 
sibility with the individual family. The state does this in several 
ways. For one thing, it gives direct assistance to families through 
providing at state expense for certain basic services for all children, 
as in health, education, and welfare. In the second place, the state 
is concerned with the ability of the family to provide for itself. We 
are interested here in family economic security and I am informed 
that you have a committee which is beginning work in this important 
field. Any concern for the total economy, such as support for a mini- 
mum wage for women, or concern for expansion of old age and sur- 
vivors insurance, which I have recently endorsed in a letter to Rep- 
resentative Doughton, or any steps to encourage the development 
of agriculture or business or industry will help in this general direc- 
tion. We still have a distressingly low per capita income in North 
Carolina. This in turn impinges upon the welfare of children. It 
will require our combined efforts to develop an economy in which 
necessary minimum income and basic services will be available to all 
the children. In the last analysis we cannot separate economic de- 
velopment and social services. To accomplish these ends we must 
have a sound fiscal structure and adequate social legislation. 

In saying these things I am mindful of local responsibility. State 
government alone cannot supplement the family in its efforts to 
provide all needed services as defined in this day and age. We must 
also count upon many community resources. 

Our state's responsibility for its children is a shared responsibility. 
We know that there are many needs of children which we shall be 
meeting only partially, even with the expanded programs of the 
next biennium. It is important that together we set our goals in 
terms of wiping out the existing deficits in services for children and 
in terms of providing in full measure the services to which all our 
children have a basic right. This calls for our cooperative efforts. 
Together, with our conviction of responsibility for the needs of 
children, we shall "Go Forward." 



Addresses 113 

NO CHANGE IN POLICY IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION 

Address Delivered Before The Carolina 

Road Builders Association 

Raleigh 

May 4, 1949 

You are professional road builders. All of you are identified 
through your business or professional work in some way with the 
building of roads. I am a layman. I know nothing about road build- 
ing. Sometimes the professional is so involved in his work that he 
fails to get a perspective in which its real importance can appear. 
Those who have built roads in North Carolina and who are now 
building them have been engaged in the building of a great state. 

I not only know what has been accomplished through road build- 
ing in North Carolina, but I know something of the present need to 
extend the road service to more people. We are going into a campaign 
now in which we shall ask the people of the state to vote to borrow 
3200,000,000 to extend and improve their road system. I hope that 
this movement will have the benefit of the support of all of you. 
It is my judgment that what we are proposing to do in North Caro- 
lina is sound in two basic particulars: First, I believe that the state's 
resources will permit us to borrow $200,000,000 for a secondary road 
construction program; and second, I am convinced that the intelligent 
use of this amount of money for that purpose will pay dividends in 
increased production and improved living conditions in North Caro- 
lina. 

I am advised by competent bankers that we can borrow this money 
at a rate of interest from 1.55 per cent to 1.75 per cent and that the 
market will readily absorb any offering we make of our bonds. I 
want to remind you that when this state, in 1921, took counsel of its 
great need and its courage to borrow money for building roads that 
it was with great difficulty that we marketed the bonds. We first 
offered bonds in the sum of $5,000,000 at five per cent, and, after due 
advertisement, we received bids on only $17,500. Today there is no 
question about an immediate full subscription for all the bonds that 
might be offered at a very much lower rate of interest. This difference 
represents in part the effect of the investment the state made in its 
own development by building roads. 

There are two impelling reasons why we must do all we can to 
put through this program. The first reason is that the people who 
need the road service are resentful of the state's delay in enabling 



114 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

them to use their cultural institutions of church and school all the 
year and to get their produce to market. Defeat of this proposal to 
give them relief would have serious effects upon the morale of North 
Carolina. The other impelling reason for victory for the program 
lies in the economic field to which I have referred. We must do it 
as a reasonable, promising investment in the state's further develop- 
ment. 

I want to say something here about road building policy, if the 
bond issue is authorized. There has been a great deal of speculation 
about how the state might buy a great quantity of heavy equipment 
and build the secondary roads. In a program such as is contemplated 
it is probable that a considerable amount of work can be and should 
be done by the state's own forces, but there should be no radical de- 
parture from the common practice of all the states and the United 
States of making full use of the existing know-how in road building. 
It would be wasteful practice so to manage the program as to break 
down the- forces of private contractors who have been the reliance 
of .the state in construction work. Experience of the state and nation 
has proved the value of the contract plan for getting this kind of 
public work done, and it is my opinion that as long as the contractors 
prove their ability to absorb the offerings and get the work done at 
reasonable prices, the State Highway Commission should follow 
the normal, well-charted course in this respect. 

I am making this statement, not with a view of suggesting any 
limitation upon the discretion of the Highway Commission to get 
the job done as inexpensively and as well as possible. There will not 
be any implicit or explicit understanding that would prevent the 
state from carrying out this expansion program by any proper means 
at its command, but in view of considerable speculation, I do want 
to emphasize that there is no tendency to make any radical departure 
from tested methods in getting the job done. 



SCHOOL AND ROAD BOND ELECTION 

Address Delivered Over Radio Station WPTF 

Raleigh 

May 10, 1949 

My friends, I come to discuss a matter of the greatest importance 
to you and your neighbors. I want to talk quietly and directly to 
you about the election that we are going to have June 4, on the 
question of borrowing money to improve our schools and roads. It 



Addresses 1 1 5 

is my purpose to make this discussion as simple and direct as possible 
because I want to make an appeal to both the hearts and minds of 
the people of North Carolina. 

The public schools and roads are no new interest of mine. Both 
have been close to my heart all my life. I was dependent on poor 
rural schools in my boyhood and I have always lived on a dirt road. 
My personal experiences have been such as to make me ever mindful 
of the need to develop both schools and roads. 

So the first part of my appeal is directed to the hearts of the 
people of this state. I want to remind everyone who lives on a good 
road and whose children have an opportunity to attend the better 
schools without interruption to bear in mind the plight of a large 
percentage of our people who live on roads that are impassable part 
of the time, and who suffer inequalities and disadvantages in school 
equipment and school service. I believe that you will hear this appeal 
and respond to it because our history shows that there is a great 
unselfishness among the people when they understand the facts. This 
has been proved by the efforts on the part of the state to see to it 
that educational opportunities were equalized, and that the public 
service was extended widely. We are a neighborly state, with a strong 
community spirit and I have faith in that quality of our people. 

I also want to appeal to the minds of the people of North Caro- 
lina. Let me point out that every time North Carolina has con- 
sulted courage and made an investment in the development of the 
people and the physical properties of the state, we have made giant 
strides toward economic power. 

We were a poor state in years gone by and a backward one. Even 
now our average earning power is not relatively great, but our de- 
velopment has been so tremendous as a direct result of improving 
roads and schools that I believe further investment in these services 
will pay dividends. 

Once before in a public address of mine I quoted a Biblical 
Proverb in which there is profound truth. Let me remind you of it 
and I quote it: "There is that scattereth, and yet increaseth; and 
there is that withholdeth more than is meet, but it tendeth to 
poverty." 1 

We did scatter wirii a determined hand the blessings of prosperity 
from some parts of the state to the economically weaker parts and 
the result was splendid. There has been some withholding more 
than was meet in recent years in several areas of public service, and 
it has tended toward poverty. 



Proverbs 11:24. 



116 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

For instance, we cannot withhold a living wage from the 26,000 
public school teachers in this state without a great cost in terms that 
can be measured, as well as in values that cannot be measured. Let 
us never forget that our richest possession is the great army of 
children who were born to North Carolinians and who are with us 
as citizens of the immediate future. North Carolina will march to 
greatness on their feet or it will not march. 

More than a million of these young people are under the daily 
inspiration and instruction of these 26,000 teachers. This state must 
build with them and through them or it will not build. I do not 
need to emphasize the wastefulness of permitting this great company 
of young people to be subjected to the influence of dispirited and 
distressed teaching forces from whose numbers the stronger members 
are gradually being driven away. I do not need to say of North 
Carolina that the greatest waste possible in the economy of this state 
is to deny to the school children of North Carolina the inspiration 
that can come only from the guidance of men and women who feel 
competent in their own work. To feel competent the teachers must 
be happy in their knowledge that the people regard their work as 
honorable and valuable. 

We have seen our school buildings deteriorate and become over- 
crowded. We see now prospects of a very early demand for more 
space as a new generation of these young people come on, while 
little is being done to provide adequate quarters. I am asking you, 
therefore, to consult both your hearts and your minds as you get 
ready to go to the polls on June 4. I am asking you to weigh these 
issues carefully before you vote "yes" or "no" on the $25,000,000 
school bond issue. 

We have made somewhat more generous provisions for the teachers 
through the action of the 1949 General Assembly, and in the event 
federal aid becomes available, the condition of the teachers will be 
further improved. Now if we can help the counties to the extent 
proposed to improve school buildings, I will feel that North Carolina 
will have measured up fairly well to the demand of the times that 
we strengthen our public school system. I urge you, therefore, to 
support the school bond issue June 4. 

I come now to the second question that is being submitted in 
the election. I refer to the proposal that you authorize your governor 
and your Council of State to issue bonds for a maximum of $200,- 
000,000 to expand all-weather service on the secondary roads. When 
I resolved to run for governor, these issues of better roads and schools 



Addresses 117 

were ready-made. I declared myself for improvement of schools and 
roads and for greater efficiency in administration of our public affairs 
in order that the public might have more value for their tax dollar. 
As I went about the state campaigning, I found the people every- 
where as conscious of these needs as I was. There was no doubt in 
my mind of the popular mandate that I do the best I could for both 
schools and roads. 

The sense of need is not new. Almost exactly a century ago, 
the people of this state were stirring with discontent over their dis- 
abilities caused by bad schools and roads. Under the influence of a 
progressive governor the state began to build both railroads and 
highways — some of the roads being built of plank. A strong move- 
ment for better schools began at the same time. Then came the 
great War Between the States and the rising tide of interest in this 
state in both public schools and roads was beaten down, and as it 
receded, it left a struggling population living in comparative ignor- 
ance and poverty. 

It took courage and hard work for the state to dig itself out of 
these conditions, and many among you now are old enough to 
remember those hard times back in the last half of the nineteenth 
century. You will remember the one-room, log cabin school houses. 
Often these were open only three months in the year with an under- 
educated teacher in charge of each. You will remember, too, the 
impassable condition of the roads even in your immediate neighbor- 
hood. Do not forget that at times now some of your neighbors are 
experiencing conditions with roads about as bad. 

Just exactly a half-century ago the state responded to the elo- 
quence of a man who became governor and took a lead in the vast 
improvement of the public school system. Under the influence of 
Aycock's leadership, North Carolina began to build a better state. 
Then in the twenties with the automobile becoming more and more 
useful we took a chance. We borrowed money to build better roads, 
and a state that our neighbors had dubbed "Old Rip Van Winkle" 
really became aroused and awake. 

It was difficult to start that road building program in 1921. The 
conservative people of the state were afraid to do it. No one knew 
exactly how we were to pay off the debt, but we built the roads and 
increased the productive power of North Carolina when we did so. 
When we started building roads then, our banking resources were 
some $441,000,000. Today they are close to $2,000,000,000 or nearly 
five times as great. 



118 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

When we offered the first $5,000,000 of our $50,000,000 bond issue 
to the market in 1921, we offered the bonds at five per cent and we 
got a bid for exactly $17,700 worth of those bonds. The market did 
not want North Carolina bonds. It took the special interest aroused 
among a few bankers in New York and in this state to sell that first 
$5,000,000 offering. We ultimately borrowed $115,000,000 for road 
building at interest rates never under four per cent; but I repeat 
that the investment paid and still pays dividends. 

Today if we offer $200,000,000 of road bonds to the market, they 
will sell readily, so bankers tell me, at not more than 1.75 per cent 
interest. We are better able to borrow this money now and pay it 
back at this small interest charge than we were to borrow $25,000,000 
in 1921. 

I am not proposing to you a wild adventure in the use of the 
state's credit. I am proposing a sound investment in the people of 
this state. 

Let me direct your attention to the fact that the State Highway 
Commission will spend this money in accordance with the general 
specifications as to its distribution written in the law. Every county 
will get its proper share of the benefits. I want you to bear in mind 
also that I have named a Highway Commission of sound businessmen. 
There is a somewhat larger representation of the farm on the com- 
mission than usual, but if you will check into the matter you will 
find that all the commissioners are men of recognized good judg- 
ment. All of them are good citizens of North Carolina, interested in 
a sound fiscal policy for the state and opposed to waste. I assure you 
that you can trust this commission to handle well what money you 
authorized them to spend in the improvement of your road system. 

I also want to emphasize that our new Highway Commission will 
not allow the primary road system to break down. It is vitally neces- 
sary that our main arteries of transportation be stabilized and 
strengthened. It is my belief that with $200,000,000 set aside for 
secondary roads, we will have more of our current revenue available 
for restoring our principal highways to first-rate condition. With 
sufficient money to do the entire job, North Carolina will again be- 
come the "Good Roads State." 

There has been a great deal of loose talk about the danger of 
waste in this rapid building program. Do not forget that there will 
be no necessity for the expenditure of the entire bond issue during 
my administration. The expenditure can be spread over a number 
of years, if circumstances and good management require it. 



Addresses 119 

We are asking you to authorize the use of the $200,000,000 be- 
cause we do not feel that we should go to you frequently with bond 
issue proposals, and this amount of money will do a good job of 
what needs to be done. 

The restlessness of the people as they suffer under bad road con- 
ditions calls for action now to help them. The state's record of the 
development of great economic strength as a consequence of road 
building suggests that we make this investment. The obvious relation- 
ship of good roads to true progress urges us to act. 

In recent months I have expressed the opinion frequently that 
North Carolina has a great future as an industrial state, especially 
as we enter the Atomic Age. More and more the tendency is to de- 
centralize production and to get the factories away from the great 
centers of population. One corporation with a great string of factories 
in this state and elsewhere recently declared that its purpose was 
to build no more factories in large cities, but to build them in the 
country. This means these manufacturers will depend upon labor 
that can be transported to the plant each day. 

North Carolina is well qualified by the distribution of her popu- 
lation in the rural areas to welcome that kind of trend in industry. 
Our state is well-populated, and population is widely distributed. 
It is my conviction that we should encourage the continuation of this 
condition. In order to encourage it we must enable life in the 
country to be richer and full of more good things. I have said to 
you before, and I repeat now, that workers who live on a small farm 
can ride out any economic depression better than those who are 
crowded in cities and are solely dependent on a job in the factory. 

I trust that we will be wise enough to avoid great depressions in 
the future. We can avoid them if we will continue to insist upon 
the things that will distribute buying power and public service 
benefits among the many, but there is a protection in a decentralized 
industry and a widely distributed people that I trust North Carolina 
will never lose. I come, therefore, urging you to support the bond 
issue in the June 4 election, confident that you will recognize that 
they are inspired by the strong conviction I have — and that I believe 
you have — that a great future for North Carolina depends upon 
the development of all parts of the state so that the people will remain 
content to live in their country homes as they live now. I believe 
that as we expand road service and educational opportunity for all, 
the state will be opening the way for North Carolina to advance to 



120 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

greatness. I ask you, therefore, with all the earnestness I possess not 
to permit these bond proposals to be defeated. 

Do not forget that there can be no great progress made for all the 
people without this kind of investment in the state's development. 
Bear in mind that we cannot borrow money to make any great 
investment of this kind without a vote of the people. I want to 
impress upon you as strongly as I can, and with this I close — I repeat 
I want to impress upon you as strongly as I can that North Carolina 
cannot afford to veto this great proposal of physical progress that 
is now before you. 



CHOWAN COLLEGE BEGINS SECOND CENTURY 

Address Delivered At Chowan College Centennial 

murfreesboro 

May 13, 1949 

Mr. Chairman, Governor Tuck, and Distinguished Guests: 

It is a privilege to join you here in Murfreesboro today for a truly 
significant occasion. 

Chowan College, which you are launching for its journey into 
its second century, has its roots deep in the history of our state. 

The Baptists of northeastern North Carolina and southeastern 
Virginia, through the Chowan and Portsmouth associations, estab- 
lished the Chowan Baptist Female Institute here at Murfreesboro on 
October 11, 1848, to fill a pressing need of that day. They dedicated 
this institution to the Christian education of the young women of 
this area. 

Leaders of the Baptist Denomination, both in North Carolina 
and Virginia, proceeded vigorously with holy purpose. The new 
school flourished. It did not close its doors during the Civil War, nor 
in the trying days of the period of reconstruction that followed. 
Chowan carried on even while the doors of the University at Chapel 
Hill were closed for five years. 

The men and women who nurtured Chowan through a century 
of many vicissitudes were a part of the backbone of a state growing 
great. Their names are rooted deep in our history. 

Chowan has sent forth outstanding alumnae. I shall mention only 
a few: 

There was Miss Eunice McDowell, daughter of the first president 
of the college. First child born in the college building (1859) , later 



Addresses 121 

a teacher in the college and the first to be awarded the Doctorate 
from the college. 

Laura Peterson, wife of Dr. Hight C. Moore, editorial writer of 
the Sunday school board. 

Mary E. Pritchard, wife of Charles E. Taylor, former president of 
Wake Forest College. 

Annie J. Ward, first graduate and wife of J. W. Moore, outstand- 
ing North Carolina historian. 

Emily Hardee, wife of William Kennedy, founder of the Kennedy 
Home at Kinston. 

Lucy H. Owens, wife of D. A. Robertson, president emeritus of 
Greensboro College. 

And Fannie Knight, first unmarried woman sent to the foreign 
mission field by the Baptist Board. 

Some of the younger graduates of the college are: Mrs. Ruby Dan- 
iels Udvarnoki, missionary to Budapest, Hungary; Mrs. Lois Vann 
Wynn, former trustee of Chowan College, Murfreesboro; and Mrs. 
Dorothy Heath Brown, wife of Edwin P. Brown, nationally known 
manufacturer of Murfreesboro. She is outstanding in Woman's Club 
work. 

Names like these, and those of many who served as president, as 
trustee, and as teacher — a number of whom are enjoying the happy 
privilege of being present here today for Chowan's entry upon its sec- 
ond century — stand out in the rich history of the college. 

None of them belonged to the "Can't Do" society. Their successors, 
who are pouring new life into the institution, do not belong to the 
"Can't Do" society. Chowan is reopening its doors despite those who 
do not think it worth-while to fight for a fuller life and better world. 
Chowan will forge ahead despite those who shake their heads at 
the mention of progress, and the new Chowan will add luster to an 
old, honored name and pay rich dividends in human service. 

Chowan reopens its doors to begin its second century of service at 
a time when our state and our nation are at the crossroads. 

Either we dare to "Go Forward," or we pull into a shell and let 
other states forge ahead of us. 

Either we "Go Forward," or we shall find ourselves crammed 
tighter in the bottleneck of public services lagging behind the needs 
of the times. 

We celebrate here today a shining example of the North Caro- 
lina spirit of daring to do. 



122 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

This was the spirit in which Chowan was founded. It was the 
spirit of our people when they borrowed money to build the cross- 
state railroads in the middle of the last century. It was the spirit 
fanned to flame by Aycock at the beginning of the century when he 
found our people eager to follow a leader who preached the gospel of 
public education. It was the spirit in the 1920's when another great 
governor — Cameron Morrison — led the crusade against the mud 
tax, and our people dared to vote the bonds that launched us upon 
our greatest era of prosperity. And it is true here today in the re- 
opening of Chowan College. 

These were no easy victories. Every one of these battles for pro- 
gress had to be fought against the "Can't Do" forces. But the legions 
of progress fought them and won them, and our state stands at the 
head of the column of progress in the American union as a result of 
these hard-won battles for what was right and what was good for all 
the people — not just a selfish and favored few. 

We are fighting another battle today for the better schools and 
roads that I believe to be vital in keeping North Carolina current 
with the times. 

On June 4, all over North Carolina, our people will have the 
opportunity to go to the polls and vote to remove the shackles of 
inadequate school buildings from our public education system, and 
to repeal the mud tax which is now retarding the business and cul- 
tural development of our state. 

The issues of better schools and better roads are inseparable. 
There is no object in building modern school houses if the people 
can't get to them. The maximum benefits of good roads cannot be 
utilized unless our people are educated. 

I am confident that our people will take this forward step if they 
have the facts upon which to base their decision. I have the greatest 
confidence that the people of North Carolina can accomplish any- 
thing they set out to do. 

The motto of century-old Chowan is lux et Veritas — light and 
truth. With light and truth, the new Chowan College faces the 
future with confidence, and with the same light and truth I am 
confident that North Carolina will drive forward on June 4 to begin 
its greatest era of progress. 



Addresses 123 

BROADENING THE EDUCATIONAL HORIZON 

Address 1 Delivered At The Inauguration Of Dr. Alfonso Elder 

As President Of North Carolina College 

Durham 

June 3, 1949 

Greetings: 

This is a significant occasion. It has a deeper meaning than the 
formality of installing Dr. Alfonso Elder as president of the North 
Carolina College at Durham. Behind the scholastic pomp of these 
inaugural exercises one can see the beginning of a new and grander 
phase in the development of this unique institution, the only stand- 
ard publicly supported liberal arts college for Negroes in this country. 

Today it stands on the threshold of a great expansion program 
with the promise of rising to new levels of service. The General 
Assembly has wisely recognized the need for broadening the educa- 
tional horizon of our Negro people, and it has generously expressed 
its confidence in this institution by providing funds for new buildings 
and improvements far in excess of the value of the present plant. It 
also has made liberal appropriations for operating expenses during 
the ensuing biennium. 

You have a balance in your permanent improvement fund, I am 
informed, of something more than four million dollars. This includes 
unexpended appropriations of the 1947 General Assembly, as well 
as $2,147,000 provided by the 1949 Assembly. It might interest you 
to know that this balance is nearly four times as great as all of the 
prior appropriations made for permanent improvements at North 
Carolina College since the state took it over in 1923. 

I shall not go into your building program in detail, for I feel 
sure most of you are familiar with it. I am happy to say, however, 
that work, long but unavoidably delayed, will soon get under way 
on part of this program. Plans have been approved for a large dor- 
mitory, a new classroom building, and an apartment house for 
faculty members. 

The generosity of the General Assembly in making this building 
program possible is characteristic of North Carolina's progressive at- 
titude in educational matters. It is also indicative of the state's 
acceptance of the responsibility for providing educational facilities 
for Negroes equal to those made available to other citizens. 



1 Governor Scott was unable to attend the inauguration of Dr. Alfonso Elder, and this address 
was read by Mr. D. S. Coltrane, assistant director of the budget. 



124 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Dr. Elder, your inauguration is favored by auspicious circum- 
stances. You inherit from your predecessor, the late Dr. James E. 
Shepard, who founded and nurtured this institution to its present 
status, a noble tradition of able leadership in happy race relation- 
ships, as well as in the field of higher education. 

From your many years of association with Dr. Shepard you have 
doubtless absorbed much of his high idealism and shared with him 
his aspirations for building here not just a college, but an intellectual 
center for the people of your race. 

You are admirably equipped by training and experience for your 
high position of public trust, and you have demonstrated through 
performance a broad capacity for administration and a high degree 
of leadership. You are no stranger to your responsibilities, for you 
have ably fulfilled them for some months past. 

Yours is a splendid opportunity. I am confident you will make 
the most of it. 



SCHOOL AND ROAD BONDS 

Address Delivered Over Radio Station WPTF 

Raleigh 

June 3, 1949 

When I resolved to run for governor last year, the issues of better 
schools and roads were ready-made. I declared myself for improve- 
ment of schools and roads and for greater efficiency in administration 
of our public affairs in order that the public might have more value 
for its tax dollar. As I went about the state campaigning, I found 
the people everywhere as conscious of these needs as I was. There was 
no doubt in my mind of the popular mandate that I do the best I 
could for both schools and roads. 

The sense of need is not new. Almost exactly a century ago, the 
people of this state were stirring with discontent over their disabilities 
caused by bad schools and roads. Under the influence of a progressive 
governor the state began to build both railroads and highways. A 
strong movement for better schools began at the same time. Then 
came the great War Between the States and the rising tide of interest 
in this state in both public schools and roads was beaten down, and 
as it receded, it left a struggling population living in comparative 
ignorance and poverty. 

It took courage and hard work for the state to dig itself out of 
these conditions, and many among you now are old enough to re- 



Addresses 125 

member those hard times back in the last half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. You will remember the one-room, log cabin schoolhouses. 
Often these were open only three months in the year with an under- 
educated teacher in charge of each. You will remember, too, the 
impassable condition of the roads even in your immediate neighbor- 
hood. Do not forget that at times now some of your neighbors are 
experiencing conditions with roads about as bad. 

Just exactly a half-century ago the state responded to the eloquence 
of a man who became governor and took a lead in the improvement 
of the public school system. Under the influence of Aycock's leader- 
ship North Carolina began to build a better state. Then in the 
twenties with the automobile becoming more and more useful, we 
took a chance. We borrowed money to build better roads, and a 
state that our neighbors had dubbed "Old Rip Van Winkle" really 
became aroused and awake. 

It was difficult to start that road building program in 1921. The 
conservative people of the state were afraid to do it. No one knew 
exactly how we were to pay off the debt, but we built the roads and 
increased the productive power of North Carolina when we did so. 
When we started building roads then, our banking resources were 
some $441,000,000. Today they are close to $2,000,000,000 or nearly 
five times as great. 

When we offered the first $5,000,000 of our $50,000,000 bond issue 
to the market in 1921, we offered it at five per cent and we got a bid 
for exactly $17,700 worth of those bonds. The market did not want 
North Carolina bonds. It took the special interest among a few 
bankers in New York and in this state to sell that first $5,000,000 
offering. We ultimately borrowed $115,000,000 for road building at 
interest rates never under four per cent, but I repeat that the invest- 
ment paid and still pays dividends. 

Today if we offer $200,000,000 of road bonds to the market, they 
will sell readily at not more than 1.75 per cent interest. We are better 
able to borrow this money now and pay it back at this small interest 
charge than we were to borrow $25,000,000 in 1921. 

I am not proposing to you a wild adventure in the use of the 
state's credit. I am proposing a sound investment in the people of 
this state. 

I believe that as we expand road service and educational oppor- 
tunity for all, the state will be opening the way for North Carolina 
to advance to greatness. I ask you, therefore, with all the earnest- 
ness I possess not to permit these bond proposals to be defeated. 



126 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Do not forget that there can be no great progress made for all 
the people without this kind of investment in the state's develop- 
ment. Bear in mind that we cannot borrow money to make any 
great investment of this kind without a vote of the people. I want 
to impress on you as strongly as I can that North Carolina cannot 
afford to veto this great proposal of physical progress that is now be- 
fore you. 

I urge you to vote for better schools and better roads on Saturday, 
June 4. 



GREETINGS TO THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY 

Address 1 Delivered At The Opening Of The 

Bright Leaf Tobacco Market 

Wilson 

August 18, 1949 

It is a pleasure to greet all the growers, the warehousemen, and 
all those connected with the tobacco growing and production of 
the Eastern Bright Leaf Tobacco Belt on this opening day of their 
market, August 18, 1949. 

To the buyers of the leaf — I feel sure you will be getting the 
highest quality you've been able to buy in many years. As I have 
gone about through the tobacco growing sections of our state this 
year, I have been impressed with the healthy condition of the crop. 

To the growers of the leaf — may I commend you on the good 
work you have done in producing the best crop we have had in a 
long time. Despite sectional weather setbacks, you have produced a 
good crop and you have cured it out, according to the demands of 
exacting buyers. 

As we go into the eastern market, this year I confidently believe we 
can look forward to a most satisfactory season for everybody in the 
tobacco business. 



Recorded August 11, for broadcast over radio station WGTM, Wilson, on August 18. 



Addresses 127 

MEN DEPEND ON WOMEN FOR IDEALS AND GUIDANCE 

Address Delivered At The Twenty-third Debutante Ball 

In Memorial Auditorium 

Raleigh 

September 9, 1949 

Debutantes, Escorts, Parents, Patrons, and Friends: 

It is with pleasure that I greet you on the occasion of the twenty- 
third Debutante Ball and participate in the presentation of these one 
hundred and thirty-one charming young ladies to the society of the 
state. 

Tonight we have represented here families engaged in numerous 
professions, businesses, and occupations. The success of many of 
these enterprises is often justly attributed to the inspiration of a fine 
and noble woman. Down through the centuries men have depended 
on women for ideals, encouragement, and guidance in all their en- 
deavors. 

We rejoice to see the promise in North Carolina's future vested in 
the brilliant and lovely ladies about to take their places as leaders 
in their respective communities. We rest assured that they are quite 
capable of assuming their share of responsibility in the full develop- 
ment of North Carolina culturally, socially, and economically. 

Along with the other citizens of the state, I welcome you to our 
capital city. May your stay here be enjoyable and memorable and 
may your future be filled with happiness. 



"HOW YOU GONNA KEEP 'EM DOWN ON THE FARM?" 

Address Delivered At The Opening Of The Carolina Power And 

Light Company Steam Plant In Lumberton 

lumberton 

September 30, 1949 

Mr. Chairman and Friends: 

It is a pleasure and a privilege to be with you in Robeson County 
today to throw the switch which releases sixty thousand units of 
horsepower immediately from this modern steam plant of the Caro- 
lina Power and Light Company. It is equally pleasant to know that 
this plant, at an early date, will add another sixty thousand and, I 
am informed, is capable of expansion to provide two hundred and 



128 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

forty thousand horsepower of electric energy for the diversified de- 
velopment of our state. 

I am glad, too, to have the opportunity to take part in a cere- 
mony that marks the achievement in less than a year and a half of 
such a magnificent enterprise. It was, I recall, on May 14, of last 
year that Mr. Sutton turned the first spade of dirt on this site. 

Things have happened fast since then. They have happened fast 
both here at the Lumberton Steam Plant, and in our state and the 
world about us. Even as the first sixty thousand units of horsepower 
goes out from here, other events make it obvious that for years to 
come we must continue to expand our resources for the production 
and transmission of electric energy, in order to maintain North 
Carolina's position of leadership among the states of the South. 

We find ourselves referring here today to horses — because horse- 
power is the accepted term of measurement of energy — but we do 
so with the realization that the last half century witnessed the de- 
velopment of the electric motor and the internal combustion engine, 
and also marked the virtual disappearance of the horse as man's 
principal beast of burden. And in this same connection, I ran across 
some interesting statistics on horses and mules the other day. In 
1915, there were twenty-eight million horses and mules in the United 
States. Today it is estimated that there are only seven and a half 
million — and that they are being replaced by electric and gasoline 
engines at the rate of a million a year! 

Horses and mules are being replaced by mechanical power with 
such marked advantage in economy and efficiency that between 1840 
and the present, the ratio of manpower required on the farm to 
produce enough food and fibre for both rural and city dwellers has 
been more than reversed. In 1840, eight families were needed on 
the farm to two in the city. Now it takes only two families on the 
farm to sustain themselves and eight families in the city — in addition 
to providing the food needed for our huge overseas relief and re- 
habilitation programs. 

That poses the most important problem that North Carolina — 
and, in fact, the whole South faces today. It comes down to the words 
of a popular song of World War I — "How you gonna keep 'em 
down on the farm?" 

To North Carolina, which has more small farms than any state 
in the union except Texas, with a vast coastal plain area devoted 
almost exclusively to agriculture, it suggests but a single answer, 
and that answer is to spread the advantages of living and wage earn- 
ing traditionally associated with urban dwelling to the country. 



Addresses 129 

More than anything else, electricity makes this possible — and in 
making it possible, it is also opening up vast new markets for the 
producers of electricity. 

We have this year in North Carolina begun the greatest program 
of expansion of facilities — of equalization of opportunity without 
regard to whether a man lives in city or country — in our history. 

We are making headway on a road building program that within 
the next three or four years will add more than twelve thousand 
miles of hard-surfaced roads to our state system. This will bring our 
total hard-surface mileage up to nearly thirty thousand, both primary 
and secondary. In addition, we are improving more than thirty-five 
thousand miles of roads with other types of all-weather surfacing. We 
are going to get our rural people out of the mud. We are making it 
possible for them to travel in any kind of weather, to school and 
church, from farm to market, and between factory and farm. We 
are doing this with the proceeds of the $200,000,000 in bonds which 
the people voted on themselves this year in full faith and confidence 
in the future of North Carolina. 

In the same period, we are building more than $50,000,000 worth 
of new public schools to take care of the unprecedented crop of war 
babies now arriving at school age. Also, we are building more than 
$30,000,000 worth of hospitals, and over $100,000,000 worth of insti- 
tutional and administrative buildings for the state. At the same 
time, local units are building upward of $200,000,000 worth of needed 
improvements. 

In all, the staggering sum of a million dollars a day is being 
expended in our state during this period to wipe out the deficit in 
public services that accumulated during the war and postwar years. 

North Carolina is "Going Forward" in a fashion characteristic 
of its leadership in the South since Aycock launched us on the road 
to equal educational opportunity at the turn of the century, and 
Morrison put us in the front as the "Good Roads State" in the 1920's. 

It is within that period, too, that the Carolina Power and Light 
Company, which came into being in 1908 with a capacity of 5,000 
horsepower, has grown into a giant with capacity for producing and 
distributing nearly 700,000 units of horsepower. 

Within this same half century, the capacity of all electric generat- 
ing establishments in North Carolina — private and public — steam 
and hydro — has grown from barely 25,000 horsepower to nearly 
2,000,000. 

It is a staggering accomplishment. It is more staggering to con- 
template because it still is not enough. 



130 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

I could cite endless figures to show the increasing demand for 
power. Between the years 1939 and 1947, which are the latest figures 
available, the number of industrial establishments in North Carolina 
increased by 2,161. This was over 68 per cent in less than ten years, 
and far ahead of other South Atlantic states. At the same time the 
number of rural electric connections was increasing, until it is today 
about 370,000. 

Vast new markets for power have completely outmoded old 
theories of restricted production and high prices. The need today is 
mass production for mass markets and the constant development of 
new markets. 

Take rural electrification as an example of both a new and a mass 
market. 

For its part in making electricity available to the rural popula- 
tion of our state, the Carolina Power and Light Company is justly 
proud. In the last five years this company has built more than 6,000 
miles of rural line and added more than 50,000 rural customers. As 
of July 1, of this year, Carolina Power and Light Company reports 
that it has 10,420 miles of rural line serving 75,807 rural customers 
in North Carolina. This is approximately one-fifth of the 367,000 
total rural connections in the state. It is a far cry from the way 
electric companies used to do things! 

Hardly a decade and a half ago, it was almost impossible to enjoy 
the benefits of electric power beyond corporate limits unless you 
built a private generating plant — an expensive and highly unsatis- 
factory operation — or bore the disproportionate expense of building 
a private transmission line. 

The power companies were not interested in extending their lines 
beyond thickly populated areas, where they could skim the cream 
from their product. 

The government stepped in, and the Rural Electrification Author- 
ity came into being during the first Roosevelt administration. In 
Statesville, in 1931, I made a speech advocating rural electric cooper- 
atives. I outlined what I saw as the future for extending power lines 
into the country. I heard later that a power company man threatened 
to have me run out of the state for my trouble. But I am still here, 
so are the rural cooperatives, and so are the power companies — and 
all doing very well, thank you! 

In fact, we are all doing so well that the demand for power is so 
far exceeding supply that in some areas the REA program is being 
retarded because it is having difficulty in obtaining power at reason- 



Addresses 131 

able rates to energize its lines! This power shortage is particularly 
acute from Goldsboro to the coast. An example of the insufficiency 
of power in this eastern area is Little Washington, where electric 
service is at times about on par with a European city after a bomb- 
ing raid — you veterans here know what I am talking about. 

The situation at Little Washington isn't typical, but it is indicative 
of a growing power shortage in cities and surburban areas served by 
municipal plants. These small, local installations are, in general, 
simply unable to keep abreast of the increased demands for service. 
They not only have more people demanding service, but people 
using electricity by the 100 kilowatt hours, whereas a few years ago 
they counted consumption in ten kilowatt hours. 

Electricity has not only replaced the gas and oil lamp. It has 
become the cheapest labor man can hire — in the home and on the 
farm, as well as in industry. It not only cooks meals, does the wash- 
ing, and turns all kinds of motors, but it also brings the news and 
entertainment by radio, and soon will bring the theatre and major 
sports events directly into the home by means of television. 

Electricity — cheap and abundant as we must have it — will do 
more toward answering the question of how we are going to keep 
them down on the farm than anything else. The better schools, 
roads, hospitals, and rural churches we are already building will 
contribute their part. Forward-looking industrialists, like Spencer 
Love who is building his new Burlington Mills units away from 
congested areas and having his labor drive in from small farms, are 
contributing to the trend. 

The Atomic Age, which basically demands dispersal of industry 
for the purpose of self-preservation, and the aspects of the Atomic 
Age which require diversification as our economic balance wheel, 
offer us the guide posts to our future. 

A civilization as complex as ours under our American system of 
free enterprise, in which every individual is dependent to some extent 
upon others, demands balance. This is peculiarly true of North 
Carolina, and North Carolina is most fortunately situated to benefit 
from this new trend toward balance of agriculture and industry, and 
toward balanced opportunity for the rural dweller and the city 
dweller. 

Take, for instance, the city of Burlington, which is near enough 
Haw River for me to call it home. Before the last war, Burlington 
was no exceptional town. It had no particular strategic location by old 
standards. But Burlington is situated in a county of small suburban 



132 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

farms served by good roads and accessible to electric lines and, to a 
larger extent than most such areas, to telephone service. Factories 
mushroomed in Burlington, and the workers came to man them from 
the surrounding country. They did not leave their small farms. They 
kept them going while they augmented their income in Burlington's 
factories. When work slackened and the factories laid off workers, 
they still had their farms and were neither in danger of starvation 
nor totally dependent upon public welfare. Another example of this 
is Asheboro, and there are many others, in North Carolina, where 
the old-time mill village is rapidly fading into history. These happy 
people are able to maintain their farm residence, keep up tax values, 
and at the same time enjoy city advantages of schools, churches, and 
entertainment. Without electricity, this development would not 
have been possible. 

Without electricity in abundance and at rates competitive through- 
out our state and with surrounding states, it will not be possible to 
bring about the rapid future development we are capable of by 
attracting industry. 

North Carolina has attracted many new industries in the last 
decade — but it has been by-passed by numerous prospects because 
electricity was not available, either to turn machinery or to serve a 
dispersed labor supply such as exists in the Burlington and Asheboro 
areas. 

Industry has concentrated in piedmont and western North Caro- 
lina. It has shunned eastern North Carolina to the extent that only 
five per cent of the state's industry is located east of Raleigh. The 
whole state suffers because of this disproportionate dependence upon 
agriculture in this large area. The fault is in large measure due to 
lack of power to attract industry to process farm produce, to process 
forest and mineral products (the East may be the logical location for 
a much needed cement plant), and to expand the facilities of the 
ports at Wilmington and Morehead City. 

This new plant here on the Lumber River can contribute to 
remedying this serious economic fault for southeastern North Caro- 
lina. The development at Bugg's Island can contribute greatly to 
placing the northeastern counties upon a sounder economic basis. 
With transmission as easy as it is now, power can be brought 
hundreds of miles through a system of exchanges, and there is no 
substantial reason why eastern North Carolina should be penalized 
by high rates that restrict consumption. 



Addresses 133 

The Carolina Power and Light Company is part of a great inter- 
connecting system extending from Chicago, through the Middle West, 
to the Atlantic Seaboard and the Gulf of Mexico. 

The practicability of such interconnection was proved during the 
war, when, under the stress of national emergency, red tape was cut 
and potential shortages of power in mushrooming defense areas were 
met with little delay and inconvenience by drawing upon other areas 
which were faced with no unusual demands. 

This system of interchange of power is working now, and the con- 
sumer has no way of knowing whether the electric current that lights 
his home or turns his motors was generated at Lumberton, at Water- 
ville, at Norris Dam, or at any number of points of production — nor 
does he know whether it was generated by burning coal or harnessing 
water. 

Transmission lines of various electric producers are either inter- 
connected or can be interconnected, just as the tracks of railroads are 
interconnected. The difference is that power is exchanged by private 
agreement, whereas rail cargoes are exchanged under law which 
makes them common carriers and required to accept shipment of any 
and all shippers. 

Using this system of exchange, the Carolina Power and Light 
Company last year sold Virginia Electric Power Company 28,000,000 
kilowatt hours of so-called "dump" power at an average cost of 2.76 
mills a kilowatt hour — less than a third of a cent. Some of this 
power may have found its way back to customers in northeastern 
North Carolina, but it was first shipped from generating points 
within North Carolina to a company in another state. 

I do not have information about Carolina Power and Light's sales 
of power within North Carolina, but I do know its lines are inter- 
connected with those of the company serving southeastern North 
Carolina, and I do know that rates charged by this company are 
throttling industrial development and rural electrification of this 
area, and will continue to do so as long as the company, which holds 
a monopoly franchise, continues to base its rates on low capacity, 
high cost steam generation. 

I consider it a fair question to ask why we are exporting, at give- 
away prices, power generated from the natural resources of one part 
of our state, while the people of another section are penalized by 
inability to purchase power at reasonable rates? 

I am aware that the financial experts of the utilities involved 
have always been able to defend their position to the satisfaction of 



134 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

our state regulatory commission, but just as we have a new day in 
power production and transmission and rural electrification, we are 
also due a new day on removal of rate discriminations — no matter 
what their cause. The old answers simply won't do any more. 

These questions are, and will be answered, in favor of the people, 
because the government is furnishing competition, actual and poten- 
tial, in the production of electric energy. It is my opinion that this 
competition to private monopoly franchise holders will thrive or 
subside in proportion to how efficiently and conscientiously the priv- 
ate utilities meet their responsibility to the people who granted them 
their monopoly franchises. 

There is at present such a wide variation in power rates as to be 
discriminatory in some sections. For instance, the wholesale rate 
charged rural electric cooperatives varies from five and eight-tenths 
mills a kilowatt hour in TVA territory — that is only little over 
half a cent — to eighteen and one-half mills in the Belhaven munici- 
pal area — that is nearly two cents. Carolina Power and Light sells 
to rural coops for three quarters of a cent, while Tidewater, whose 
lines are connected with Carolina Power and Light, charged a cent 
and a half. Virginia Electric, who also is connected with Carolina, 
charges one cent a kilowatt hour. 

I can see no excuse for such wide variation — nor for restrictions 
in contracts with regard to industrial and municipal area use of the 
power purchased by the cooperatives at wholesale. Nor can I see 
valid excuses for discrimination in the cost of power furnished users 
in different areas of the same system. This may not be reflected in 
different rates, but in high charges for transmission facilities. 

The State Utilities Commission under our law is charged with the 
duty of regulating public utilities and protecting public convenience 
and necessity. It has a task ahead to see that the cost of electric 
service is better equalized, and that users of electricity are not pen- 
alized unduly because of geographic location, whether it be east or 
west, town or country. 

The water power provided by our rivers is one of the natural 
resources of the state in which all the people are interested. When 
a public service corporation uses this power to manufacture electricity 
which is distributed to consumers under a monopolistic franchise, it 
should not skim the cream of available customers and leave the others 
without service. Instead, it should render all reasonably necessary 
service required by the people without discrimination. It must not 
be forgotten that the individual through the state gave the franchise 
— and that also he pays tax on the land where the water first fell — 



Addresses 135 

that ran into spring, branch, creek, and river to be dammed up to 
make power. He has a legal and moral right to the same treatment 
as all other citizens and should not be charged extra because he lives 
at the end of the line. 

The cost of transformers or other equipment required to render 
service to urban consumers is not, as I understand it, charged against 
individual consumers or groups of consumers. There is no reason 
why such cost should be charged to rural consumers. To do so is 
clearly discriminatory. The State Utilities Commission has the au- 
thority to order rural extensions upon its own motion or upon the 
request of the State Rural Electrification Authority. The commission 
also has the authority to establish a rate structure based upon the 
cost of construction and operation. The commission will, as in the 
past, give due regard to this expense in fixing rates which will insure 
a reasonable return upon investment. 

i I have requested the State Rural Electrification Authority to in- 
vestigate all demands for rural electric service in territories served 
by the various utilities, and to provide such utility with a report of 
its findings and recommendations. This is now being done on the 
basis of thousands of letters I have received from rural residents who 
have been unable to obtain power. This will give a clear picture of 
the job ahead, and make it possible for service to be extended to 
rural users by the most orderly and economical means available. 

Despite the tremendous expansion in power production facilities, 
there is still undeveloped in the state at least a million horsepower 
of hydroelectric power. This is about half what we are producing 
now, by both water power and steam. 

A large part of this potential production has been surveyed by 
government engineers in combination with flood-control projects. 
These projects are being blocked or delayed by a combination of 
apathy, disagreement, and selfish interest, most unfortunate — a 
great indictment, and justly so, against free enterprise. Our failure 
to go ahead with the development and protection of these natural 
resources is due in part to the negative attitude of our public utilities 
that I have referred to on other occasions. 

I hope that attitude belongs to our past, and that both political 
and business leaders, who have not kept abreast of the people in 
progressive thinking, are now hearing clearly the clamor of the 
people to "Go Forward." 

We hear a lot about the TVA, and we know that it is furnishing 
cheap power — generated partly from lakes in western North Caro- 
lina. But what we are not all aware of is that very little TVA power 



136 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

is available to North Carolina, and I am informed that very little 
will be. The vast bulk of TVA power is supplying industry and 
building in the state of Tennessee and other states in competition 
with North Carolina. 

For all the commendable construction of power plants on North 
Carolina rivers — Carolina Power and Light in the west and on the 
Yadkin and Cape Fear, and Duke along the Catawba River — there 
is still opportunity on other sites, notably the Yadkin and the Roan- 
oke, for large-scale power production in conjunction with essential 
flood-control projects. 

I have, as you know, named a committee that includes representa- 
tives of the public, industry, and agriculture to advise me in ap- 
proaching this problem; and I realize that it is a problem upon 
which there is disagreement among government agencies, as well as 
between government and private enterprise in the power field. I do 
not profess to know the answers, but I do know the need exists for 
both flood control and cheap power. 

I consider it of the utmost importance, also, that we get along with 
our plans for flood control and hydroelectric development for a 
reason completely disassociated with our urgent need for additional 
power; and that reason is because of the indecision about the location 
and character of dams which is retarding our road building program. 
This is particularly true in counties affected by potential development 
along the Yadkin River and its tributaries. 

Specifically, the controversy over whether there shall be one or 
two dams on the Yadkin River and whether they shall be dry dams 
or power dams, and other phases of flood control and hydroelectric 
development is responsible for the present unimproved condition of 
Highway No. 421 and the bridge over the Yadkin between Yadkin- 
ville and Winston-Salem, and of Highway No. 268 that runs along 
the Yadkin from Wilkesboro. 

I am in dead earnest about the necessity of going forward with 
all aspects of the power and flood-control program — whether separ- 
ately or together to be decided by the best thinking in the public 
interest. 

As I have said before, I would rather for private enterprise to do 
any job it is best equipped to do, and I have never known of a case 
where government or a cooperative organization came into the picture 
except where the issue was forced by the failure of private enterprise 
or regular business to render to the people the service they were en- 
titled to. 



Addresses 137 

To my way of thinking, the private utilities have nothing to fear 
if they go about their business realistically and provide power on a 
mass production basis that will encourage mass consumption, instead 
of attempting to barricade their operations with high costs, restric- 
tions upon consumption, and unrealistic profits. 

It has been said in the halls of Congress that the power companies' 
"interest ends where the public interest begins." 

The power companies, beyond doubt, through shortsighted public 
policy and unwise propaganda methods, have bared themselves to 
public suspicion to that effect. 

The road to socialism is paved with public distrust of big business. 
The production and wholesale distribution of electric energy is of 
necessity big business. The capital investment required is so enorm- 
ous that it is possible for only two types of enterprise to engage in 
it — great private syndicates or government. 

Up to this time, there is no question in my mind which the 
American people prefer — all conditions being equal. But neither 
is there any question that the private utilities, by the record that 
they themselves have established, have shaken public confidence in 
them. They have the future before them to justify their existence in 
the American plan of free enterprise. 

The people who have made North Carolina the most progressive 
southern state have now set the stage for a pioneering advance into 
the Atomic Age with a diversified program to achieve economic 
balance. 

The National Planning Association for the South in a study 
recently summed up our advantages for attracting industry: 

"Good markets, available materials, and labor supply." 

To that in North Carolina, we can add a kind climate, and the 
best roads, school, and health services in the South. We are now 
adding rural electrification and telephone service. 

But we still must have power — abundant and cheap — to com- 
pete on the most favorable terms in our quest for new industry that 
will achieve a balanced economy. 

This Carolina Power and Light Company plant that is being put 
into service today is evidence of forward looking on the part of a 
major public utility. I commend the directors and executives for 
their vision and energy. I urge the Carolina Power and Light Com- 
pany to continue its progressive program, and other companies to 
go forward similarly until by mass production and efficient distribu- 



138 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

tion there are no bottlenecks to progress left in our state due to lack 
of power at competitive rates. 

We must have the cooperation of all as we "Go Forward" toward 
a greater North Carolina. 



ILLICIT LIQUOR TRAFFIC IN NORTH CAROLINA 

Address Delivered At State- Wide Meeting Of North Carolina 

Law Enforcement Officials 

Raleigh 

October 12, 1949 

Gentlemen: 

This is indeed a happy privilege for me. All of my life I have 
had the utmost respect and admiration for law enforcement officials, 
and it is both an honor and a pleasure to me to meet with this fine 
group of men here today to discuss problems of vital importance to 
our state and to the communities from which we come. 

As law enforcement officers, you rank at the top among the most 
important individuals concerned with the welfare and progress of our 
state. Yours is a great and noble responsibility. You hold in your 
hands the responsibility of maintaining law and order and of making 
your communities safe for decent citizens and their children. I know 
fully the difficulties under which you labor. I know that often your 
work goes unappreciated even in the communities you protect, some- 
times at the very risk of your own life. Therefore, I salute you for 
engaging in the noble calling of law enforcement and for the fine 
contributions you are making towards a better North Carolina. I am 
happy to welcome you to Raleigh for this meeting, and I sincerely 
hope that out of it all of us will derive a great deal of good which 
will result in considerable benefit to our state and to the communities 
which you represent. 

I want to say at the outset that I have no desire or intention to 
dictate to you or even attempt to tell you how to run your business. 
It is not my purpose to be critical of anyone. I think, by and large, 
that law enforcement in North Carolina will stack up favorably with 
law enforcement in other states of similar character and with sim- 
ilar problems. My sole purpose in inviting you gentlemen to meet 
with me was to have an open and frank discussion of some of the 
problems facing us in the field of law enforcement, to get your advice 
and suggestions, and to attempt to form a united front of all law 



Addresses 1 39 

enforcement agencies to battle those elements in this state which 
have no regard for our laws and which, in devious and sinister ways, 
are helping to tear down public respect for our law enforcement 
agencies and institutions. If we can form a united front against the 
lawless elements of this state, we will have accomplished something 
which will win for you and all other law enforcement officers the 
eternal gratitude of all decent North Carolinians. 

I hope that after my brief remarks the meeting will take the 
form of an open forum discussion with each man here invited to 
stand on his own feet and express himself on how we can achieve 
tighter enforcement of the laws which we will discuss here today. As 
you know, we are meeting here to consider the illicit liquor traffic in 
North Carolina. It is common knowledge that a literal flood of illegal 
liquor continually pours into this state and that the imported stuff is 
augmented by a considerable output of the homemade product. It has 
gotten to the place that wholesalers and bootleggers of imported 
federal tax-paid liquor make absolutely no attempt to conceal their 
identities, so confident are they that they can disdainfully flout the 
laws of our state. Their arrogance involves a principal which goes 
much deeper than the mere sale of these illegal beverages. They are 
undermining respect for the law which each of you has solemnly 
sworn to uphold. The law-abiding citizens of North Carolina are 
appalled at their boldness, and they are dismayed that such crime 
has been permitted to flourish in our state. This situation is very 
puzzling to the great majority of North Carolinians, and understand- 
ably so. 

I shall not burden you with many figures, but I have a few here 
which I think should be very interesting to you. They show the 
magnitude of the problem facing us, and I hope they will spur each 
and everyone of us to greater activity in curbing the illegal liquor 
traffic in North Carolina. 

First, I shall give you some figures which are a matter of record 
with the State Department of Revenue, as well as with federal tax 
collecting authorities. These are not estimates. These are facts. 
They deal with known importers of illegal liquor whose names are 
on record. 

During recent months, the North Carolina Department of Reve- 
nue has filed tax liens and penalties totaling $1,398,024.49 against 
known recipients of illegal liquor shipped into this state. At the 
present tax rate, this figure indicates that the sixty-five individuals 
against whom the tax liens were levied imported into this state 



140 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

federal tax-paid liquor with a retail value of $16,447,346.90. Think 
of it — sixteen and one half million dollars' worth of bottled liquor 
bootlegged into this state by sixty-five individuals whose names are 
a matter of record. Let me give you another astounding figure. This 
bootlegged liquor shipped to these sixty-five individuals totaled, on the 
basis of its retail value, 979,000 gallons, practically all of which was 
consigned to counties which are not in the state ABC system. Thus 
within recent months, we have a record of nearly one million gallons 
of bootlegged liquor being shipped into North Carolina to sixty-five 
men whose names are a matter of record on the tax books. We don't 
know how many additional thousands or tens of thousands of gallons 
were consigned to other individuals of whom we have no record. 

The highest tax lien was filed against one individual in Forsyth 
County and totaled $213,222.32 nearly a quarter of a million dol- 
lars in taxes and penalties levied on liquor shipped to one single man. 

For the first six months of 1949, we have a record of twenty-nine 
individuals who received federal tax-paid liquor from sources out- 
side this state. In those six months, the twenty-nine individuals re- 
ceived a total of 151,621 gallons of illegal liquor for resale in North 
Carolina, and that is not all, of course. Many others, through stealth 
and with greater caution, received untold thousands of gallons of 
bottled liquor from sources outside this state. 

Now these figures which I have just given to you deal only with a 
handful of bootleggers in liquor imported from distilleries and their 
brokers in other states. It does not, by any means, cover the total 
handling of bottled bootlegged liquor in North Carolina. I have cited 
merely the authentic figures which are a matter of record, and I do 
not intend to make any estimates. It is sufficient to say that these 
figures indicate that a veritable river of bootlegged liquor is pouring 
into North Carolina from other states to join the flood of homemade 
liquor distilled in the woods and on the creek banks of our own 
North Carolina. 

In this state, the Federal Bureau of Internal Revenue issued 
wholesale liquor stamps to ninety-four individuals in the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1949. In that same period, it issued 1,861 retail liquor 
dealer stamps to individuals in North Carolina. Of course, not all of 
the individuals with retail liquor dealer stamps are engaged in the 
sale of illegal liquor; however, it is a known fact that many of them 
procure the federal stamps so that if they get caught selling liquor 
illegally, they will not be imprisoned in a federal penitentiary inas- 
much as they had complied with the federal tax laws. It is safe to 



Addresses 141 

assume, however, that all of the ninety-four individuals holding whole- 
sale liquor dealer stamps from the federal government are engaged 
in the illegal sale of liquor in wholesale lots. 

Those figures give a good idea of the tremendous problem we 
face. As to the homemade product, records of the federal govern- 
ment show that 1,004 moonshine stills were seized in North Carolina 
in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948. These stills were caught in 
only those raids in which federal agents participated. They do not 
include stills seized in raids conducted solely by local officers. And — 
let me emphasize — our North Carolina backwoods hide hundreds 
of moonshine stills that law enforcement officers have never seen. 
The output of these stills was — and is — enormous. 

You have received a list of the persons who are on record as im- 
porting tax-paid liquor in this state. You will note that nearly all of 
them reside in counties which are not in the ABC system and, there- 
fore, do not benefit from what aid the state ABC system can give in 
law enforcement. I'd appreciate your studying this list carefully and 
seeing for yourself the extent of the illegal liquor traffic of which we 
have record. Then consider how enormous the entire output of 
illegal liquor must be in this state. Finally, let us consider ways and 
means of combatting this evil and of building up respect for law 
and order which will result eventually in greater respect for you 
men as individuals. 

Now as I said at the outset, I am not here to be critical of any- 
one or to condemn anybody. I think the illegal liquor traffic in 
North Carolina has grown so big and arrogant that all of us con- 
cerned with the welfare of our state must pull together to stamp out 
this evil or else to curb it so drastically that the profit element as 
weighed against the dangers involved will not be sufficient to attract 
criminals into the illicit liquor traffic. I do not think the problem is 
one that we cannot solve. I am confident that if you gentlemen and 
all other law enforcement officers in North Carolina will redouble 
your efforts in eliminating the bootleg liquor traffic, we shall see a 
great improvement in the situation — an improvement that will make 
the entire state grateful to you now and for many years to come. 

The federal government is aware of the illegal liquor situation in 
North Carolina as shown by the fact that it has stationed in this 
state thirty-nine investigators in the Federal Alcoholic Tax Unit. 
These investigators are interested primarily in curbing the manu- 
facture of non tax-paid liquor — that is, in breaking up moonshine 
stills. It is interesting to note that the federal government has sta- 



142 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

tioned more investigators in North Carolina than it has in neighbor- 
ing South Carolina, Virginia and Tennessee. A short while ago I 
referred to the fact that these federal men participated in raids which 
resulted in the seizure of 1,004 moonshine stills in the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1948. The federal men either conducted these raids 
independent of local officers or went with local officers on the raids. 
The 1,004 stills which they seized, therefore, do not represent, by a 
long shot, the total number of stills destroyed in this state during 
that year inasmuch as a countless number of stills were seized by 
local officers in raids in which federal men did not participate. 

Now there is some indication that the illicit manufacture of liquor 
is on the increase in this state. I make that assumption in view of 
the fact that in the last fiscal year ending June 30, 1949, federal men 
participated in raids which resulted in the seizure of 1,119 moon- 
shine stills. That is an increase of 115 stills over the previous year. 
Again I want to emphasize that this figure does not include the 
many stills destroyed by local officers in raids in which federal men 
did not participate. In the past three months, the Alcoholic Tax Unit 1 
men have destroyed 252 stills in North Carolina. Many more stills 
were destroyed by local officers. It is plain to see, therefore, that 
moonshining, as well as the illicit importation of bottled liquor, is 
big business in North Carolina. It is a business which we must whittle 
down to as small a size as it is humanly possible for us to make it. 

I want the Highway Patrol to help in this campaign to reduce 
to a minimum the illegal liquor traffic in North Carolina. I do not 
mean by that that highway patrolmen should spend their time 
looking for stills or making raids for illegal liquor. I do mean, how- 
ever, that the Highway Patrol should be vigilant as it travels the 
highways of the state in keeping an eye open for any violators of our 
liquor laws. I want patrolmen to stay on the roads and to enforce 
the traffic laws, but at the same time there is nothing to keep them 
from continually being on the watch for violations of the liquor laws. 

Thus it appears to me that with the combined efforts of state, 
county, city and federal officers — all working together, shoulder to 
shoulder, to meet the onslaught of the illegal liquor forces — we cer- 
tainly can do more than we have been doing in the fight against the 
illegal liquor traffic. If all of us redouble our efforts, I am sure that 
in a very short time we shall gain commendable results. It is my 
studied opinion that it is not too hard to make headway against the 
illegal liquor traffic if law enforcement officers and the courts per- 
form their duties conscientiously as they are required to do by law. 

1 AIcoholic Tax Unit — a unit of the United States Treasury Department. 



Addresses 143 

I know that in many instances you have been discouraged because 
the courts failed to convict alleged violators of the liquor laws; how- 
ever, I do not believe in passing the buck. I believe that if the law 
enforcement agencies of this state combine in a mighty effort to 
fight bootlegging and moonshining that public opinion will rally to 
their support and strengthen their hands in such a manner that the 
criminal bootlegger and moonshiner will soon realize that he either 
must go out of business altogether or risk quick and stern discipline 
at the hands of the law. 

I have sufficient confidence in the judiciary of our state to believe 
that you will get support and encouragement from our courts. Dur- 
ing the two-year period ending June 1, 1948, there were 306,239 
criminal cases docketed in our inferior courts which include courts 
of magistrates, mayors, and various recorders and county courts. Of 
these 306,239 cases, a total of 261,407 resulted in convictions. Thus it 
appears that in only one case out of six was the defendant acquitted. 
That is not such a bad record. I think, however, that if we get 
stronger evidence, the number of acquittals will decline. I am con- 
fident that the courts of this state will go along with you in con- 
victing alleged bootleggers and moonshiners against whom you bring 
strong cases. 

In this connection, I urge you also to increase your efforts to curb 
drunken driving and drunk and disorderly conduct. In the fiscal 
year 1946-1947, we had a total of 79,581 persons convicted in our 
courts for being drunk and disorderly. In that same period, our 
lower courts convicted 13,865 defendants of driving while drunk. 
Another 2,463 were convicted in Superior Court of the charge of 
drunken driving. Of all the motor vehicle accidents last year, there 
were 1,351 accidents attributed to drunken driving. Seventy-five 
people died as a result of these accidents caused by drunken driving, 
and a great many more were injured. If, through tighter law en- 
forcement, you can reduce these figures by even a small percentage, 
you will be doing your state and community a great service. I urge 
you to crack down as hard as you can on drunkenness and drunken 
driving. 

Therefore, we not only must renew our fight on bootleggers and 
moonshiners; but we also should make every effort to see that we have 
an airtight case when we take them into court. In this way, such 
criminals will realize that justice will be sure and that they no 
longer can evade the law through legal maneuvering or some other 
devious device. 



144 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

I have presented this problem to you as honestly and conscien- 
tiously as I can. The citizens of North Carolina think, and rightly so, 
that it is a shame that bootlegging and moonshining have been per- 
mitted to reach such large proportions in our state. It is no wonder 
then that many decent citizens believe this situation reflects discredit 
on our law enforcement agencies. I know as well as anyone the prob- 
lems you have to encounter, and I am well aware of the fact that 
you have many other duties demanding your attention besides the 
bootlegging and moonshining industry; however, I am appealing 
to you today not only as law enforcement officials, but as responsible 
citizens of our state to join together in a vast and mighty move- 
ment to stamp out those lawless elements which are defying our laws 
on liquor. 

It is useless for us to throw up our hands and say that the job 
cannot be done. I know and you know that we can, to a considerable 
extent, curb bootlegging and moonshining. It will take hard and 
determined work, but the job can be done. You can do it. My appeal 
to you is to discuss this problem frankly at this meeting, determine 
your course of action, and go back to your respective communities 
with the wholehearted resolve that you will do everything humanly 
possible to stamp out the illegal liquor traffic which has become such 
a blot on the fair name of our state. You have the authority, you 
have the ability, and you have the strong backing of every decent 
man and woman in North Carolina. 

This is a great challenge. I am confident that by working to- 
gether we can accept the challenge and defeat our common enemy — 
the illegal liquor traffic. You have it in your power to make your 
communities and your state a better place in which to live and rear 
our children. You can secure for our people, particularly the chil- 
dren, a future North Carolina much less burdened by the evils of the 
illegal liquor traffic and much prouder of its record in law enforce- 
ment. Every decent citizen in North Carolina is trusting you to do 
this job and do it well. I am confident that you can, and I only ask 
that you throw yourself into this fight with every ounce of ability 
you have. 

The state is looking to you. 



Addresses 145 

DUKE UNIVERSITY REMAINS RICH IN 
POTENTIAL GREATNESS 

Address Delivered At Inaugural Ceremony Of 

Dr. A. Hollis Edens, President Of Duke University 

Durham 

October 22, 1949 

Mr. Chairman, Distinguished Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

It is with pleasure that I extend to you, Dr. Edens, this official 
greeting and welcome from the State of North Carolina. We are 
indeed fortunate to have a man of your qualifications assume the 
leadership of Duke University, one of the South's finest and most 
influential educational institutions. 

This school has attained such eminence that its contributions to 
human happiness and welfare are felt far and wide. The name of 
Duke University has become synonymous everywhere with the best 
in modern progressive education. Its facilities for research in various 
fields of the arts and sciences are utilized by students the world over. 
Some of the most learned men of our time have been attracted to 
its chairs. 

The people of North Carolina are first among those blessed with 
the benefits which radiate from this center of learning. We recognize 
and appreciate the true worth of this institution and its continuous 
contribution to the welfare of our state. It is not only an additional 
institution of higher learning within our borders, providing services 
beyond those which can be financed by public funds; but it is also 
a leavening influence for academic freedom, for pioneering in new 
fields, and for challenging widespread public and private support 
for like institutions. Every state and church institution of higher 
learning in North Carolina is the stronger because of what has been 
done by and for Duke University. 

Duke University remains rich in potential greatness because of 
its liberal endowment; its magnificent buildings and plant, compre- 
hensive library, modern hospital and medical school; its select student 
body and its carefully chosen faculty and staff. 

Dr. Edens, you will find here a proud tradition, going back to 
the long and honorable history of a small, struggling Methodist 
college. But you will find here also a spirit of open-mindedness and 
a sincere desire for further growth and wise expansion. The search 
for truth permeates the atmosphere of this campus and inspires a 
broadening of the scholar's ken. Your splendid training and wide 



146 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

experience are particularly desirable for the presidency of such a 
university. Under your administration, we confidently believe Duke 
University will be led to yet higher attainments. We wish you well 
both in your present and your future efforts to increase the facilities 
and the endowments of the university. We wish you well in your 
purpose to develop here an institution unsurpassed not only in the 
South, but in the nation, for the time has come when we are not 
content to measure North Carolina's institutions by regional 
standards. 

The people of North Carolina congratulate you and wish you 
well in your administration of this great university which will 
continue to be an integral part of the life of the state. As you apply 
your skills and talents to the responsibility which you now assume, 
may you be guided always by the One who planted the Tree of 
Knowledge. 



A REPORT TO THE PEOPLE 
Address Delivered Over Radio Station WPTF 
Raleigh 
November 18, 1949 
My Friends all over North Carolina: 

At the time of my inauguration I promised to bring you from 
time to time a report of the activities of your state government. 
During the last few weeks I have traveled in North Carolina from 
the mountains to the sea, and I find that our state is busier than 
ever before. In my travels, during which I have had the pleasure 
of meeting many of you personally, I have seen with my own eyes 
everywhere evidence that North Carolina is catching up on its 
hauling. 

North Carolinians are building. They are working. Travelers 
from out of the state tell me they are impressed with this as soon as 
they cross the state line. They find a different atmosphere of vigor 
and progress. But I am not telling you this from secondhand infor- 
mation. I am reporting to you as a North Carolina traveler. 

We are building new homes, buying new automobiles, erecting 
new churches. We will soon begin an active school building program; 
and at the same time, our state is also catching up with many things 
it could not do during the period of scarcity. 



Addresses 147 

Ten months ago a new administration took over the reins of gov- 
ernment in North Carolina. As your new governor, I outlined a 
program to wipe out the deficit of services then existing in this state. 
I asked the Legislature to work with me in drafting a program that 
would meet the needs of these advancing times. This program called 
for improvements in our roads and schools. It also called for expand- 
ing our electrical and telephone services, and it proposed that these 
improvements be made while, at the same time, we kept our budget 
and our financial condition sound. 

As citizens and taxpayers who approved this program, you are 
entitled to know how it is moving. I consider it my duty as your 
governor to keep you informed about the activities of your state 
government. What I have to say to you tonight is in the nature of a 
progress report. 

To get a good view of conditions today we need to look back a 
few years because the picture today reflects what happened then. 
We are living in a period of rapid forward movement. Economically, 
socially, politically, we face new times, new practices, new problems. 
From 1940 until the beginning of this fiscal year, the state saw 
a gradual deterioration of its services due to the war and its after- 
math. At the same time this deterioration was occurring, the tax 
monies were pouring into the general fund until they piled up to 
nearly $200,000,000 more than was spent. 

As I said, this money was accumulated during the war period. It 
could not have been used to best advantage at that time; but it was 
my belief that as soon as the abnormal war and reconversion condi- 
tions were removed, it should be put to work for the people. I cam- 
paigned on that platform both before you in the elections and your 
representatives in the Legislature. We succeeded in putting that idle 
tax money to work for the purposes for which it was collected. We 
are now making progress in funding the deficit in public services 
that accumulated during the war years. You can see more and more, 
day by day, how this lazy money is being put to work for you in new 
roads, in new and better schools, new hospitals, enlarged ports, and 
better provision for the aged and unfortunate. 

All of us realize that it costs money to increase public services. 
For example, it costs nearly a quarter of a million dollars a year to 
raise the public school teachers' salaries one dollar per month or 
about $2,500,000 to raise their pay $10.00 per month. On the other 
hand, we all know if we do not pay teachers in line with salaries now 
paid all types of private employees, we will not have good teachers. 



148 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

We cannot have good schools without good teachers, and we are 
robbing our own children and our future as a state when we do 
not pay for good schools! 

Realizing that even with the accumulated surplus of the war 
years we could not meet the increasing demands for government 
service, I recommended that the Legislature increase its appropria- 
tions. I also recommended that it give consideration to raising addi- 
tional revenue to assure support of the enlarged budget; but the 
General Assembly, in its wisdom, decided not to provide new 
revenue and adopted a general fund budget which provided appro- 
priations about $5,000,000 more than anticipated income. 

When the 1949 Legislature closed its books and went home, in- 
dustry in North Carolina was beginning to feel the pinch of a slight 
recession. Because general fund revenue depends on business condi- 
tions, the outlook at that time was not very bright. In the interven- 
ing months, however, business conditions in North Carolina as a 
whole have improved; and the outlook is much brighter than at the 
time the budget was adopted. 

A budget with an apparent $5,000,000 deficit naturally causes 
concern; but when you consider the size of the budget, the deficit is 
relatively small. In fact, it represents only 1.8 per cent of the total 
appropriation for the biennium and can be erased if business condi- 
tions continue to improve. But that is something no one can forecast 
with accuracy; and with this in mind, I have established an economy 
committee to work on the problem of bringing about greater 
economy and efficiency in all the state's operations. I have instructed 
the Budget Bureau to scan closely all expenditures. I am happy to 
report that results to date are encouraging. 

And the state is doing something else to decrease the taxpayers' 
burden. It has put your money to work drawing interest for you 
while it is in the state treasury awaiting use for building schools, 
roads, hospitals, and other things necessary for our forward progress. 
There is no lazy money in your state treasury. Cash balances, which 
until the campaign last year, were lying idle in the banks drawing 
no interest, are now producing revenue for the state. This year 
alone they will produce about $2,250,000. The interest money which 
the state wasn't getting before this year contributes to the soundness 
of our financial position as we "Go Forward" with the greatest build- 
ing program in our state's history. 

Six months ago on June 4, 1949, you placed a mandate in the 
hands of this administration directing us to spend $200,000,000 for 



Addresses 149 

the improvement of secondary roads. You understood this to mean 
that we would try to hard-surface about 12,000 miles and stabilize 
about 35,000 miles of dirt roads. You knew that our goal was to 
place many thousands of miles of these roads in condition so that 
our children could get to school regardless of weather, so that our 
rural people could get back and forth to market the year round, 
and so that our state could speed up its agricultural and industrial 
development. 

Here is what has been done during those first six months. 

The new members of the State Highway Commission have direct- 
ed the setting up of a comprehensive road improvement program in 
every county in North Carolina. They have first consulted with the 
people themselves in their own courthouses and public meeting 
halls. In many cases they have asked the people to participate in 
the selection of roads for improvement. In every case they have 
pledged to give first priority to those roads which best serve the 
general welfare. 

After studying the over-all road needs of every county in the 
state, the Highway Commission this fall announced the selection of 
4,395 miles of secondary roads for hard-surfacing during the first part 
of the $200,000,000 program. This is about one-third of the 12,000 
mile goal set for the next four to six years. At the same time, each 
Highway Division plans to stabilize a larger mileage of roads with 
crushed stone, gravel, or other local materials. 

Since January 1, 1949, the State Highway Commission has hard- 
surfaced 1,411 miles of secondary roads using bond money and other 
betterment funds. Definite plans have already been made for 
building roads with more than $21,000,000 of the first $50,000,000 
of bond money. This fast progress was possible because of long- 
range planning even before the first bond money became available 
in September. 

As most of you know, a syndicate of brokers bought the first 
$50,000,000 of road bonds on September 28 at an average interest 
rate of 1.57 per cent. This was far below the estimates made by most 
supporters of the better schools and roads campaign last spring. It 
is the lowest interest rate ever gotten by the state on a bond issue 
of this kind. 

Some of our people were afraid that the primary road system 
and municipalities were going to be left out in the cold because of 
our secondary road program. The 1949 Legislature increased the 
municipal road maintenance fund for cities and towns from $1,000,000 



150 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

to $2,500,000 annually. The road bond act itself provides that county 
road connections inside towns may be improved with bond money, 
and much of this type of work has already been done. Furthermore, 
our highway commissioners are meeting with each municipal govern- 
ing body to discuss road problems and offer the assistance of the 
commission in working them out. 

And now let us review briefly the power and telephone situation. 
Our public utilities and the Rural Electrification Authority are build- 
ing electric and telephone lines faster than in any time in our 
history. A report on rural electrification, which will be ready for 
release by the REA in a few days, will show that about eighty per 
cent of our farms were receiving electricity from 58,277 miles of power 
lines on July 1, 1949. In addition to this, 2,721 miles of lines were 
under construction and 4,085 miles had been authorized, but were 
not under construction at the time. In addition to the twenty per 
cent of our farms yet to be served, there are still a large number of 
rural businesses, churches, schools, and non-farm dwellings in the 
rural districts without electricity. 

If North Carolina is to forge ahead, we cannot slacken this 
pace until the job is done. Where there is an abundance of electricity, 
let's distribute it and stop hiding behind a screen of high installation 
charges. 

The number of North Carolina farms having telephone service 
has increased from 14,000 in 1945 to 40,000 in 1949. This is a signi- 
ficant gain over the four-year period; yet many areas still cannot 
obtain the services they are entitled to have. 

A recent amendment to the Rural Electrification Act will speed 
up this expansion. Under the amendment, loans are authorized to 
existing suppliers of rural telephone service both commercial and 
cooperative. I want you to continue to feel free to call on the Utilities 
Commission, the Rural Electrification Authority, and this office if 
you need help in getting telephone service. 

Another great planning program has been launched by our State 
Board of Education as it prepares to use the proceeds from bonds 
and other sources provided for school building needs in North Caro- 
lina. We are going to build more than 10,000 new classrooms for 
the children of North Carolina before this important program is 
finished. 

As I said at the beginning of this report, North Carolina is busier 
than ever before. North Carolina's financial condition is sound. Its 
credit is good. This is not only my opinion. It is the judgment of 




Governor Scott (left), and W. D. Tolar (right), farmer of Route 1, Summerfield, N. C, eating 
lunch on September 8, 1949, after attending the opening of the Greensboro Tobacco Warehouse. 



Addresses 151 

cold-blooded bankers on Wall Street who have just loaned the state 
money to build roads and ports at the cheapest interest the state 
has ever gotten on financing of this nature. North Carolina is build- 
ing better schools. We are building better roads and ports. We are 
building hospitals and power lines. We are extending telephone 
service. We are striding into the future with faith and confidence. 
We are busy building a better North Carolina. 



TRAILER MUSEUM FOR THE PEOPLE OF NORTH CAROLINA 

An Address Made At The Opening Of The North Carolina 

Trailer Museum 

Raleigh 
November 18, 1949 
Mr. Chairman, Ladies, and Gentlemen: 

We are here this afternoon to dedicate something new under the 
sun — a museum on wheels. It used to be true that the man or woman, 
the boy or girl in Swannanoa, Jonesboro, or Haw River had to go 
to town to see a museum. He had to make a trip to Charlotte, or 
Winston-Salem, or Raleigh, or some other town in order to visit such 
an institution. Now, however, that will no longer be true. He can 
stay at home, and the museum will come right down the road to him. 

All this is closely tied in with the efforts we are making to im- 
prove the educational facilities we can offer our boys and girls. The 
old idea of education was that it was largely a matter of textbooks 
and recitations; but, within recent years, many new techniques and 
methods have come to be used. Of these one of the most important 
is visual education, giving the child something he can actually see — 
which seems to make a more vivid impression upon him than merely 
reading something out of a book. 

Of course, this trailer museum is not only for school children. It 
is for all citizens of the state — men, women, and children alike — 
including all our races — white, Negro, and Indian. It is a museum 
for all the people of North Carolina. 

Of especial importance, this traveling museum will go to the peo- 
ple out in the country districts. Our towns and cities are growing 
fast, but the majority of our population still lives in the rural areas. 
In the past some of these areas have lacked certain facilities of the 
town, and it is a major purpose of my administration to see that as 
many of these facilities as possible are provided for our rural people. 



152 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

They need telephones; they need rural electrification; and they need 
first-class roads. Sending out this trailer museum by the State De- 
partment of Archives and History is one more step in the direction 
of making life in the country as full, as broad, and as livable as it is 
in the city. 

And so, on behalf of the State of North Carolina, it is my privilege 
to accept this museum which will carry to the people of our state the 
"Thank You" gifts from the French nation. It is a new step which I 
feel sure will arouse the interest of our people and will make a worth- 
while contribution to their educational development and welfare. 



NORTH CAROLINA'S FUTURE 

Address Delivered Over State-Wide Radio Network 

Originating Over Radio Station WPTF 

Raleigh 

January 6, 1950 
My Friends all over North Carolina: 

One year ago — on January 6, 1949 — I took the oath of office as 
your governor. I made you a promise at that time in these words, 
and I quote from my inaugural address: 

"Government should never be remote. The people are entitled 
to know what is going on. It is my purpose to go on the radio from 
time to time to make first-hand reports of my stewardship. I shall 
also make information about our government available as fully and 
completely as possible through the reporters of press and radio. Secrecy 
has no place in a people's government." 1 

During the last year, I have done my utmost to carry out this 
pledge. I shall continue to do so. 

Through the courtesy of the radio stations of our state, I have 
had the privilege of speaking to you directly on several occasions, 
and through the newspaper and radio reporters who regularly cover 
the governor's office and many others who report special events 
throughout the state, news of the activities of this administration has 
been available to you on a day by day basis. 

We have a free press and a free radio in North Carolina. The 
news you get is reported to you by capable and trained observers as 
they see it. The bad is reported with the good. That is the way you 
are entitled to get it. I would not have it otherwise. 

x See page 14. 



Addresses 153 

Early this week — on New Year's Day — I covered the progress 
of the first year of this administration in my year-end report. 1 
Many of you have already read it in your newspapers. Those who 
have not and wish to have a copy may get it by writing the governor's 
office. 

The last fifty years brought North Carolina to leadership in the 
textile, tobacco, and furniture industries. At the same time, we 
worked toward a sound balance between industry and agriculture. 
Through consistently good and progressive government we have 
built a foundation of public services unequalled in the South. 

As 1950 begins we know that here in North Carolina we stand 
on firm and solid ground. We also know that North Carolina, our 
nation, and the world never faced more serious challenges in any 
year of any century. 

I agree with the editors and radio commentators who picked the 
explosion of an atomic bomb in Russia as the most important news 
story of the year. I do not consider this so because of any implication 
that we may be nearer war, because I am still hopeful that the fu- 
ture use of atomic energy may be in peace, not in war. I see the 
development of atomic energy for peaceful purposes not simply as 
the greatest news story of any one year, but as the greatest scientific 
promise of this century. 

In North Carolina, where the emphasis is on diversification, this 
is particularly so. In the "Go Forward" program, which the team 
comprising this administration launched during 1949, I constantly 
emphasized that better roads and more electricity and telephones in 
all our undeveloped areas would bring us greater prosperity than 
ever before. A state which provides these services in widely scattered 
areas is ready for the Atomic Age which demands dispersal of industry 
and population. I believe the North Carolina we are building today 
offers the greatest advantages to industry of any state in the union. 

Our foundation for this growth in the Atomic Age is ready-made. 
We are a state of many small towns and small farms. You, the voters 
of North Carolina, have expressed confidence in this administration's 
road and school program designed to broaden the basis of our agricul- 
tural and industrial prosperity. That program, involving an improved 
rural road system and greatly expanded rural electrification and tele- 
phone facilities, is already well underway. Good roads, good schools, 
and the modern conveniences of the machine age should be brought 
within reach of all our people, regardless of where they live — town 

x See page 375. 



154 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

or country. And in extending these services to people who have been 
without them, North Carolina is, at the same time, stimulating even 
greater development of her industrial and agricultural potential. 

Who among you has not observed what happens when a road is 
paved and electricity and telephones become available? Pretty soon 
somebody decides to paint his barn. A service station and a store 
spring up at the crossroads. Sons of the man down the road build 
new houses. A neighbor across the creek clears some new pasture 
land. The poultry processing plant or the meat packing company 
that had almost decided to locate over on the main highway decides 
to get nearer the raw product. Big industry becomes interested in 
setting up its new plants away from congested cities. 

Because we all know these things are true, and because North 
Carolina cannot stand still, it must "Go Forward." I am setting some 
new goals for this administration in 1950. 

1. I am asking the State Highway Commission to finish ten miles 
of paved road and thirty miles of stabilized road on the secondary 
system each working day of 1950. This is far more than the Highway 
Commission has ever attempted before, but we are now geared to 
build roads a great deal faster and a great deal better, and we can 
attain this goal if nobody drags his feet. I am also asking the High- 
way Commission to continue its reconditioning program on the pri- 
mary road system to the end that North Carolina's main arteries of 
traffic may again regain the number one position in the nation that 
they occupied in the nineteen twenties. To provide funds for reach- 
ing this goal, the Council of State will be asked to approve issuance 
of the second $50,000,000 in road bonds within a short time. Con- 
ditions are excellent for marketing these bonds. Work on the sec- 
ondary road program will reach a new peak during the summer, and 
work on primary roads should go ahead without a lag. 

2. I am asking the private utilities companies and the rural electric 
cooperatives to extend services to 50,000 additional consumers during 
1950. I am also requesting the telephone companies to accept as 
their goal the installation of 80,000 telephones, in both town and 
country, during the new year. With the availability of federal 
funds for rural telephone extension we should be in a position to 
deal with the rural telephone problem more realistically in 1950. 

3. I am asking the people of North Carolina to become a more 
soil conscious, a more natural resources minded people. A good soil 
makes for solid, courageous men. A man who loves the soil and cul- 
tivates it wisely seldom comes to want. I am asking the people of 



Addresses 1 55 

North Carolina to see that the lands not seeded to crops be returned 
to grass and trees as nature provides. Diversified farming is as im- 
portant as diversified industry. By diversified farming and soil con- 
servation we can help achieve the vital industrial-agricultural balance 
necessary for the prosperity of all our people. 

4. I am asking the people who work for the State of North Caro- 
lina to join with the Economy and Efficiency Committee in bringing 
better and less costly government to our state in 1950. I outlined 
progress along this line in my year-end report. Now I can report fur- 
ther progress. The Division of Purchase and Contract is establishing 
testing facilities for materials the state purchases in large volume, 
such as paints, electrical appliances, germicides, insecticides, soaps, 
disinfectants, waxes, and polishes. This program will be of benefit in 
obtaining maximum value for tax dollars expended for such supplies. 

All of these things I have enumerated are material things. Above 
all is the importance of improving our spiritual life. 

In this year of 1950 and in the new half century ahead, let us bring 
forward the power and influence of our churches. In our rural church- 
es particularly there is a need for resurgence. 

No part of a community is more important than the church. We 
all know it to be true that wherever you find an active church, you 
also find a well-ordered community. On the other hand, where you 
find a church that is run-down and dying on the vine, so to speak, you 
find a community that is run-down at the heels. 

In far too many instances we have permitted the rural churches — 
and a great many in cities and towns — to decline both in architec- 
tural and spiritual effectiveness. We must direct our best thought and 
energy toward seeing that this great influence is not permitted to lose 
its strength, but is broadened and made stronger in every way possible. 
Communism and other foreign isms have no appeal to a truly Chris- 
tian people. 

In my year-end report I dealt with the state's financial condi- 
tion. Since that report, and as anticipated, it has proved necessary 
for the state to take precautionary steps to be sure to have adequate 
working capital until income tax collections are received in March. 

On Tuesday of this week the Council of State authorized the 
state treasurer to negotiate short-term general fund credit with banks 
of the state up to $10,000,000 if it is needed. The treasurer is borrow- 
ing only half that amount at this time. The state will pay only 
one-half of one per cent interest for this loan, and that only until 
March 20. 



156 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Temporary general fund overdrafts at this time of year are nothing 
to be alarmed about. They have been infrequent in the last few 
years because tax collections generally exceeded estimates, and the 
state kept large sums of money idle in banks without interest. The 
state no longer does this. 

As late as February of 1940 the general fund ran into an over- 
draft of nearly a quarter of a million dollars, but it was carried as an 
overdraft until tax monies were collected to cover it. This year the 
Council of State believed the wisest course was to arrange for tem- 
porary bank credit adequate to provide sufficient general fund cash 
during the next few weeks. 

General fund revenue for December showed a decline over Decem- 
ber of 1948, but that was anticipated when the Legislature adopted 
the new budget. Actually, general fund tax collections for the first half 
of this fiscal year are less than $2,800,000 under collections for the same 
period in 1948. This is not as much of a drop as was expected. 

The state will pay only $5,069 for this temporary credit. This is 
insignificant compared with the amount of interest the state is getting 
on funds it has invested until they are needed to meet specific ap- 
propriations. The average amount of such funds invested at interest 
during the last six months was $180,000,000. These funds are now 
yielding interest to the state at the rate of $2,000,000 a year. 

Isn't it better to invest closely, and keep our money at work 
rather than lying idle in banks, even if it is necessary to borrow a 
little from time to time for current expenses? 

North Carolina enters the new year in sound financial condi- 
tion. 

With Divine guidance; with better schools, better roads, better 
health, and welfare provisions; with the blessings of electricity and 
telephones within reach of all; with diversified industry and agricul- 
ture; North Carolina can face the future confidently. 

Let us continue to build our foundation upon solid rock and 
"Go Forward" into our future with faith and confidence that North 
Carolina will not only maintain, but greatly extend, her leadership 
in the South. 



Addresses 157 

LEGAL CONTROL OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES 

Address Delivered At A Meeting Of The North Carolina 

Allied Church League 

Raleigh 

January 19, 1950 

It is a real pleasure for me to meet with this group of North 
Carolinians who are so interested in the present and future welfare 
of their state. I sincerely appreciate the opportunity to take a small 
part in your discussions. 

As all of you know, I am intensely interested, as you are, in fur- 
thering temperance in North Carolina. 

I have said publicly a number of times in the past that the people 
have a right to express themselves on any important issue affecting 
their well-being. I recommended to the Legislature that it give the 
people of our state the chance to vote in a state-wide referendum, 
but the Legislature saw fit to reject my proposal. However, under the 
laws permitting local expression on the issue of legal sales of alcoholic 
beverages, local option elections have been held in a number of 
counties and municipalities, and thus the people are speaking their 
minds on this important issue on the local level. 

It should be perfectly apparent to all of you that regardless of a 
governor's views on any subject, the final determination of what shall 
be done lies in the hands of our state Legislature which consists of 
170 men and women duly elected by you and other North Carolina 
citizens in your own counties and districts. These are men and 
women who seek to interpret to the best of their ability the wishes 
of the folks back home. They are, in most cases, individualists who 
are trying as best they can to do what is right for their state. 

As governor, I can only recommend to the Legislature. I do not 
have the right nor the power to force the Legislature to do my bid- 
ding, and I do not think I would use such power if I had it because 
then we would have one-man rule instead of free and representative 
government. 

But as I said before, all of you know my stand on these issues. I 
would like to bring up some other matters which vitally concern 
you and which I wish you would consider. I think people who want 
prohibition in North Carolina should do more than give lip service 
to enforcement of our existing laws covering alcoholic beverages. In 
other words, I sincerely think it is very wrong for temperance leaders 
and their followers to demand prohibition without, at the same time, 



158 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

making plans to help enforce the prohibition laws they so much 
desire. 

Already in North Carolina approximately seventy counties have 
prohibition as to legal sales of liquor. About forty counties have 
absolute prohibition in that they do not permit legal sales of liquor, 
wine, or beer, and about fifty counties do not permit the sale of wine 
or liquor legally. 

Thus it is easy to see that a large segment of North Carolina now 
is covered by prohibition laws. At the same time, we must admit 
that illicit liquor traffic is going on in each of these counties that 
have prohibition as to one or more alcoholic beverages. 

The question I want to ask is this: What are you as temperance 
leaders doing to strengthen the hands of law enforcement officers in 
those counties where prohibition laws are already in effect? Are you 
giving enforcement agencies your loyal support and asking your 
adherents to do the same? Are you conscientiously trying to see that 
prohibition is enforced? Or are you and your followers confining 
yourselves merely to giving lip service to the cause of prohibition 
and failing to take militant action to see that the laws you have 
obtained are diligently enforced? 

To me, these are very vital questions for you and myself and for 
other supporters of temperance. We must give them serious thoughts. 

It is not enough to vote a county or a state bone dry and then for- 
get our responsibilities as to temperance and prohibition. Yet if we 
will be frank with ourselves, that is exactly what has happened in 
entirely too many instances. 

So I call upon you not to content yourselves with campaigning 
for state-wide or county-wide prohibition but to give thought and 
planning also to the equally important problem of enforcing prohi- 
bition. There is no sense having a law on the books that the good 
people of our state will not support wholeheartedly. Therefore, I 
appeal to you to take a realistic view of the situation and to devote 
serious attention to the problem of enforcement as well as to the 
problem of prohibition. 

In this connection I think it is proper and reasonable to inform 
you of the progress we have made in fighting bootleggers and in legal 
control of alcoholic beverages in those counties and municipalities 
that have legal control. I am proud to report that the first year of 
my administration saw legal control and law enforcement consider- 
ably intensified as far as alcoholic beverages are concerned. The 
credit for this goes to all agencies involved — federal, state, and 
local. They have made commendable progress in the fight on boot- 




The Carolina Power and Light Company, on September 30, 1949, opened a new electric generating 

plant at Lumberton, and Governor Scott made the principal address. Reading ( left to right) are 

Governor Scott and Louis V. Sutton, president of the company. 



Addresses 159 

legging, and I think it is safe to say that legal control as applied by 
the state ABC Board and by local law enforcement agencies is better 
today than it has ever been in North Carolina. I think that the boot- 
legger today has a greater respect for our liquor laws than he has ever 
had in the past. We are making it increasingly harder for the boot- 
legger to stay in business. 

At the request of the chairman of the State ABC Board, Mr. 
Robert W. Winston, I called a meeting of the state's sheriffs, police 
chiefs, and ABC enforcement officers in Raleigh last October 12, 1 to 
discuss means of tightening enforcement of laws concerning alcoholic 
beverages. As a result of that meeting a special commission now is 
drafting plans for adequate legislation and other steps necessary to 
bring the illicit liquor traffic to a minimum. At the meeting local 
law enforcement officers assured us of their complete support, and 
events since then indicate they meant what they said. They also 
pleaded for stronger local support, by citizens such as you, of their 
fight on lawlessness. 

We are now getting reports from the various counties on their 
activities in curbing the illicit liquor traffic in the two and one-half 
months between the October meeting and the end of December. 
Thus far, sixty-five counties have reported. You will be interested to 
know that in that short period in these sixty-five counties a total of 
over eleven hundred liquor stills were captured, nearly one-half 
million gallons of mash were destroyed and a total of 7,755 gallons 
of home-made liquor was seized and destroyed. Most of this activity 
was done by local law enforcement agencies. 

Meantime, the state ABC chairman, who took office in June, has 
been waging a determined fight against the bootlegging of bottled 
liquor into this state from points outside the state. 

Major distillers in New York, Maryland, and the District of Co- 
lumbia have agreed to help cut the flow of illegal liquor into this 
state, and Illinois is moving to give similar cooperation. This 
cooperation is coming both from distillers and governmental authori- 
ties. We have concrete evidence that North Carolina bootleggers are 
finding it increasingly harder and more expensive to obtain ship- 
ments of liquor from points outside the state. 

Regulation of the beer industry was added to the ABC Board's 
duties last May when the malt beverage division was established. 
This division has been instrumental in forcing over two thousand 
undesirable retail beer outlets out of business, and from all reports 
has made commendable progress in elevating the general standards 

iSee page 138. 



160 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

of the beer industry in North Carolina. The ABC Board also has 
tightened its enforcement of the wine laws with a considerable in- 
crease in the number of inspections of wine outlets and the number 
of penalties for violating the law. The state board also has intensi- 
fied its fight on liquor bootleggers and at the present is obtaining 
convictions of liquor bootleggers at the rate of nearly one hundred 
per month. 

I think you can see now why I am proud of what our state and 
local agencies are doing in the matter of controlling liquor sales of 
alcoholic beverages and cutting down the bootlegging of these bever- 
ages where their sale is prohibited by law. I do not, of course, claim 
we are even near solving the problem, but I do think we are fast 
improving the situation and I am confident considerable more im- 
provement is on its immediate way. 

To sum up, legal control is working better in North Carolina 
now than it ever has, and the position of the bootleg liquor traffic is 
becoming increasingly difficult. Also, since a broad portion of our 
state now has complete prohibition, I think you have a grave respon- 
sibility to strengthen the hands of the enforcement agencies of the 
courts in those areas where prohibition prevails. I am sure you 
will not shirk your responsibility. 



FURNITURE MANUFACTURING 
Address Delivered At The Southern Furniture Exposition 

High Point 
January 25, 1950 

North Carolina leads the nation in the production of wooden 
furniture. The furniture industry is not only one of the state's 
three largest industries — the others at the top are textile and tobacco 
manufacturing — but the furniture industry is the fastest growing. 

In the last ten years the number of furniture plants has more 
than doubled. 

During the same ten years, the value of our furniture output in- 
creased more than six fold; and they tell me it will go higher this 
year because of increased demand indicated by the winter markets. 

With this tremendous industry it is fitting that North Carolina 
should have one of the nation's major furniture and rug markets. 
The fact that it is in High Point is testimony to the vision and 



Addresses 161 

energy of your business men — testimony to your faith not only in 
the future of your industry, but of your city and state. 

I congratulate the business leaders of High Point and of the 
North Carolina furniture industry as a whole for this magnificent 
enterprise. I must confess that I was unaware of its magnitude until 
my good friend T. V. Rochelle reeled off statistics to me while I was 
looking over the exhibits here — and I know that Johnny 1 Rochelle 
knows what he is talking about because he is president of the South- 
ern Furniture Exposition Building where we are now. 

This is a big building — one of the biggest in the state — but 
it isn't big enough for the High Point Furniture Exposition and 
Johnny Rochelle and his associates are putting up a million dollar, 
ten-story addition to the present fourteen-story structure. When 
they get through — and they expect to be through in time for the 
July show — they will have about a half a million square feet of 
floor space. 

And they'll need it to take care of all the people who come to 
High Point to buy the furniture made in North Carolina, and other 
states, that is shown here. 

Johnny Rochelle tells me that there were nearly 6,000 people 
here for the exposition last July, and that they came from 902 cities 
and towns in twenty-eight states, not including Puerto Rico and 
Washington, D. C, and that they represented 2,640 stores. 

More are expected at the January market. 

From what I have seen I am pretty sure that the only way any- 
body is going to be disappointed is that he won't, perhaps, be able 
to place large orders for everything he sees. 

An exposition like this is good for everybody. The buyers find 
the best products displayed for intelligent selections, and an influx 
of visitors, such as the Southern Furniture Market always attracts, 
brings business for hotels, restaurants, transportation companies, 
and other business enterprise in the piedmont. 

In turn this business creates revenue needed by our state for serv- 
ices of government — better schools and roads, better health. Every- 
body benefits from sound, aggressive business enterprise. 

I wish this exposition could be opened to the people so they 
could come from all over the state, and the nation, and see for 
themselves what North Carolina industry and enterprise are doing, 
but I understand that attendance is limited for the present to repre- 
sentatives of the furniture trade. I am glad you are getting out more 



ijohnny was his nickname. 



162 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

publicity on this event; however, again I wish to congratulate the 
officers and staff of the Southern Furniture Exposition, the whole 
furniture industry, and the city of High Point for the magnificent 
job you are doing. It is a pleasure and a privilege to join you on 
this occasion. 



BUILDING THE FUTURE OF OUR STATE 

Address Delivered Before The Sixty-sixth Annual Convention 

Of The North Carolina Education Association 

Raleigh 

March 9, 1950 

Mrs. Allen, Distinguished Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

I appreciate the kind introduction your president has given Mrs. 
Scott and me. I am honored to be asked to make the first speech at 
a convention which brings to Raleigh so many representatives of 
some of the state's most faithful and most valuable employees. I 
never taught school a day in my life, but I wouldn't be your governor 
if many patient teachers hadn't suffered with me as a student. In 
fact, everybody on this platform and in this audience is indebted 
to teachers. Personally, I am right at home here tonight. My grand- 
father ran an academy. My mother was a teacher, and two members 
of my family have been members of the teaching profession. I even 
married a teacher, and I want you to know I have never regretted it. 
You might say my education started early and has continued long 
after I finished school. 

I often wish that every now and then we could elect a teacher 
to serve as governor. Two things would happen: It would be a re- 
freshing influence in state politics, and the teacher-governor would 
soon learn that he couldn't pass all the education bills he wanted 
to pass. 

I sincerely wish that more women would take a more active part 
in our political life. The ladies in our past General Assemblies have 
made valuable contributions. The ladies from Mecklenburg, Mrs. 
Ervin 1 and Mrs. Craven, 2 helped to give the Governor's Mansion a 
"new look," as you will see when you come to the tea tomorrow 
afternoon. This is no longer a man's world. More women are voting 
every year in North Carolina, and their influence is being felt 
throughout the state. I want to urge all of you to register and vote 



1 Susan Graham Ervin, widow of Joseph W. Ervin, former Congressman from the Tenth Con- 
gressional District. 
a Mrs. Jennie Grier Craven, widow of Walter Gluya Craven. 



Addresses 163 

in both the primary on May 27 and in the November election. The 
franchise becomes worthless unless it is exercised by intelligent men 
and women who have the welfare of their state at heart. The teachers 
of North Carolina believe in progressive, forward-looking govern- 
ment. You, the teachers, better than any other group, are in a position 
to know that the future of North Carolina will be determined by 
how well we plan to build today. 

I believe in women in government. I appointed the first woman 
judge 1 in the state and the first women members of the boards of 
Health and Conservation and Development. I have placed forty-six 
women on committees and commissions, and they are doing a good 
job. They attend their meetings; they take their responsibilities 
seriously; they have a vision of a better state which must constantly 
expand its services to all the people — to those on the Outer Banks 
and in the mountain coves, as well as to those in the urban and 
industrial centers. 

Just the other day I received a letter from a lady which said in 
part: "Dear Governor Scott: Please keep North Carolina ahead in 
public education." I replied that I am doing my best to do so, but 
that I would need her help; and I say to you tonight, "I am doing 
my best to keep North Carolina ahead in public education, but I 
must have your help." 

North Carolinians have a right to be proud of our progress in 
public education. We have come a long way in the first half of this 
century. But we must never forget that we still have a hard row to 
hoe to keep our school abreast of the needs of our time. 

When I was a boy, a storekeeper near my home always asked one 
question when a man came to him for credit. This question was, 
"Are you fencing in this year or are you fencing out?" If the man 
answered that he was fencing out, he got his credit. The storekeeper 
told me that he never lost any money on a man that was building 
more fences, and taking in more new ground. This man had confi- 
dence in himself and in the soil. This man was a "Go-Forward" 
farmer. 

It is true, of course, that some crops will produce more if a 
farmer cultivates fewer acres. But such is not true of our increasing 
crop of North Carolina children. We are "fencing out" in public 
education. 

Let's look at the record. In my campaign for governor, I advocat- 
ed a program of expanding services for our people, including better 
roads and better schools, higher salaries for teachers, and a reduced 



1 Miss Susie Sharp of Reidsville was appointed a special judge of Superior Court, June 21, 1949. 



164 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

teaching load. In my inaugural address here in this very auditorium, 
standing where I now stand, I placed improved public education as 
the second point in my fifteen-point program. I realized then that 
the cost would be high, but I continue firm today in my belief that 
we cannot afford not to spend the major part of our general fund 
taxes for the education of our oncoming generations. 

On the night of February 10, 1949, I appeared before a joint 
session of the House and Senate and urged the members to "Go 
Forward" with a program for better schools and roads. I was advised 
by men in the Legislature not to take this stand. I felt then and I 
feel now that these men do not have sufficient confidence in the 
future of our state. But some of them have never forgiven me for 
not taking their advice. You know who they are. The people showed 
by the tremendous majority they gave the school building bond issue 
in the June election that they have more confidence in our future as 
a state than these so-called conservative leaders who are going about 
wailing that Governor Scott and the school teachers are trying to 
bankrupt the state. The people showed by their vote in this school 
building election that they know the surest way to bankrupt North 
Carolina is to bankrupt her children, and the surest way to bankrupt 
her children is to deny adequate support to public education. In 
that same speech, I recommended that a part of the surplus state 
funds accumulated during the war years be used to pay an interim 
salary schedule ranging from $2,200 to $3,100 for teachers holding 
an A certificate. I did so in the belief that the state could afford to 
pay this salary until federal aid became available to help us bring 
the salary schedules up to the $2,400-$3,600 range. I also advocated 
a reduced teaching load because I fully realize that no teacher can 
do a good job when she has too many children in her classroom. 

In that same speech I spoke out for an expanding health pro- 
gram in our schools. I also favored the recommendations of the 
majority group of the State Education Commission appointed by 
Governor Cherry. I reported that our Department of Tax Research 
had suggested other possible sources of state revenue to help pay for 
these services which the people needed. It was this report that brought 
a crowd of high-pressure lobbyists to Raleigh like the first spring 
flowers draw bees from their winter hibernation. 

But let's get along with the record. On March 2, 1949, I took my 
message to the people by radio. These same so-called conservative 
leaders didn't like that either. I repeated the obvious need for better 
roads, for better service from our utilities, especially for electricity 
and telephones in the rural areas of our state. I repeated my request 



Addresses 165 

for better school buildings and higher salaries, and I urged the 
people of the state to come to Raleigh on March 3, to let their wishes 
be known at a hearing before the Joint Appropriations Committee. 
Five thousand people came, the largest crowd ever to appear before 
a committee, to speak for better public education. 

All this, ladies and gentlemen, is a part of the record. 

Now, we didn't accomplish all the things you wanted to do nor 
all the things I wanted the Legislature to do, but we did definitely 
put North Carolina ahead in public education among the southern 
states. 

The Legislature appropriated more for public education than any 
Legislature in our history. We are now investing — from national, 
state, and local sources — more than one hundred million dollars 
a year for the education of our children. The state appropriation of 
$88,000,000 for this year is an increase of some $22,000,000 more 
than the 1948 appropriations. The average salary of our teachers for 
this year is $2,494. The teacher load has been reduced to approxi- 
mately thirty-two pupils per teacher based on average daily attend- 
ance. This year from state funds, we are investing fifty million dol- 
lars in public school construction and maintenance, and many pro- 
gressive counties and cities are voting bond issues to help provide 
the additional classrooms that are so greatly needed. 

Our new child health program for which the Legislature appro- 
priated $550,000 is one of the best investments we have ever made. 

I think I should tell you that because of the reduction in our 
teaching load and because of the increase in teachers' salaries, we 
have employed 1,500 more teachers this year than we had last year. 
The number of graduate certificates, A certificates, and B certifi- 
cates has been increased. Also, the number of non-standard certificates 
has decreased. We did not get all these 1,500 additional teachers 
from our crop of 1949 graduates. Because of the increased salaries, 
we were able to attract teachers from other states where salaries are 
lower than in North Carolina; and we were able to get some experi- 
enced teachers who had left the profession because of low salary to 
return to the classroom; also college graduates who, when graduated, 
had not planned to teach school found they could afford to accept 
teaching positions at the new salary schedule. 

I think I should tell you, also, that the enrollment at our teachers 
colleges is now at an all-time high. We have partly put out the 
grass fire that was sweeping over the profession of teaching. We have 
done so by opening more jobs for teachers and by paying more 
money for their work. Though we have not solved the problem of 



166 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

an acute shortage of white elementary teachers, we are making 
progress. 

We are not forgetting that our children are our most valuable 
crop, nor that they are increasing in number every year. Their 
increase means that we must have more buildings, more busses, more 
teachers — better buildings, better busses, and better teachers. 

I am informed that a rising birth rate may increase enrollment 
in our schools by 175,000 in the next five years. This means that we 
shall need, within this period, more classrooms, more busses, and 
more teachers — almost 6,000 more teachers if we can reduce the 
teacher load to your figure of thirty pupils per teacher. This means 
that we must continue to go forward in our educational planning 
if we are to save our most valuable resources, all the children of all 
the people. 

Those who opposed this program during the last Legislature are 
continuing their campaign against better schools. They will attempt 
to elect members of the Legislature who will oppose adequate appro- 
priations for public education. 

We should be sure that we know where every candidate for the 
Legislature stands and that the people are informed so they will 
have no doubt about the position of the candidates on this vital 
issue when they cast their vote for members of the General Assembly. 
Unless the members of the 1951 Legislature come to Raleigh with 
the conviction that the people need and are willing to pay for an 
adequate program of education, we will face rough sledding. 

I shall oppose any efforts to weaken our public schools. I warn 
you now, however, that we will face efforts to do this. 

I have done and shall continue to do everything in my power 
to maintain a balanced budget, but a state budget cannot be balanced 
properly with a deficit in public service. 

For a number of years, North Carolina has had an unbalanced 
budget — a budget that was top heavy with surplus millions lying 
idle in banks without interest while the appropriations for schools 
and other public services lagged behind the needs of the people. We 
have now put our idle tax money to work providing the services for 
which it was collected from the people. 

Before I finish let me say to you a few more things. 

(1) We have not done the job which must be done if we are to 
keep North Carolina ahead in public education. We are going to 
need more buildings than we are now building, more electric lights 
and telephones in these buildings, more busses than we are running 



Addresses 167 

and better roads on which to run them, more teachers and better 
teachers to teach our children, and an enriched course of study to 
meet the needs of our boys and girls. Some schools have a broad 
curriculum which prepares their students to go to college, to take 
up a trade, or to stay on the farm. Other schools have but a narrow 
course of study which hardly meets the needs of any students. 

Our fifty per cent dropouts — those who enter, but never finish 
high school — in fact, never even reach the eighth grade — are a 
disgrace to our great state. 

(2) In order to achieve the goals which will keep us ahead, I shall 
need your help and that of your friends. I shall not take an active 
part in the primary elections or in county politics, but you should. You 
should find out what a candidate stands for before you support him. 
If he is a man or woman worthy of your support, he will want you 
to know what he stands for. It is up to you to send to the Legislature 
men and women from your respective counties who have at heart 
the best interest of all the people and are zealous in building the 
future of our state. 

Send men and women like this to our next Legislature, and we 
will keep North Carolina ahead in public education. 



NORTH CAROLINA PROUD OF 4-H CLUBS 

Address Delivered Over Radio Station WPTF 

Raleigh 

March 11, 1950 

Here in North Carolina, we are proud of 4-H Club work and 
what it has done for our state. In North Carolina today, 4-H Club 
work is far different from what it was when I first knew it as an 
Alamance County club boy. From growing an acre of corn, the pro- 
gram has expanded to cover practically every phase of agriculture 
and homemaking. Today with an enrollment of nearly 123,000 
members North Carolina is at, or near, the top in the nation. It is 
interesting to note the comparative rise in North Carolina agricul- 
ture during the same period. Four-H does not claim the credit for 
this, but we must recognize the fact that 4-H and its program has 
done much to make this possible. 

The many 4-H demonstrations in agriculture and homemaking 
have resulted in the adoption of many new practices, enabling us to 
grow new and better varieties of crops producing higher yields; to 



168 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

produce better types of livestock; to establish healthier, happier 
homes. 

But far more important than this, as these boys and girls have 
learned new practices in agriculture and homemaking, they have, 
through participation in camp, achievement days, club week, state 
fair, health programs, thrift programs, citizenship training, and 
working together on community projects, acquired training which 
has enabled them to become better citizens in a better community. 

As we "Go Forward" in North Carolina, our progress will be 
measured in a large degree by the training our young people receive 
today. The program of 4-H Clubs has contributed much to our pro- 
gress in the past, and is providing for the economic, physical, social, 
and spiritual growth and development of its members which will be 
reflected in a more prosperous agriculture and a more intelligent 
citizenship in our state. Much could and should be said about the 
many outstanding activities of the 4-H Club — the Thrift Program, 
the 4-H Camp Program, the Health Improvement Program, Farm 
and Home Safety, Recreation, and the 4-H Church Sunday. 

This is one of the finest things that could be presented — and 
all of you who have heard me speak know my feelings about the 
need for strengthening the rural church program in this state — I 
congratulate you, 4-H Club Members, for your stand on this question 
and wish you Godspeed in this worthy program. I agree with your 
state leader, Mr. L. H. Harrill, who has said so many times in talking 
to farm and home demonstration agents, "It's a grand thing to pro- 
duce a Grand Champion 4-H animal; but unless, at the same time 
through this procedure, you do something to help produce a Grand 
Champion boy or girl, you have failed in your greatest responsibility." 

Yes, 4-H in its varied program of activities is helping to produce 
Grand Champion boys and girls who will assume places of leader- 
ship in this state and nation. And today, as a former 4-H member 
and as a county agent who had some part in helping to lay the founda- 
tion of club work that exists today, as the father of three former 4-H 
Club members and the husband of a former 4-H Club member, and 
as governor of your state, I bring you greetings on the observance of 
National 4-H Club Week and wish for each of you, your parents and 
leaders, continued success in this great program. 



Addresses 169 

DEVELOPMENT OF THE RAILROAD IN NORTH CAROLINA 

Address Delivered At The Unveiling Of A Tablet To Calvin 

Graves At The Dedication Of The New Southern Railroad 

Passenger Station 

Raleigh 

April 15, 1950 

Mr. Chairman, Distinguished Guests, Ladies, and Gentlemen: 

We are gathered together today to dedicate a railroad station that 
has been constructed to serve better the people of Raleigh and of 
North Carolina. We are here also to unveil a tablet and thus to do 
honor to the name of Calvin Graves, a man who put the welfare of 
his state above personal ambition and party interest. 

The decisive action of Calvin Graves 1 at a critical juncture in the 
state's history marked a long step forward in the progress and de- 
velopment of North Carolina. From the beginning our people had 
been hindered by the lack of adequate transportation facilities. 
While most of the states along die Atlantic Coast had been blessed 
with good, deep-sea harbors, North Carolina had not been so en- 
dowed by nature; and even today we are struggling with the problem 
of providing first-rate ports for our state. Navigation along our 
coast is made hazardous by three of the most dangerous promontories 
in the world — Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout, and Cape Fear. Further- 
more, with the exception of the Cape Fear, not a single river that 
rises in North Carolina empties directly into the ocean within the 
borders of our state. Most of our rivers that rise in the back country 
flow into South Carolina so that our trade for many decades was 
pulled in that direction. 

These dangers of our coast and difficulties of transportation hin- 
dered the development of North Carolina. The first English colonies 
in the New World which were sent over by Sir Walter Raleigh dur- 
ing the age of Queen Elizabeth failed to survive largely due to these 
factors. The eventual permanent settlement of the area was delayed 
until after that of Virginia and other colonies. 

In seeking to solve the transportation problem Tarheels tried 
various plans. First, they used water transportation on the sounds 



JCalvin Graves (1804-1877) was born in Caswell County. He attended the University of 
North Catolina for one year, then began the study of law with Judge Thomas Settle. He later 
went to the law school of former Chief Justice Leonard Henderson of Granville County. Graves 
was a representative for Caswell County at the Constitutional Convention of 1835. In 1840, 
1842, and 1844, he was elected to the House of Commons from Caswell and became speaker in 
1842. Elected to the state Senate in 1846 and 1848, and as speaker in 1848, he gave the de- 
ciding vote to give state aid to the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad in spite of the opposition of his 
constituents. He resigned the last day of the session. North Carolina Manual, 1913, 471, 472, 544. 



170 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

and rivers near the coast, but that did not meet the situation ade- 
quately. Soon thereafter, they began to build roads, but these were 
little more than passages through the forest, without proper drain- 
age or other modern road building facilities. At that time they had 
not heard of hard-surfaced highways or $200,000,000 bond issues for 
building them. As settlers pushed farther into the interior, away 
from navigable water, they found the transportation problem more 
and more difficult. There was no incentive for the development of 
industry on a large scale, and farm crops were frequently allowed to 
rot in the fields because the cost of getting them to markets was too 
great. As late as 1853 a traveler near Raleigh saw 3,000 barrels of 
corn thrown away because it would have cost more to transport it to 
market than it was worth. And yet, at that very time, corn was sell- 
ing for $1.50 a barrel in New York. 

For nearly two centuries the state suffered under this handicap, 
and the first real opportunity to go ahead came with the invention 
of the railroad in the first half of the nineteenth century. The people 
of North Carolina became tremendously interested in this new de- 
vice, and a series of conventions to promote railroads was held in 
different parts of the state. The state gave financial assistance to 
several railroad lines, but the problem was not yet solved. 

Then in the Legislature of 1848 matters reached a climax. A pro- 
posal was made to construct a new railroad partly owned by the state, 
from Goldsboro by way of Raleigh and Greensboro to Charlotte; but 
there was considerable doubt as to whether the bill would pass. It 
happened that the strength of the two leading political parties of 
that day, the Whigs and the Democrats, was evenly divided in both 
the House of Commons and the Senate. By a compromise a Whig, 
Robert B. Gilliam of Granville County, became speaker of the house, 
while a Democrat, Calvin Graves of Caswell County, became speaker 
of the Senate. In general, the Whigs favored the expenditure of 
public funds for the construction of railroads and other state works, 
while the Democrats opposed such action. Thus, the party of Calvin 
Graves for the most part opposed the use of state funds to construct 
the North Carolina Railroad. 

The contest over the measure was extremely close and aroused 
tremendous interest all over the state. The bill passed the House by a 
vote of sixty to fifty-two. In the senate it passed its second reading by 
a majority of two and then came up for its third and final reading. 
The lobbies and galleries were packed, and the entire state awaited 
the outcome with bated breath. 



Addresses 171 

Finally, when the debate came to an end, the clerk slowly called 
the roll. The result was a tie. Under the rules, therefore, the vote of 
the speaker would decide the issue. Thereupon Speaker Graves, 
gavel in hand and leaning slightly forward, announced, "The vote on 
the Bill being equal, 22 yeas and 22 nays, the Chair votes yea. The 
Bill has passed its third and last reading." 

The scene that followed has been called indescribable. "I have 
seen and read of many memorable and famous contests, and have 
witnessed many outbreaks of popular applause," wrote Barringer, 
"but never anything like that then following. Even the granite 
Capitol seemed to shake for joy. But this was not all. There was 
then no electric telegraph in North Carolina; no express lines; no 
mail delivery; but immediately, every man and woman, every boy and 
girl, became a sort of message bearer. News was hastened in every 
possible way to every nook and corner of the Old Commonwealth, 
and the one phrase was: 'Speaker Graves has saved the State — the 
Railroad bill has passed.' " 1 

But if Speaker Graves had saved the state, he had also ruined his 
own political career. Although later he was appointed by two suc- 
cessive governors as a member of the Board of Trade, he was never 
again elected to public office. He had indeed sacrificed his own fu- 
ture to the welfare of the State of North Carolina and its people. 2 

The completion of the North Carolina Railroad marked a long 
step forward in the progress of the state. Opened in 1856, it ran 
from Goldsboro (where it connected with the Wilmington and Wel- 
don Railroad) by way of Smithfield, Raleigh, Hillsboro, Graham, 
Greensboro, Lexington, Salisbury, and Concord to Charlotte. Leased 
as it now is to the Southern Railway, the North Carolina Railroad 
passes through an area that is the heart of the state in industrial, 
agricultural, and commercial development. Look at a map and you 
will see that most of the large towns and cities today are located on 
that route of 223 miles. 

During the past century we have seen other forms of transporta- 
tion come into use — the private automobile, the motor truck, and 
the airplane. But the backbone of our transportation system for 
heavy commodities is still our railroad system, and in North Caro- 
lina perhaps the most important railroad link of all is the line of 
the old North Carolina Railroad. For this line, for the courageous 



iRufus Barringer, History of the North Carolina Railroad (Raleigh: News and Observer Press, 

1894), 18. 

Graves resigned as speaker the last day of the session and Andrew Joyner was elected to 

succeed him. Joyner's only act was to declare the Senate adjourned. North Carolina Manual, 1913, 

481n. 



172 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

action that made its construction possible, we have none other than 
Calvin Graves to thank. It is fitting and proper that we should be 
gathered here today in honor of this man of vision and courage who 
a little more than a century ago sacrificed his own future for the 
good of the State of North Carolina and her citizens. 



FRANK P. GRAHAM IS THE BEST NORTH CAROLINA HAS 

Address Delivered Over A State-Wide Radio Network In Support 

Of Senator Graham's Candidacy For The United States Senate 

Raleigh 
May 17, 1950 
My Friends all over North Carolina: 

We are engaged in an unusual political campaign this spring. 
The issues involved and the political abuse being heaped on the 
man I appointed to the United States Senate make it my duty to 
tell you exactly why I appointed Frank Graham. 1 

I do this to set the record straight. I do this because Senator 
Graham's opponents are spreading misinformation about him 
throughout our state and have been doing this since he was appoint- 
ed. They knew he was the man to beat in this race. 

To get a clear picture of the campaign, we must go back a num- 
ber of years and review the history of state government in North 
Carolina. Through the years our state has sent a succession of able 
men to the United States Senate. But if you will recall the men who 
have served us there, you will discover that most of them have been 
corporation lawyers and lawyers representing the monopoly groups 
of this state. 

Now, I have no objections to corporation lawyers as such, nor to 
Senator Graham's chief opponent in this senatorial race. He is a 
corporation lawyer of character and ability, but his nomination 
would return to the Senate that monopoly of representation of a 
single segment of our population that has been dominant for half 
a century. 

We need fresh air in our Senate, as well as in our state govern- 
ment. We need representation of all our people. I do not think you 
would be wise to continue to elect for the next fifty years men who 



iFrank Porter Graham, who was president of the University of North Carolina, had been 
appointed by Governor Scott to serve the unexpired term of Senator J. M. Broughton or until the 
next general election. At this time he was a candidate to succeed himself. 



Addresses 173 

are dairy farmers, as I am. We need an occasional change in our 
way of doing things. 

Again, I repeat, I am not belittling the records of our distinguish- 
ed senators of the past; but I am saying that too many monopoly 
corporation lawyers in a row make our representation in the United 
States Senate lopsided. 

A drop of water falling on a stone does little to change the shape 
of that stone in a single day, but the continuing effect of that water 
does much to change it over a period of fifty years. 

The influence of corporation lawyers on the philosophy of our 
state government has made itself felt over many years, and in many 
cases that influence has held back the development of a government 
which should look out for the welfare of the great masses of our 
people. A senator who represents great monopoly corporations natur- 
ally gives their interests considerable attention. He would not be 
true to his background and his business ties if he did not. But in 
North Carolina the corporation viewpoint has often retarded the 
development of many things which would have benefited the people 
and developed the wealth of the state. 

I cite only one instance — the great barren reaches of the Cape 
Fear River between Fayetteville and Wilmington. I traveled down 
that waterway last week, and along its banks there are no industries 
— nothing except the green foliage of trees and other vegetation. 
The Cape Fear is a "Sahara of the Waters." 

Why has this water power flowed unused to the sea, while Gulf 
Coast cities like Houston, Texas, dug a forty-mile river to bring 
water transportation to that city? That giant canal has been one of 
the marvels of the South, but the Cape Fear was handed to us free 
by the Divine Plan of the universe. 

Why are electricity rates higher in southeastern North Carolina 
than in any other section? Why is unemployment greater in that 
area than in any other sections of the state? 

I think there is some connection between the pitiful failure to 
develop this great watershed and the desire of the monopolist cor- 
porations to keep competition out. The usual philosophy of big 
corporations is to stand still — to let well enough alone — to oppose 
change. This monopolistic philosophy has been responsible for many 
similar neglects in our state. 

I appointed Frank Graham to the Senate because I felt we needed 
a change in Washington. I felt we needed a man with a background 
of unselfish services to the people of our state. I felt we needed a 



174 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

man who has devoted his life to the service of others, rather than 
to building his own personal fortune and tying his loyalty and 
support to special interests. 

I felt North Carolina needed a man of national and international 
reputation as a servant of the people in Washington. I felt that we 
needed a senator who would concern himself more with the hopes 
and aspirations of men, women, and children, rather than with cold- 
blooded bank balances and lobbying fees. 

I felt at the time of the appointment — and I feel now — that I 
found that man in Frank Graham. His life demonstrates the pro- 
found truth of the Golden Rule. His untiring service toward up- 
lifting the human personality is testimony to his greatness. His 
courage in pursuing the aims of Christian brotherhood is known 
throughout the length and breadth of North Carolina. It is reflected 
in his loyal friends who have flocked to his support in this campaign, 
coming from all walks of life. 

Frank Graham stands for the kind of democracy that made this 
nation great. His support of great causes has identified him closely 
with the aims and goals of the party of Jefferson. He has not cam- 
paigned on a "do-nothing" platform which has identified his corpor- 
ation lawyer opponent more with the Republican party than with 
the Democratic party. He has not berated and mocked the Demo- 
cratic administration in Washington which was recently endorsed 
by the State Democratic Convention in Raleigh. 

I believe Frank Graham is the best North Carolina has to give 
the United States Senate. He has already established himself as a 
leader in that distinguished body as an able representative, as a man 
we can be proud of, as a man of courage. 

I have worked with Frank Graham in public matters for twenty 
years, and I have always found him supporting vital programs for 
the people. He always volunteered his services — something that 
cannot be said for the other candidates in this race. Frank Graham 
went on the radio and made public addresses for the roads and schools 
programs last year. He supported the telephone program in Wash- 
ington that made money available for telephones in case the monopo- 
ly corporations continued to drag their feet. 

Your Legislature has appropriated funds to expand our medical 
and hospital care program so that soon we will be able to take care 
of all victims of tuberculosis and mental diseases. It has allowed the 
people to vote to build better schools for the education of our 



Addresses 175 

children, and it has allocated more funds to vital services needed by 
our people. 

The administration has put lazy money in our government to 
work. It has increased efficiency and economy to the end that we 
have more to invest in services so badly needed. We are making 
progress toward wiping out our deficit in public services. 

Frank Graham is part of this general pattern of alert and forward- 
looking government. He and Senator Hoey make a fine team repre- 
senting North Carolina in Washington. They have entrees into both 
liberal and conservative groups. They respect and admire each other 
and work well together. As a team they represent all segments of 
thinking in our economy and give us balanced representation. This 
is as it should be. 

The people of North Carolina can send to the Senate no man 
who will make an abler teammate for Senator Hoey than Frank 
Graham. He will stand up for the best interests of all our people. 
He will stand firm for the things which have made our state and 
nation great. 



THE PEOPLE MAKE THE DECISION 

Address Delivered Over A State-Wide Radio Network In Behalf 

Of The Candidacy Of Senator Frank P. Graham 

Raleigh 

June 20, 1950 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

We, as North Carolinians, in a very few days must make a deci- 
sion — a decision that is vital not only to us here in this state, but 
also to peace-loving peoples all over the world. 

On June 24 we will decide who shall represent North Carolina 
in the United States Senate. 

The man we send to the Senate in all probability will have a 
part in making some of the most important decisions in the history 
of the world. I say this in all sincerity, because these are serious 
times in the world's history when war is a possibility. 

We have atomic and hydrogen bombs and other even more horri- 
ble weapons. We have cold war and hot tempers. 

We need men in the United States who think in terms of human- 
ity, who believe in the basic rights of the individual, so long as his 
rights do not trample on the rights of other people. 



176 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

We need men who can sit down and work with peoples of other 
nations for peace. We need men who can think and act in the inter- 
est of all mankind, and not base their actions on selfish interests of 
a privileged few. 

Such a man is Frank Graham. 

There are few — if any — men in America today better qualified 
to work for peace. As mediator for the War Labor Board, he dem- 
onstrated his ability to bring opposing factions to agreement. 

In Indonesia as a representative of the United Nations he demon- 
strated his ability to persuade people to follow the democratic way 
of life — and was denounced by Moscow for his work for democracy. 

He has proved his ability as a peacemaker. In these times his 
ability and leadership are sorely needed, and his experience is 
invaluable. 

That is one of the reasons I appointed Frank Graham to the 
United States Senate. 

Another reason I appointed him to the Senate is that he is the 
kind of man who gets things done. He proved it in North Carolina 
in his work for education. He proved it in his fight to help improve 
the farmer's life in this state. He proved it in his work to help put 
across the better schools and roads programs. He proved it every 
time he went before the state Legislature to get things done not only 
for the Greater University, but for all of the people of this state. 

And Frank Graham has proved that he can get things done in 
Washington. His judgment is respected. His sincerity is unquestion- 
ed. His ability to get to the bottom of things and get kinks ironed 
out has been publicly praised by his fellow senators. No freshman 
senator ever has been more influential with his colleagues or has 
been more effective in the "cloakroom" than has Frank Graham. 

Some people have professed a fear of the way Senator Graham 
might vote if returned to the United States Senate. This is incredi- 
ble to the folks who know Frank Graham's record. 

In the fifteen months Frank Graham has been in the Senate he 
voted for bills to: 

Stabilize prices of agricultural commodities; adjust inequities in 
cotton acreage allotments (and he was credited by fellow senators 
with personally saving this latter measure from defeat). 

He also voted for measures to extend the reciprocal trade agree- 
ment, to ratify the North Atlantic Treaty, to put the Marshall Plan 
into effect, and to place the minimum wage at seventy-five cents an 
hour. 



Addresses 177 

He worked and voted for the rural telephone funds which we in 
North Carolina needed so desperately. 

With such a record, what has anyone to fear from Frank Graham's 
vote in the Senate? 

I also appointed Frank Graham to the Senate because I felt we 
needed a man with a background of unselfish service to the people 
of our state. I felt we needed a man who has devoted his life to the 
service of others, rather than to building his own personal fortune 
and tying his loyalty and support to special interests. 

I felt we needed a man in Washington of national and interna- 
tional reputation as a servant of the people. I felt we needed a sena- 
tor who would concern himself more with the hopes and aspirations 
of men, women, and children, rather than with cold-blooded bank 
balances and lobbying fees. 

Frank Graham stands for the kind of democracy that made this 
nation great. His support of great causes has identified him closely 
with the aims and goals of the party of Jefferson. He has not cam- 
paigned on a "do-nothing" platform which has identified his corpor- 
ation lawyer opponent more with the Republican party than with 
the Democratic party. He has not berated and mocked the Demo- 
cratic administration in Washington or Raleigh. 

He has not sat idly by for the last twenty years, but has worked 
for those things which would bring about the greatest good for all 
the people. 

His entire record is one of unselfish service. 

It cannot be tarnished by reckless charges upon his integrity and 
character. 

Frank Graham is not a Communist. He does not favor the Fair 
Employment Practices Commission. He is not a Socialist. His posi- 
tion on these issues was known publicly long before he was appointed 
to the Senate. 

Frank Graham is a home-grown North Carolina Democrat first, 
last, and always. 

Opponents of Frank Graham have made considerable fuss over 
the recent United States Supreme Court decisions affecting segrega- 
tion and intimated that there is some tie-in with the North Carolina 
senatorial race. 

This is fantastic! Actually there is no connection. Neither Mr. 
Smith, excellent lawyer that he is, nor Senator Graham, brilliant 
statesman that he is, can do anything about these decisions. The 
Supreme Court has spoken. It is the highest court in the land. Its 
word is law, and no senator can change it. 



178 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Actually the Supreme Court did not write any new law, nor did 
it extend any principle of law. 

They merely upheld a decision written in 1895 requiring "equal 
but separate" accommodations for the white and Negro races. This 
earlier decision was based on the fourteenth amendment to the 
United States Constitution which, in part, provides: ". . . Nor shall 
any State . . . deny to any person . . . equal protection of the laws." 
That amendment was adopted in 1868 and has been considered 
many times. 

That has not been changed. The three recent cases, legal experts 
tell me, deal with the question of equal facilities and accommoda- 
tions. 

The decisions upheld federal laws and constitutional provisions 
that have been on the statute books and in force more than fifty 
years. The court decisions do not interfere with our public school 
system in North Carolina wherein we provide separate but equal 
facilities for the two races. 

It is interesting to note that both of the recent Supreme Court 
decisions were unanimous, with Mr. Justice Clark of Texas and Mr. 
Justice Black of Alabama concurring, and that the opinions were 
written by another southerner, Chief Justice Vinson of Kentucky. 

It also is interesting to note that the attorney generals of all the 
southern states in presenting their case to the Supreme Court referred 
to Senator Graham in their brief and used arguments against com- 
pulsory abolition of segregation. 

The injection of the race issue into this campaign is an insult to 
the intelligence of the good people of North Carolina. It is an obvi- 
ous move to confuse the issues. 

Here in North Carolina the races have lived together amicably 
and peacefully for the last fifty years. We have a record of continu- 
ous progress and harmony in racial matters. 

I am confident that the people of North Carolina will not be 
confused or deceived by the injection of this issue into the campaign. 
I said a year ago, and I say again tonight, North Carolinians are 
capable of making up their own minds and resent the efforts of out- 
side interests to confuse the real issues. They will not be deceived 
or confused. 

Frank Graham is opposed to federal compulsion in elimination 
of segregation. He is opposed to federal compulsion in education 
or medicine. 

And he is not anybody's tool. 



Addresses 179 

Frank Graham makes up his own mind about matters, consider- 
ing only his conscience and what will be the most good for the most 
folks. No one tells him what to do. 

He fights for the farmers, but he is not a tool of the farmer. 

He fights for the rights of labor, but he is not a tool of the unions. 

He fights for fair treatment of all people, but is not a tool of any 
race or creed. 

He fights for fair treatment for business, but he is not a stooge 
for Wall Street. 

I appointed him to the Senate, but he is no tool of mine. He 
makes up his own mind on all matters. 

He doesn't sit on the sidelines; he gets out in the middle of the 
fight. And he fights for the American way of doing things. He is 
against business taking over government, and he is against govern- 
ment taking over business. 

For the last fifty years North Carolina has been going forward. 
For many of those years Frank Graham has been working with state 
leaders to improve conditions of all the people in North Carolina. 

If we are to continue our progress, we need to have a man serving 
us in the Seriate that we know. We know Frank Graham. We know 
where he stands. He is a native-born son. His record is out in the 
open for everyone to see. 

We can't afford to gamble on a man who changes his stand on 
issues according to the way he thinks the political winds are blowing. 
We can't afford to have a political opportunist representing North 
Carolina in the United States Senate. We need a man who will work 
for the best interest of the people at all times with no strings 
attached. 

Frank Graham has always been out in the open for everyone to 
see. He doesn't hide his real feelings about his state or his nation. 
Typical of this is a statement he made in a speech at Lexington on 
May 25, just before the first primary, and I quote: 

"May our America be a place where democracy is achieved with- 
out vulgarity, where differences may be resolved without hate, where 
you may have majority rule without tyranny. We want an America 
where a respect for the past is not reaction and where hope for the 
future is not revolution. This is America." 

That's Frank Graham — the humanitarian, the statesman, and 
the educator. 

The question is a simple one. Who will serve you the best; a 
man who, like Senator Graham, has worked unselfishly for the people 



180 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

of his state and for a greater North Carolina, or a man who has 
worked for his own and special interests? 

The answer is simple to me. If I had it to do over again, I would 
appoint Frank Graham to the United States Senate. 

The decision is up to you, the people of North Carolina. I am 
willing to accept your decision. 



NORTH CAROLINA'S PAST 

Address Delivered On The North Carolina Night Of The 

Sesquicentennial Drama In The Amphitheater 

Washington, D. C. 

August 18, 1950 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies, and Gentlemen: 

It is my honor and privilege to accept this illuminated scroll, 
presented by the National Capital Sesquicentennial Commission to 
the State of North Carolina. The Old North State and its four million 
citizens are happy and proud to be recognized on this occasion and 
thus to participate in the celebration of the one hundred and fiftieth 
anniversary of the founding of the nation's capital. 

As many of you know, we North Carolinians are called "Tar- 
heels." We were given that name on the field of battle because our 
soldiers were noted for sticking to their posts of duty, as though 
they had tar on their heels. 

We Tarheels are proud of the part we have played in the win- 
ning of American freedom and in the building of the American na- 
tion. 

To Roanoke Island, within the present borders of North Caro- 
lina, Sir Walter Raleigh during the reign of Queen Elizabeth sent 
the first English colonies to America, and that island was the birth- 
place of Virginia Dare, first child born of English parents in the 
New World 363 years ago today. 

In the years that followed, Tarheel colonists were noted for their 
love of liberty. Years before the battle of Lexington the North 
Carolina back country farmers staged a full-scale revolt against 
British misrule that was not put down until the Battle of Alamance 
in 1771. 

During the Revolution North Carolina was the first state to in- 
struct her delegates to the Continental Congress to vote for a declara- 
tion of independence. And at Kings Mountain, Guilford Courthouse, 



Addresses 181 

and other battles, Tarheel soldiers played a leading part in winning 
that independence. 

North Carolina was the twelfth state to ratify the Constitution 
of the United States in 1789 — the same year in which George Wash- 
ington was inaugurated President. 

We North Carolinians are especially proud of the author of the 
drama being staged here tonight. Paul Green is a Tarheel from his 
heels up. A native of the Cape Fear country, he is a graduate of our 
State University and for many years has been a member of the faculty 
of that institution. He is the distinguished author of many plays, 
one of which won him the Pulitzer Prize in 1927. 

Paul Green's most significant contribution to American dramatic 
art has been his development of the outdoor historical drama. In 
1937 he wrote "The Lost Colony" in which he told the story of 
these first English pioneers in the New World who had come to 
Roanoke Island 350 years before. This production is staged during 
the summer months every year on that historic island — and let me 
extend to all of you an invitation to come and see this fine drama 
before the summer is over. It is celebrating its tenth anniversary to- 
night. 

The people of Virginia did not want North Carolina to get ahead 
of them, and so three or four years ago they asked Paul Green to 
write an historical drama for them. He did — and under the title, 
"The Common Glory." It is now produced each summer in Williams- 
burg. 

And now, when you in the national capital wanted a drama for 
your celebration, you asked him to come to Washington and write it 
for you. He has done so, and I am sure that you are glad you asked 
him. 

And so, we in North Carolina are proud of Paul Green. Through 
the genius of his presentation in these productions he is making the 
American people conscious of the heritage that is ours. We want 
you to know, however, that you can never take him away from us. 
You can't scrub the tar off his heels. 

In our state is located the town of Washington. It was the first 
town to be named for the Father of our Country. Tonight, on this 
notable occasion, it is my pleasure and privilege to bring greetings 
from the town of Washington and all the people of North Carolina 
to the city of Washington and all the people of the District of Colum- 
bia. In behalf of all of us, may I express the hope that your centen- 
nial celebration will be auspicious and successful in every way. 



182 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

OUR HEALTH PROGRAM 

Address Delivered At The 39th Annual Meeting Of The North 

Carolina Public Health Association 

Winston-Salem 

September 8, 1950 

There is a saying that some people enjoy poor health. I, for one, 
doubt the truth of that saying. No person, man or woman, can 
reach the heights of happiness or efficiency when he is plagued with 
sickness or poor health. 

The state government — that is society — has a definite stake in 
the health of the men, women, and children who make up the sum 
total of the people. There is not only the responsibility of the state 
to protect the health of the people, but also the desirability of our 
state to maintain a strong, healthy, and virile citizenship. 

North Carolina, a progressive state by most yardsticks, is not un- 
mindful of the health problems which beset a modern community. 
In recognition of these problems, North Carolina, administratively 
and legislatively, has made a start toward building for better health. 

A gigantic stride forward on this road to better health was made 
just eighteen months ago when the General Assembly, for the first 
time in the history of our state, made an appropriation to the public 
school system which was specifically earmarked for the building of 
better health among the school children of North Carolina. 

This appropriation was for $550,000 a year, to be allocated on 
the basis of $1,000 to each county plus fifty cents per pupil in each 
county, to provide for medical and dental examination, including 
school nurse services, and for remedial and corrective treatments 
for chronic defects and conditions which were making misfits out of 
thousands of our school children. 

Those responsible for the administration of this public school 
health program, which was inaugurated in 1949, are to be congratu- 
lated for the success it has attained in just a little more than a year 
of operation. The records show that during the first year of opera- 
tion $365,000 of the $550,000 appropriation was spent directly to 
remedy and correct such defects as bad sight, infected tonsils, poor 
hearing, and other disabilities. 

This program, administratively and legislatively, was designed 
for and is operated for the benefit of both urban and rural schools. It, 
like North Carolina's other programs and projects for the building 



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Addresses 183 

of a better state, draws neither a color line or a line between city 
and country. It is a program for the betterment of all the people. 

Then, in the field of providing adequate hospital facilities for 
the maximum number of people, North Carolina is at an accelerated 
pace. In 1947, there were thirty-three counties in our state that were 
entirely without hospital facilities. Today there are only sixteen 
counties in North Carolina having no hospitals or approved plans 
for hospital construction. 

None of us, laymen or public health people, however, should be 
content to rest upon our laurels in this respect. The job is not yet 
done, and will not be completed until the citizens of these remaining 
sixteen counties can also go to bed at night secure in the knowledge 
that modern hospital facilities are nearby their homes. 

The Medical Care Commission, charged with the duty of working 
out the state's hospital problems and thereby providing for the peo- 
ple a service they have a right to expect from their state, is doing a 
magnificent job. Its record of accomplishments is not limited to 
having assisted in bringing hospital facilities to seventeen counties 
which did not previously have them. In all, local general hospitals 
have been approved for forty-two counties and three hospital areas 
in the state. Nurses homes have been scheduled for fifteen counties, 
and health centers are scheduled for five additional counties. 

It would not be fitting to give all the credit for these increased 
hospital facilities to one agency. The counties themselves have con- 
tributed. County contributions have ranged from 16.7 per cent to 
56 per cent of the cost of construction. Under the state's master 
hospital expansion plan, counties with low per capita income are 
given relatively more aid by the state than are wealthy counties to 
enable them to build hospitals to the end that health opportunities 
and facilities may be equalized among all the people. Then, in ad- 
dition, the federal government shares to the tune of 44 per cent in 
the construction cost of a hospital which meets its specifications. 

We have not forgotten — and we must not forget — that men, 
women, and children, whether they live in the mountains, in the 
piedmont, or in the coastal areas, in the country or in the cities and 
towns, are entitled to equal health and hospital facilities. Ours is a 
democracy. 

There is one important health problem that we as a state have 
neglected. We have not even made a fair start toward solving it. 
I refer to stream pollution which has a bearing on the health and 
lives of every man, woman, and child in North Carolina. Domestic 



184 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

water supplies of the cities and towns which have been polluted con- 
stitute a real and ever-present hazard to the health not only of the 
inhabitants of the cities and towns, but also to those who live along 
the banks of such streams. Good fish are poisoned, and livestock is 
contaminated. 

I shall recommend to the next General Assembly that laws be 
enacted to control stream pollution, and I am confident the public 
health people of our state will be in the forefront of those who sup- 
port such remedial legislation. 

The State Department of Health, supported by the taxpayers' dol- 
lars, is the watchdog of the people's health. It is on guard day and 
night and uses the miracles of the laboratory and X-ray to detect 
festering spots in the public health and to wipe them out. During 
1949, for instance, the State Health Department examined 271,556 
North Carolina men, women, and children for tuberculosis. This 
continuing vigilance to detect the presence of the "great white killer" 
in the early stages is paying dividends — dividends which cannot be 
measured because they are represented by human lives saved, and sick 
bodies restored to health. Today, North Carolina, because of this 
eternal viligance on the part of the men and women who have ac- 
cepted the responsibility of protecting our health, has a lower death 
rate from tuberculosis than does the rest of the nation. 

The cancer control division of the State Health Department — 
I am happy to say — also is on its toes. An average of approximately 
1,500 examinations are made monthly in the campaign against this 
scourge of mankind. 

Yes — North Carolina has a right to be proud of its progress in 
building better health for all its people. But, in our pride we should 
also be humble and realize that our steps are still those of a faltering 
infant just beginning to walk and not yet using all the muscles at 
its command. We are doing a pretty good job, but we can do a better 
one. Let this be our challengel 



Addresses 185 

DIVERSIFICATION OF STATE GOVERNMENT 

Address Delivered At The Annual Joint Meeting Of The North 

Carolina Cotton Growers Association And The Farmers 

Cooperative Exchange 

Raleigh 

September 12, 1950 

Mr. Chairman, Honored Guests, and Friends: 

I want to talk to you today about diversification, not as we farm 
people know it, but diversification of state government. 

Your administration's "Go Forward" program was designed to 
do what seemed to be sensible, right, and necessary for all the people 
of the state. If it appears at the moment that more is being done for 
the rural people than the urban people, it is only because the rural 
people have been neglected in the past. Actually, North Carolina 
has had too much of a "one-crop" government in the past; and 
you know, as I do, that diversification is necessary to reach our ulti- 
mate goal of a greater North Carolina. 

Under the old one-crop system, representation on state boards 
and commissions which operate your government was limited to a 
small and select group with 94.5 per cent of all appointments held 
by the urban people. Today you have highway commissioners and a 
governor who live on dirt roads. Ninety-five rural people have been 
named members of state boards and commissions. Forty-nine women 
now sit in council and decide on matters affecting their state. All 
the people are now represented more proportionately and have a 
voice in the operations of their government. 

Just as a diversified farm program is more stable and productive 
than the one-crop system, so is a diversified government. 

Diversified government, in less than two years, is showing results 
and paying dividends to all North Carolinians. 

Your State Highway Commission — which has paved more miles 
of roads during the last six months than at any other like period 
of time in history — has finished almost one-third of the secondary 
road program. This is more than we expected to have finished at 
this time, but our highway workers have been assisted by a good 
winter and splended cooperation from those who help us build 
roads. 

Ever since the state took over the rural roads in 1931, there has 
not been enough money in the highway fund to give our secondary 
roads the attention they deserve. The $200,000,000 bond issue was 



186 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

necessary to meet the problem. This does not mean that all rural 
roads will be paved or all that deserve to be will be paved; but it 
does mean that the more heavily traveled roads will be paved and 
others stabilized and improved. 

Here again we must think in terms of diversification and realize 
the importance of considering our roads and highways as one system. 
Actually our roads are built for everybody — not just for the people 
who happen to live beside them. 

Thus, as the rural road program moves along toward the half- 
way mark, it is important to consider how this total program will 
blend in with our over-all highway needs. It is apparent to me and 
others that the primary highway system needs considerable and con- 
tinuous attention, especially in view of the remarkable increase in 
traffic using it. Each month of this year traffic records have been 
broken. We need constantly to re-examine our highway needs in 
view of these changing conditions. 

It is with further diversification in mind that we ought to review 
the problems connected with building and maintaining city streets. 
It has already been suggested that if adequate funds can be raised, 
we should consider the possibility of the state accepting responsibility 
for maintenance of city streets. Certainly the Highway Commission 
does not have sufficient funds at present to do this — with the 
tremendous needs of our primary highway system apparent to every- 
body. It would not be wise to consider siphoning off more funds 
from these purposes to maintain and build city streets. This would 
not solve the problem. Clearly the situation demands new revenue. 
A possible increase in the gasoline tax from one-half to three-fourths 
or even to a full cent has been suggested. 

Since it was first suggested that the state add city streets to its 
road systems, several different plans have been offered. One calls for 
the state to build and maintain all city streets. Another plan would 
have the state pay the costs of those cities which are properly equipped 
to do their own street work and with the state doing the others. A 
third suggestion is for the state to maintain only those city streets 
connecting with the state highway system. And still a fourth idea 
is for the state to maintain streets connecting with the state highway 
system plus the principal streets of each city. 

All of these and other suggestions are being studied here in 
Raleigh this very afternoon by the commission which the 1949 Leg- 
islature authorized to study means by which the state may assist 
municipalities in solving their street maintenance problems. 



Addresses 187 

Perhaps it will not be wise for the state to take on this responsi- 
bility. Perhaps there is some other method not yet discussed which 
would be better. My mind is open on this matter. It is a problem 
for the Legislature to decide. I do know, however, that money must 
be provided to do whatever the Legislature decides to do. We all 
know it is unwise to rob Peter to pay Paul. 

I want to emphasize one other point about our road program. It 
is necessary for all of us to be diligent about protecting this great 
investment in our rural roads. 

By protection I mean that we farm people should not carelessly 
drive our farm equipment over asphalt. We should recognize that 
lugs and harrows damage pavement. We should take part in the 
giant program of maintaining the many thousands of miles of county 
roads that will be paved by the close of this administration. I know 
some of us have been living on a dirt road so long that we never 
thought we would have to worry about protecting pavement, but the 
time has come to start thinking about it. 

Another point we must not lose sight of is the violation of weight 
restrictions by heavy log trucks and other vehicles on these light 
weight roads. Our engineers say the one thing that will cause our 
new roads to crack and crumble is the constant pounding of heavy 
weights. These roads were not built for heavy duty. Most of our 
light weight roads are clearly marked with weight restriction signs. 
If you see heavy cars or trucks using these roads, it is your duty to 
let the proper authorities know about it so your roads can be 
protected. 

In a well-balanced, diversified economy, telephone and electric 
services follow good roads. And it has been the policy of this ad- 
ministration to try to assist in setting a pattern for the utility com- 
panies to follow. Your state is doing its part by building the roads, 
and the utilities are beginning to show interest in following the lead, 
but they still have a long way to go. 

For instance, some 30,000 telephones have been installed in farm 
homes since the beginning of this administration. That's double the 
number of rural phones reported in 1945. But — even with this 
progress — only about seventeen per cent of North Carolina's farms 
have telephone service. 

This picture is beginning to brighten. Telephone companies are 
beginning to move along with rural telephone expansion, and Con- 
gress has provided funds to help take up the slack. Under an amend- 
ment to the Rural Electrification Act, funds have been allocated 



188 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

for loans to assist you in getting telephone service. The telephone 
company serving your area can get a loan to expand its present faci- 
lities; and if they fail to do this, you can form your own cooperative 
and develop your own telephone service. 

The state REA stands ready to assist and advise those wishing to 
avail themselves of this opportunity. 

On the electricity side, the power companies are beginning to 
show a little pep too. 

For instance, approximately 80,000 electric services have been 
added during the last eighteen months; but there are still 126,000 
rural homes, school houses, churches, and rural businesses without 
electric service. 

We are making progress, but this is no time to sit down and 
pat ourselves on the back. You folks who now have electricity on 
your farms should work harder than ever to see that the power lines 
are extended to your neighbors who still don't have this valuable 
farm utility. 

I have said before, and I say it again now, that one of North 
Carolina's greatest needs is abundant electric power. 

The present power producing facilities in North Carolina are 
expanding at a commendable rate. Demand, however, is exceeding 
the supply produced within the boundaries of our state; and our 
utilities have found it necessary, or at least good business, to purchase 
cheap power from other states in order to meet the needs of our 
users within the state. 

The 1949 annual reports of the power companies in North Caro- 
lina show they purchased 330,000 kilowatt hours from out-of-state 
sources to meet the needs of Tarheel customers last year. 

We were fortunate in having neighboring states with a surplus of 
cheap power to help fill our needs, but my concern is that North 
Carolina does not have this surplus for future needs within our own 
boundaries. 

An abundance of power in North Carolina would give more im- 
petus to the development of the state than anything that could hap- 
pen. The history of electric power has shown time and again that 
where there is an abundance of power in an area, it has been used 
to develop that area. 

We cannot blame the private power companies of North Carolina 
entirely for not having a surplus of power or for this lack of vision. 
These companies have tried to keep pace with a growing, progres- 
sive state. Despite a most admirable expansion program, they have 



Addresses 189 

failed to produce in North Carolina the required power to meet 
our needs and potential needs. They are also to be commended for 
their ability to secure the necessary power from other sources at a 
most favorable rate, I am told, to meet our needs. 

A major portion of the blame for the lack of abundant power 
belongs to us, you and me, as citizens of North Carolina. 

It is our fault that we have not fully developed our river basins. 
With federal help, we could be enjoying these advantages also. We 
all remember how Senator Bailey, during his long and valuable 
service to the state, sponsored legislation to assist farmers in the 
construction of stock ponds which also serve to supply fish for the 
home table. This is an example of how our government can assist 
us in our everyday problems on the farm that private enterprise can- 
not do. 

I have no fight with private power companies. They are not 
expected to finance major flood-control projects, even though they 
often are important beneficiaries of flood control. 

It is my firm conviction that it is the responsibility of private 
power companies, operating as they do as a public legal monopoly 
granted them by the people, to provide service to the greatest possi- 
ble number of individuals at the lowest possible cost. There is a 
limit, however, even in the production of power, to what can be 
expected from a private power company. 

We, as farmers, cannot rightfully expect a private power company 
to build dams that will control our rivers and protect us from floods, 
and also conserve the soil, water, and wildlife. That is our responsi- 
bility. 

It is our responsibility as citizens of this state to work for the full 
development of its natural resources. Only we, as soil conscious peo- 
ple, can fully appreciate the value of flood control, conserving the 
soil, the water, and our wildlife. To us the power potential is only 
one, although an important one, of the many benefits in the over- 
all picture. In approaching the problem, it is important that we 
place proper evaluation on all related resources. 

In this particular field, North Carolina is way behind in its haul- 
ing. We, as a people, have failed to protect the soil of our rich 
hillsides and river basins from the ravages of floods. We have failed 
to conserve our water resources against future shortages which already 
are becoming apparent. We have failed to develop our recreational 
resources, and we have failed to provide proper and adequate habitats 
for our dwindling supplies of game and fish. 



190 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

In our failure in these things, we have also failed to provide the 
means for producing surplus power which is an integral part of the 
entire picture. 

As one of the leading federal taxpaying states in the nation, we 
are footing the bill for flood control and cheap surplus power for 
our sister states. We have not been seeking what is rightfully ours. 

I have said before that we cannot expect the private power com- 
panies to do these things for us — it is up to us! We can have flood 
control, conserve our soil and water supply, help our wildlife pro- 
gram, and at the same time provide the means for producing cheap 
surplus power to help our power companies over the hill. We can 
have the prosperity, expansion, and growth that goes with these 
things if we are willing to work together for them and for a greater 
state. 

Why shouldn't we, as citizens of a progressive state, work to get 
these things we need, at the same time, providing the means for 
producing power? Would we not be traitors to our state if we did 
not consider all the factors involved? I can see why a power com- 
pany would not be interested in our flood control and conservation 
problems, but I cannot see how people of a state could consider any 
of the related resources without considering them all. We would 
not be keeping faith with our children and our children's children 
if we failed to consider and develop all the factors and resources 
involved. 

Abundant electric power is an important factor in the develop- 
ment and diversification of a state. Good schools and good health, 
however, are also basic factors in the future of North Carolina. 

The "money crop" in any state is its children. They are the 
future. Education of our children can mean the difference between 
feast and famine in the development of North Carolina. 

We have raised the teachers' pay and cut the teacher load, and it 
is my sincere hope that we can pay them an additional bonus next 
June. We have provided better transportation and more adequate 
maintenance of plants. We are providing better instructional facili- 
ties. We are holding more of our good teachers and attracting 
better qualified men and women to the teaching profession. Along 
with the $50,000,000 the state has provided for school building, the 
matching local funds bring the total planned construction of modern 
school housing in the state to nearly $200,000,000 in the next four 
years. 



Addresses 191 

In addition, we have instituted the vastly important child health 
program. The record shows that last year, its first year of operation, 
$385,000 was spent directly to remedy and correct such defects among 
school children as bad sight, infected tonsils, poor hearing, and other 
disabilities. This program, like others in North Carolina, is designed 
and operated for both urban and rural people. It draws neither a 
color line nor a line between city and country. It is a program for 
the betterment of all the people. 

And this is just one part of North Carolina's health program. 
Your state government realizes that Tarheels must be healthy to 
be prosperous. 

The Medical Care Commission is doing a tremendous job. In 
1947 there were thirty-three counties without hospital facilities. 
Today there are only sixteen counties in North Carolina that have 
no hospitals or approved plans for hospital construction. In all, local 
general hospitals have been approved for forty-two counties and three 
hospital areas in the state. Nurses homes have been scheduled for 
fifteen counties, and health centers are scheduled for five additional 
counties. 

And this is just a part of the over-all health picture. The State 
Health Department is making some 1,500 cancer examinations a 
month. Last year, more than a quarter of a million North Carolini- 
ans were examined for tuberculosis. When the present building 
program is completed, we will be able to admit and treat newly dis- 
covered cases of tuberculosis in hospitals with a minimum of delay. 

So, you see, we are making tremendous strides in the basic re- 
quirements for a diversified state government. We are going for- 
ward in our road, school, health, and utilities programs. These are 
the things that will make North Carolina a well-balanced, diversified 
state. I am told by competent authorities, that had such a program 
been put into effect fifteen years ago, by now North Carolina would 
have a population of more than seven million people and an annual 
income of more than eight billion dollars as compared to our present 
population of four million people and our present income of about 
four billion dollars. 

Along with this diversification, we are having a tremendous 
building program in the state. Including road construction, nearly 
seven hundred million dollars worth of building is scheduled in one 
phase or another. And that doesn't include the hundreds of millions 
of dollars in private construction that is going on. 



192 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

This is a bird's eye view of the things that can be accomplished 
through diversification of government. And I would like to point 
out that all of this is being done without having a single tax increased 
by the Legislature. In fact, the last General Assembly decreased taxes 
slightly. The only additional tax is the one-cent a gallon tax that 
was voted by the people of North Carolina to provide all the people 
with better roads. 

Diversification has brought a balanced bank book, too, despite 
the cries of some North Carolina bankers who last year predicted 
that I would bankrupt the state and that it would be necessary to 
call a special session of the General Assembly or drastically reduce 
services for the lack of funds. 

There is no state money lying idle. It has been put to work, and 
is bringing in extra cash at the rate of $1,555,000 a year. There is 
every indication that we will finish the biennium with a balanced 
budget. 

The state's credit is gilt-edged. When we went to New York to 
sell our road bonds, those cold-blooded men of Wall Street thought 
enough of our credit to give us one of the best, if not the best, 
interest rates in the history of North Carolina. 

All of our programs of diversification are growing stronger. As 
further expansion of our diversification, legislation pertaining to 
stream pollution and highway safety will be requested from the next 
General Assembly. 

I want to urge each of you to work together for the good of North 
Carolina and to help give us a well-diversified state. 

In our efforts to build a greater and more diversified North 
Carolina let us not forget the tremendous influence of the rural 
church. The rural church should not be permitted to lose its 
strength, but should be broadened and made stronger in every way 
possible. 

The church is the very heart of any community. It provides a 
place of worship and develops a spirit of fellowship. Within its 
sacred walls men, women, and children learn to overcome bias and 
prejudices and to live in peace and harmony with their fellowman. 
Just as important, it provides moral and spiritual training for 
our youth who are indeed our leaders and businessmen of tomorrow. 

In these troubled times when the entire world is in turmoil, 
North Carolina needs men and women who will proclaim and stand 
steadfast for those things that make for a courageous and progressive 
people. We need men and women with a keen appreciation of the 



Addresses 193 

Bible and its principles of fairness and justice, men and women with 
the courage to carry out these principles. 

We've got to play our part in the international program too. 
We have to put our shoulders to the wheels in the fight for democra- 
cy. It is the responsibility of the rural people to furnish at least their 
proportionate part of leadership, not only in your local groups, but 
also in the national and international circles. 

But don't forget that we, as farmers, must work to help maintain 
a diversified state government that works to benefit all of its people. 
To do this we must be represented, and we must work to keep that 
representation. 

Let your representatives, senators and Congressmen know how you 
feel. You'll find them anxious to work with you in building a greater, 
more diversified North Carolina. 

Let us look with confidence to the future based on the accom- 
plishment of a great historic past. Let us as a great agrarian group, 
as we did in the last of the past century, push for those things that 
will develop a great rural civilization. Let us join hands across the 
state with all peoples, all groups everywhere, and build a greater 
North Carolina. 



NORTH CAROLINA IS BUILDING WELL 

Address Delivered At A Dinner Honoring The Officials 

Of The Riegel Paper Company 

Acme 

September 14, 1950 

Mr. Toastmaster, Mr. Riegel, Honored Guests, and Friends: 

We meet tonight to celebrate the decision reached by Mr. Riegel 1 
and his associates to build a $13,000,000 paper mill at Acme. 2 We 
feel that North Carolina is the best state in which to live and do busi- 
ness, and we are confident, Mr. Riegel, that your company will share 
our convictions in that regard as you experience the full measure of 
citizenship in this state in the years that lie ahead. I congratulate 
you on the wisdom of your decision to become a part of our great 
state; and we sincerely welcome you and your associates as citizens 
and co-workers in eastern North Carolina, always a great agricultural 



Uohn L. Riegel, chairman of the board, Riegel Paper Corporation. 

Riegel Paper Mill was completed in early January, 1952. The plant covers 45 acres and 

consists of eleven buildings. It is a bleached pulp mill and turns out 200 tons of pulp per day. 



194 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

region, and which is now on the threshold of tremendous industrial 
development. 

We in North Carolina are concerned with building a better state — 
a place of ever-increasing opportunity for all of our citizens. You 
will find that North Carolinians, to an unusual degree, respect and 
believe in the dignity of work. You will be inspired by their pride in 
craftsmanship. Experience has shown that our people possess talent 
and can rapidly develop skills in all types of manufacture. Basically 
they are a religious people; their spiritual qualities are always evi- 
dent. They respect and attend their churches. They are proud of 
the communities in which they live. With those characteristics our 
people have accomplished much. With those characteristics our 
people will continue to "Go Forward." All we need is fair oppor- 
tunity, and we will demonstrate our superiority. 

The early industrialization of our state was in the field of tex- 
tiles, furniture, and tobacco manufacture. In all three we lead all 
the other states. In more recent years, however, we have sought to 
diversify our manufacturing; and in that we have achieved consider- 
able success. In the immediate future we are confident that we shall 
see much more development along this line. 

Today in North Carolina we have under construction, or planned, 
large manufacturing plants which are estimated to cost in excess of 
$80,000,000. In addition many millions are being invested in the 
erection of small plants and increasing the capacity of existing facil- 
ities. Much of this new capital is going into new types of manu- 
facture. This will provide employment for artisans of higher skills, 
and thus the opportunities of our people will be increased. We are 
encouraged by these events, but we are by no means satisfied. The 
opportunities here for successful manufacturing enterprises are al- 
most without limit. We are building our state to provide such op- 
portunities; and we are confident that industrialists who are looking 
for the most desirable locations will be convinced that we are build- 
ing here a background and an economy in which business will not 
only prosper, but also in which workers and their families will en- 
joy living to the utmost. 

The record of North Carolina's governmental financing and the 
fiscal policy is outstanding among all the states. Through the years 
this record has been achieved by adherence to the sound principles 
of a balanced budget and stability in taxation. There has been no 
increase in corporate taxes in North Carolina since 1933. In 1947 we 
reduced our franchise tax rate. Our state revenues have consistently 



Addresses 195 

exceeded appropriations. Constantly increasing yields from the real- 
istic tax basis established seventeen years ago have been adequate to 
finance expansion of public services in keeping with the growing 
needs of a progressive state. 

Seventy per cent of our people live on farms or in village and 
small towns. Yet with the state's vast road, school, hospital, rural 
electrification, and telephone systems, they enjoy the advantages of 
urban employment and conveniences. They are able to do this with- 
out the disadvantages of population concentrated in congested areas. 

We are convinced that we are building well. We are confident 
of our future. 

Mr. Riegel, by your decision to establish your newest plant here, 
you demonstrate your confidence in our future. By the policies you 
have followed in the management of the properties which you have 
owned in this state for some time, you have demonstrated that you 
believe in the proper conservation and marketing of forest resources. 
You and your associates have proved yourselves to be men of vision 
and sound business judgment. I predict that you will always be happy 
that you decided to locate here. We welcome you and invite you to 
join hands with us as we seek to build a more productive, a more 
prosperous, a healthier, happier, and more spiritually noble North 
Carolina. 



HONOR, THE KEYSTONE OF DEMOCRACY 

Address Delivered At The Annual Convention 

Of The Young Democratic Clubs 

asheville 

September 16, 1950 

Mr. Chairman, Honored Guests, and Fellow Democrats: 

It is always a pleasure to attend a Young Democratic Conven- 
tion — you meet so many of your older friends there. Of course, it is 
a real compliment to you and the organization that these Young Dem- 
ocrats of over forty just have to forsake their home firesides to be 
with you. After all, a seasoned Young Democrat is like a woman's 
age — never "over twenty-one." 

Those of us Democrats who are obviously somewhat "over twenty- 
one" are the first to admit that the real strength and continued use- 
fulness of the Young Democratic Clubs lie in the constant addition 
to your ranks of first voters — that is, young men and women who 



196 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

have just become twenty-one. I am happy to see so many of this kind 
of recruit here at this meeting. I urge your new administration, elected 
at this meeting, to get 'em young, start 'em early, and train 'em well. 

Having moved on, quite some time ago, into the ranks of Old 
Democrats, it has long been my policy not to interfere in any way 
with Young Democratic politics. You are entirely capable of hand- 
ling your own affairs and of choosing your own officers. I would 
point out, however, that this state administration and your Y. D. C. 
administration are in full accord on at least two major objectives. 
These objectives are to interest young men and women in politics 
and public service, and to give them opportunity to put that interest 
into action. 

Our state needs more and more young citizens with the training 
and the political experience that this organization can give its mem- 
bers. Active membership in Young Democratic Clubs gives a young 
man or woman a wider and a greater knowledge of government, pro- 
vides valuable and necessary training in political organization, and 
through office holding and committee assignments, introduces the 
responsibilities of office holding. 

The State of North Carolina has been fortunate in having avail- 
able for service to the state this reservoir of young men and women 
trained in Young Democratic Clubs. 

Your state administration for the past two years has tried to 
utilize the services of Young Democrats. It is not necessary to call 
the roll of these young men and women who have been given posi- 
tions of major responsibility; but if you will look at the present 
state departments, councils, commissions, the Superior Court bench, 
or even at the constitutional offices where vacancies have occurred, 
you can see for yourself how many young men and women now hold 
major offices in North Carolina, nearly all of them recruited directly 
from the ranks of the Young Democratic Clubs. 

I look back with pride on the record of so many important ap- 
pointments from the ranks of the Y. D. C; but I am even more proud 
that these appointees have done such an excellent job in reorganiz- 
ing and rejuvenating the state services to which they have been 
assigned. 

Your state administration not only has called Young Democrats 
for service in important offices, but it also has made state service 
more attractive to them and others through such measures as estab- 
lishment of a State Personnel Department, the improvement of salary 
levels, and the improvement of the retirement plan for teachers and 
state employees. 



Addresses 197 

As we look back on this record of accomplishment, let us give 
full recognition to the fact that it was made possible through work- 
ing in harmony with each other. Harmony is the very keystone of 
our democratic way of life, and the very lifeblood of our Democratic 
party in North Carolina. We fight like demons in our primaries; but 
when the primary is over, we bury our hatchets — we close ranks 
and present a solid and unified front. In this principle lies our 
greatness. In living this principle, the Y. D. C. has grown great in 
North Carolina. 

I congratulate you Young Democrats on the continuing contribu- 
tions you are making to the strength of the Democratic party and 
to progressive government in your state. During World War II, with 
so many Young Democrats in military service, the Young Democratic 
Clubs naturally declined in membership, as well as in activity; but 
in recent years, under the fine and able leadership of Terry Sanford 
and your other officers, your organization has increased the mem- 
bership; and today, the level of interest, independence, and activity 
is at its highest peak since the war and at least equal to any time 
since the first club was founded over twenty years ago. 

Unfortunately, many of you may again be called into military 
service; but just now, as you hold your annual convention and when 
your organization is at its highest peak of strength and usefulness, 
it is a good time to ask: "Where do we go from here? What is the 
greatest contribution we can make to the Democratic party and the 
State of North Carolina?" 

Successful and progressive state administration and government 
need both older and younger Democrats. There is a place for ex- 
perience, a place for vision and enthusiasm, and a place for the force 
and virility of youth. 

Young Democrats can and do make specific and particular contri- 
butions; and to continue and expand these contributions is your 
challenge of the hour. You offer new energies and enthusiasm. The 
tasks of democracy are difficult and sometimes discouraging. The 
energies and enthusiasms of youth are needed to keep up the fight 
for freedom, for peace, and for prosperity. 

Young Democrats offer a fresh approach. Public office and public 
officeholders sometime grow stale unless stimulated by new talent 
which brings a new approach to the old problems of government and 
public service. 

New ideas are important. Young Democrats were the first to 
recognize that the ideas of 1900 are not always equal to the problems 



198 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

of 1950. They are not afraid of change — when the new serves 
better than the old. 

A by-product of new ideas is new goals. As ideas change, so do 
the goals and objectives of the democratic state. Science, invention, 
and social changes have made it possible for us to advance our ideas 
and goals in the fields of education, health, and general well-being 
far beyond the hopes of earlier times, back in those days before we 
had good roads, good schools, expanding services, and before our 
world was one of automobiles, airplanes, television, atomic power, 
and a United Nations. 

It is an age-old complaint that too many good people stay out 
of politics because they think it is a dirty business. Maybe it is 
sometimes, but those who think so ought to get in and help clean 
it up. Young Democrats bring new and higher levels of political 
activity into party affairs and government. 

I have been happy to read that this convention proposes to draft 
and support a sort of Code of Ethics for Politics in North Carolina. 
This is a big undertaking — one that is badly needed — and well 
worth all your efforts. If any group can draft such a code and make 
it work, you can. I congratulate you on your courage, vision, and 
initiative in setting it as one of your goals. 

For its success and the success of all your efforts during the com- 
ing year — I give you my best wishes and invite you to call on me — 
or any of us around the State Capitol — when you need our cooper- 
ation. It is yours for the asking. 



EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA ON THE MARCH 

Address Delivered At The Formal Opening 

Of Radio Station WELS 

Kinston 

September 24, 1950 

Good Afternoon Radio Listeners of Kinston and Eastern North 
Carolina: 

It is my privilege and pleasure, as governor of North Carolina, to 
extend to Radio Station WELS my personal and official congratula- 
tions. 

Radio is one of the miracles of this astounding age in which we 
live. Its voice, traveling the uncharted airways, is not limited by 
miles; and its speed is rivaled only by light. 



Addresses 199 

Fellow North Carolinans who live within the orbit of the broad- 
casting area of WELS are fortunate that there are men among you 
with foresight and vision. Men with faith and confidence in your 
future and their future bring to you this new media of information 
and entertainment. 

To the management of WELS let me say that yours is not a light 
undertaking. In establishing a radio station you have assumed a 
sacred responsibility — the responsibility to furnish to your listeners, 
in your news broadcasts, a faithful accounting of the days happenings 
with no personal bias or color added. If you fail in this regard you 
will not be true to the people you serve. 

The area WELS will serve is one of the great areas of our state. 
Fields of tobacco, corn, soya beans, and peanuts, dotted with green 
pastures, are mute evidence of the bounty which agriculture offers 
those who live in eastern North Carolina. 

Today, Kinston and eastern North Carolina stand on the thres- 
hold of tremendous industrial development. There is either under 
construction or in the planning stages, large manufacturing plants in 
this area which are estimated to cost in excess of $55,000,000, $24,000,- 

000 of which is going into the new Du Pont plant near Kinston. 
Much of this new capital is going into new types of manufacture. 
This will provide employment for artisans of higher skill and thus 
the opportunities for our people will be increased. We are encouraged 
by these events, but we are by no means satisfied. 

I wish to take this opportunity to join the people of Kinston in 
welcoming the officials of the Du Pont Company to their community. 

1 am happy that the opportunities for successful manufacturing 
enterprises offered in your community have been recognized and I 
am confident that industrialists who are looking for desirable loca- 
tions in the future will find similar opportunities almost without 
limit. 

Eastern North Carolina is on the march. We are on the road 
to diversification in both agriculture and industry. 

Radio Station WELS and the Farmers Broadcasting Service is 
another milestone on that march. To that station and the Mutual 
Broadcasting System, with which it is affiliated, go my best wishes 
for a long and honorable record of service to the people of eastern 
North Carolina. 



200 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

THE POTENTIALITIES OF THE CAPE FEAR VALLEY 

Address Delivered At A Joint Meeting Of The Civic Clubs And 

The Chamber Of Commerce 

Fayetteville 

September 25, 1950 

Mr. Chairman, Honored Guests, and Friends: 

You who are here today, the business and professional leaders of 
Fayetteville, have at your very doorsteps one of the richest and un- 
developed resources of North Carolina. I refer to the Cape Fear 
River, the largest stream lying wholly within our state. 

It is significant that the early settlers picked out this particular 
site for Fayetteville, a site about midway between the mouth and 
the headwaters of the Cape Fear. Much of the early history of North 
Carolina is written around Wilmington and Fayetteville, the terminal 
points of the state's first major inland transportation route. 

Back in those days, when a hardy and courageous people were 
carving their homes and towns out of the wilderness, transportation 
by water was of prime importance. There were no highways or rail- 
roads, and the airplane had not even been invented. 

For a span of years the Cape Fear was on the lips of all forward- 
thinking leaders in eastern North Carolina as they planned for the 
future. In more recent years, however, the development of the Cape 
Fear and the resources of its valley have lagged behind. I am told that 
army engineers have been making studies and plans for the de- 
velopment of this river as authorized by Congress in 1946. The orig- 
inal hearing was held in this city in August of that year, but the pro- 
gress of these studies has been slow. Lack of funds for this work has 
been given as the reason for the delay, but during this time projects 
in other states have moved along at a more rapid pace. Funds that 
might have come here have probably gone where there was a more 
concerted effort on the part of the people. Here on the Cape Fear 
River the efforts have been largely of a local nature, and most of the 
effort was probably right here in Fayetteville; but with the entire Cape 
Fear Valley pulling together for the development of the Cape Fear 
River as a whole for the benefit of all, the voice would have been 
much louder; and probably today when, as I understand it, the engi- 
neer's report is about ready to be submitted, it might have been com- 
pleted; and by this time some of the improvements would be under 
construction. I say, here and now, that if we do not look forward, 
plan wisely, and conserve and protect these resources which are now 



Addresses 201 

wasting, we will not only be breaking faith with future generations, 
but also cheating ourselves. 

The valley of the Cape Fear, stretching as it does more than 150 
miles from the piedmont to the sea, is potentially one of the richest 
regions of our state. It is rich in agricultural possibilities and offers 
great opportunities to diversified industry. All that is needed is vision 
and a singleness of purpose to bring about its development. 

Much of the lower half of this important river-valley area has 
been retarded in growth and development by a shortage of electrical 
power, particularly low-cost, or even reasonable-cost power. This 
economic cancer has gnawed at the very vitals of the Cape Fear 
Valley economy. Industrial growth of the region has been retarded. 

Management of the private power companies has in the past taken 
a rather narrow viewpoint toward the development of a region that 
is largely rural. Such companies are prone to wait until there is an 
actual demand for power before providing facilities for furnishing it. 

For instance, in 1949 the private power companies of North Caro- 
lina had a total installed capacity for the production of power of 
1,400,000 kilowatts, with a net assured capacity of only 1,359,229 kilo- 
watts. And yet, during the month of December of 1949 these com- 
panies had a peak load of 1,451,574 kilowatts, making it necessary 
for them to go outside North Carolina to buy power for their North 
Carolina customers. 

Until North Carolina power companies have a net assured capa- 
city of at least fifteen per cent above the requirements of their cus- 
tomers, it can hardly be said there is any surplus capacity in the 
state. This statement is not original with me, nor are the figures just 
quoted. The figures are from the records of the Federal Power Com- 
mission. The statement that there must be a fifteen per cent margin 
of installed assured capacity over customer requirements before there 
is any surplus is that of Mr. William E. Warne, Assistant Secretary 
of the Interior of the United States. 

The fifteen per cent reserve margin referred to is not just a figure 
pulled out of the air by Mr. Warne or any other one man. It is the 
safety margin figure arrived at and agreed upon by the top engi- 
neers of progressive power companies throughout the country. It is 
the electrical industry's own safety figure. 

North Carolina is fortunate that the private power companies 
have networks of inter-locking transmission lines and are able to pur- 
chase needed power from our sister states. We would indeed be in a 
bad fix if some of our factories had to close down and some of our 



202 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

homes be darkened during peak load hours. It is also significant that 
the records show that power purchased from an out-of-state public gen- 
erating agency, such as the Santee-Cooper development in South 
Carolina, costs considerably less than does power obtained from anoth- 
er private development or facility. It is likewise significant that this 
low-cost power is then sold to the ultimate consumer at the regular 
rate, making the distributing private company and its stockholders 
an important beneficiary of low-cost public power. 

Power, important as it is, however, is only one of several fac- 
tors involved in the proper development and utilization of the re- 
sources of the Cape Fear River basin. Flood control is equally im- 
portant, if not the most important. It would make life more secure 
and greatly improve the economic conditions of the entire valley. 
It would also stimulate the reclamation of vast acres of some of our 
most fertile land — the bottom lands — below Fayetteville. 

Army engineers have estimated that between Wilmington and the 
mouth of Black River 870 acres per mile of the Cape Fear River are 
inundated by every large flood. They say that 1,000 acres per mile 
are flooded between the Black River and the first lock and that be- 
tween Fayetteville and the mouth of the Haw and Deep rivers, ap- 
proximately two hundred acres per mile are flooded. These tens of 
thousands of acres of fertile farm lands made idle for a season con- 
stitute a tremendous economic loss, a loss running into millions of 
dollars. 

This loss does not effect just the farmers and their families whose 
crops are destroyed and lands made idle by raging flood waters. It 
affects the economy of this entire area, contributing to a lower aver- 
age per capita income. Its impact is felt even on the over-all tax 
structure of the state. And, for that matter, farmers are not the only 
people who suffer losses from flood waters. 

Business and industrial plants located along and near river banks 
also fall victim and sometimes suffer heavy damages. In fact, I under- 
stand there have been some tremendous losses right here in Fayette- 
ville as a result of floods. 

The engineers have reported that one dam — just one flood-con- 
trol dam — placed in the vicinity of New Hope would have the effect 
of reducing the flood heights at Fayetteville by eight feet. Additional 
dams would reduce it still more. 

The private power companies cannot and are not expected to 
finance flood-control projects, although they oftentimes are among 
the chief beneficiaries of a flood-control project. Flood control is 



Addresses 203 

public business of which public power is a by-product, and I want 
to say to you people of Fayetteville here today that there will never be 
any major flood-control project on the Cape Fear unless and until 
there is a public demand for it. The federal government, your govern- 
ment and my government, is busy all over these United States work- 
ing on flood-control projects. A part of our tax dollar goes into each 
of these undertakings. North Carolinians are paying for flood con- 
trol now in our sister states. 

As I said before, many benefits flow from flood control. New rec- 
reational opportunities and facilities are created. Fish and wildlife 
resources are conserved and enhanced, and navigation is improved. 

In most instances hydroelectric power is an important by-pro- 
duct. I have heard it said by people who are supposed to be well- 
informed that there are not any power possibilities on the Cape 
Fear — that it is too lazy to make power. 

Those people are mistaken. It is admitted that the lower Cape 
Fear, from here to the sea, is not suitable for power projects. The 
United States Department of the Interior reports, however, list seven 
sites in the upper Cape Fear basin as possible power projects. They 
are: at Mandale with a potential generating capacity of 22,000 kilo- 
watts; at Bynum with a capacity of 30,000 kilowatts; at Moore's 
Hill, 22,000 kilowatts; at New Hope, 34,000 kilowatts; at Lockville, 
13,000 kilowatts; at Lillington, 27,000 kilowatts; and at Smiley Falls, 
24,000 kilowatts. 

These seven sites, if developed, would not only give us the much 
needed flood control, but would add 172,000 kilowatts to the capacity 
of North Carolina's power industry, and would make an important 
contribution to that fifteen per cent margin of safety which the na- 
tional electrical industry says North Carolina needs to be on firm 
ground in peace or war. 

I am told by competent authorities that, had it not been for the 
large blocks of power — safety margin power, if you please — that 
supplied Oak Ridge in the Tennessee Valley and Hanford in the 
Pacific Northwest, it would have taken us much longer to produce 
the atomic bomb during World War II. 

You of Fayetteville are justifiably proud of the considerable river 
commerce that links your city with Wilmington where the State 
Ports Authority is busily engaged in the building of port facilities 
made possible by the appropriation of our last General Assembly. 
Oil barges dot the river from here to the sea. You already have con- 
siderable terminal facilities. I predict that this river traffic, expanded 



204 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

to other commodities besides petroleum products, will increase in a 
great measure when port facilities at Wilmington are completed. 

Let no one tell you that the Cape Fear is asleep. It may be lazy 
and easygoing, but it is a giant among rivers. Since 1829, the army 
engineers tell me that the federal government has spent more than 
fifty million dollars on the Cape Fear in widening and deepening 
the channel and construction of locks and such. This faith of the 
government in the future of this river and its importance to the 
national defense should be heartening to those who would aid in 
bringing about the over-all development of the entire basin. 

There are far-sighted men and women in the piedmont who are 
looking toward your river with great interest. They are alarmed at 
a falling water table in their area. They realize that man's greatest 
resource outside of soil is water. These people are mainly interested 
in the water and flood-control factor as it would effect them in the 
upper reaches of the basin. You people here in Fayetteville would 
stand to profit from flood control and the electric power generated 
from these projects. What is needed is a mutual aid pact. The build- 
ing of reservoirs along the headwaters of the river, terracing and re- 
forestation and other soil conservation practices will help hold the 
water in the upland regions during excessive rainfall against the dry 
periods ahead and provide a more uniform flow throughout the year. 
This will result in a stable underground water table for the upland- 
ers and save the lowlanders from disastrous floods. 

Here in North Carolina our economy is not as diversified as it 
should be. Nor is our industrial economy as dispersed as we would 
like for it to be. We would not for a moment take away from any 
community the industry concentrated there. On the other hand, 
however, good business and sound planning call for more industrial 
activity in eastern North Carolina, and in the valley of the Cape 
Fear to be more specific. We want these to be new industries and 
would like for them to be diversified so as to give full opportunity 
for our people to utilize their various talents. 

All of us realize that industries will locate where there is an 
abundance of unpolluted water. With this in mind, I ask all of you 
here this evening to join hands and let's do something about stream 
pollution in North Carolina. Not only is it an obstacle in securing 
new industries, but it is a definite threat to the health of our people. 

We are gratified that recently three major industries announced 
plans for establishing plants in eastern North Carolina. They have 
demonstrated their faith in our state and in the area in which they 



Addresses 205 

are locating. Their faith in our future, which they plan to share, 
is a challenge to us. 

Let us accept that challenge and get about the business of re- 
moving the road blocks that might keep others from following them. 
Let's fight for and get flood control, thereby protecting and develop- 
ing our natural resources and at the same time providing a safe margin 
of power that will attract many more new industries and improve 
our economy. 

Ours is a great heritage. Let us look with confidence to the fu- 
ture and push for those things that will develop a great civilization — 
push forward those things that will develop a great people — urban 
and rural. I urge you to join hands across the state with all peoples, 
all groups everywhere, and build a greater North Carolina! 



ANOTHER STEP IN NORTH CAROLINA'S PROGRESS 

Remarks Made Over WBTV On The Opening Of Its Co-Axial 

Cable Television 

Charlotte 

September 30, 1950 

Good afternoon, Ladies and Gentlemen of the Television Audience. 

It's always a pleasure for a chief executive to note another step 
forward in the development of his state. As governor of the State of 
North Carolina I'm delighted to be with you today to extend my 
personal congratulations, and the good wishes of the state I represent, 
to Television Station WBTV. 

Television itself is our newest miracle, offering an exciting future. 
WBTV brought prominence to the old North State when it received 
Carolina's first television grant at a time when there were only 
twelve television stations in the entire country. Today we're mark- 
ing the beginning of co-axial cable television — entertainment, sports, 
educational programs, religious services, and news as it happens di- 
rect from the metropolitan centers of our nation. This is another — 
a sturdier link with our fellow citizens. It's very possibly the begin- 
ning of a new era of understanding, the establishing of closer ties, 
and of educational and cultural advancement. 

Today we of North Carolina wish continued progress for Tele- 
vision Station WBTV. Our friends in South Carolina will join us 
in that wish I am sure. And, therefore, it's my privilege to take you 
to the Capitol of our respected neighboring state to the south, and 



206 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

to wonder what the governor of South Carolina would say to the 
governor of North Carolina on an occasion such as this. 
Governor Thurmond . . . 1 



THE PEOPLE APPROVE GORDON GRAY 

Inaugural Ceremony Of Gordon Gray 2 

Winston-Salem 

October 10, 1950 

With Gordon Gray 3 as president of the Greater University I have 
every confidence that the educational advances which have been made 
in North Carolina will continue. Mr. Gray brings to the presidency a 
background rich in leadership and experience. The entire member- 
ship of the board of trustees heartily approved his choice as presi- 
dent, and we feel that he will discharge his duties in that office to 
the entire satisfaction of the people of North Carolina. 



OPPORTUNITIES FOR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT 

Address Delivered Before The Board Of Conservation 

And Development 

Charlotte 
October 25, 1950 

More and more often these days we hear and see the words 
"This is the Atomic Age." The increasing frequency with which 
we see and hear references to things atomic reflects a growing reali- 
zation on the part of the people of our country that our physicists 
and scientists continue to explore the atom and its great destructive 
power. But perhaps even more significant — such scientific research 
and exploration are also carried on by the scientists of other nations, 
among which are those who have little thought for peace on earth 
or the welfare of mankind. And so we as a nation must now con- 
clude — and we hope it is not too late — that we must be prepared 

iStrom Thurmond, governor of South Carolina, 1947-1951. 

^his statement was recorded in Winston-Salem for broadcast on NBC's "World News Round-Up." 
Gordon Gray (1909-19....), of Winston-Salem, N. C, received an A.B. degree from the 
University of North Carolina, 1930, and a LL.B. degree from Yale University Law School, 
1933. He is owner of the Piedmont Publishing Company and radio station WSJS, Winston-Salem. 
He served in the Senate of the General Assembly of North Carolina, 1939, 1941, and 1947; 
served as a private and discharged as a captain in the United States Army, 1942-1945; was assistant 
Secretary of the Army, Department of Defense, 1947-1949; Secretary of the Army, 1949-1950, 
and special assistant to President Truman, April-November, 1950. 



Addresses 207 

to face and solve those problems which result from that new 
knowledge. 

At the forefront of these problems is the absolute necessity to 
prepare to defend ourselves. Our defense from atomic attack lies 
almost solely, we are told, in the protection of our industrial poten- 
tial — the greatest weapon we can ever expect to have — the same 
potential which brought us successfully through the last war. It 
follows then by simple logic since that industrial potential, when 
concentrated in small areas, can be easily destroyed, and we must, if we 
are to preserve it, decentralize the manufacturing facilities of this 
country. In such dispersion of industry, the South in general — and 
North Carolina in particular — is presented with an opportunity 
unique in its history — much of the industry which is relocated may 
well be established in North Carolina. 

North Carolina has developed its industry to a great extent since 
the beginning of the century. The transition from a strictly agricul- 
tural state to a point of balance between agriculture and industry 
is well underway. Important manufacturing firsts have been attain- 
ed in furniture, textiles, and tobacco. But in its 52,000 square miles 
of area, there is room for many new plants without overcrowding. 

The need for additional industrial development in North Caro- 
lina to provide employment for our people who are being released 
from agricultural activities by the increasing use of mechanical 
equipment has now been generally recognized. Definite action has 
been taken by the Division of Commerce and Industry since the 
end of the last war to bring about increased industrial development. 
Its efforts to interest outside manufacturers in the state as a site 
for a plant have been rewarded by the construction of new plants 
in increasingly greater numbers. Many new names appear on the 
roster of North Carolina industries — Riegel Paper, Greenville Mills, 
Cranston Print Works, Woonsocket Falls Mills, Olin Industries, and 
Du Pont have all honored North Carolina recently by joining her 
industrial family. Projects under way or announced amount to 
$84,000,000, all of which represents new wealth for North Carolina. 
Companies which have been in North Carolina for many years 
like what they've found, and continue to expand and progress. Much 
has been done by the division to assist in bringing about the develop- 
ment of new industries in the state to process local raw materials, 
utilizing local labor and local capital. 

Probably some of the most outstanding examples of this type of 
industrial growth have been the establishment of meat-packing plants 
in the eastern part of the state — one at Kinston and one at Clinton 



208 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

— both of which now process local raw materials which formerly were 
shipped out of the state for processing. Within the last two years the 
Breyer Ice Cream Company has leased facilities at Lexington for the 
freezing of North Carolina peaches and strawberries for use in manu- 
facturing ice cream for consumers in the Philadelphia and New 
York areas. These were formerly shipped without any processing 
except refrigeration. The light weight aggregates plant at Salisbury 
is another plant which now produces a product from local raw 
materials for use inside and outside the state, and contributes to 
the progress resulting from the processing of native raw materials. 
Establishment of a new plant here in Charlotte to refine cottonseed 
and soybean oils is definitely a step in the right direction. There 
is undoubtedly room for another plant of this kind in the eastern 
part of the state and there are also opportunities in our state for the 
establishment of factories for the manufacturing of oleomargarine. 
We must continue such developments and constantly be alert to 
recognize such opportunities. 

But there are also entries on the other side of the ledger. In 
many cases we continue to ship out our raw materials for processing. 
Other areas earn the processors' profit and the wages paid for the 
conversion of the products grown on our farms, mined from our 
soils, or cut from our forests, to the finished goods bought by the 
ultimate consumer. We cannot continue to buy finished goods, 
ready to use, or to eat, or to wear, and to sell only raw materials 
at their lowest value. We still have not shaken off the colonial pat- 
tern of exporting low-priced raw materials and importing high-priced 
manufactured products. If we are to come abreast of other sections 
of the nation in per capita income and wealth, we must process 
those materials to the finished form, since the laws of economics pre- 
clude our becoming a self-sufficient unit unto ourself. Sale of crude 
feldspar and kaolin from the mountains of North Carolina — and 
purchase of finished porcelain products — put the transaction on 
the wrong side of the ledger. We have sand for glass, and marl and 
clay for cement, and yet buy our windows from Ohio and cement 
from any one of the states which serve as our boundaries. An 
abundant supply of seafood in close proximity to areas proven for 
their ability to produce fruits and vegetables provide raw materials 
for additional canning plants; peanuts and pecans now produced 
for manufacturing by others would make excellent North Carolina 
candy. 

The development of our ports at Morehead City and Wilmington 
offer new possibilities for serving our great furniture industry by 



Addresses 209 

providing facilities for slicing tropical woods for its use; the growing 
woolen and worsted industry in North Carolina might well develop 
— as cotton textiles have — if we import the necessary wool and 
prepare it for weaving into woolen goods. These are not idle dreams, 
my friends, they are logical steps North Carolina must take to con- 
tinue to "Go Forward." These developments will undoubtedly 
take place. The leadership of North Carolina must recognize the 
opportunity and take advantage of every chance to assist in bringing 
them about. But many of these must necessarily be postponed be- 
cause of the defense effort now being carried out. Those industries 
with the highest priority can be expected to develop more rapidly 
until our defenses are built up as necessary to defend ourselves and 
our manufacturing potential — but therein lies our greatest oppor- 
tunity for service to our nation, the South, and to the people of 
North Carolina. 

We have the solution to many problems confronting the manu- 
facturer who is looking for "accessible isolation," who wants to get 
away from overcrowded cities and the threat of attack in the event 
of war. Wide open spaces from mountains to the sea, all within 
easy reach of the markets which he supplies — native and intelligent 
men and women who proved their ability during the last war from 
Murphy to the shipyards at Wilmington are available. Our climate 
makes possible uninterrupted operations — abundant water for pro- 
cessing and for cooling purposes has been provided by nature. We 
must complete the list of requirements for expanded manufacturing 
facilities by providing anything which is missing. 

As I have said before, we must increase our supply of electric 
power, not only to supply that needed for the normal demands of 
a growing state, but to meet those additional demands imposed upon 
us by the redistribution of industry which must now occur. Add to 
these requirements the additional demands which must be met if 
we are to serve our maximum usefulness in the days ahead, and make 
the most of the opportunity which the reapportionment of the 
nation's industries offers us, and it becomes readily apparent that 
we must look well ahead in our planning for development of electric 
power. With plenty of power at reasonable rates, one of the major 
requirements of many industries is met. Without it, North Carolina 
in her effort to "Go Forward" will be stopped dead in her tracks. 

To serve best our nation, the South, and our own people in this 
day of opportunity, we must provide all the elements necessary to 
continue our program of industrial development as it has been begun 
in North Carolina and been proven over the years — a rural state 



210 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

interspersed with manufacturing plants employing many of our 
people not required to operate our farms. That system works; it has 
been demonstrated that it will. If it is to continue, we must provide 
to the maximum extent feasible, in rural areas, power and telephone 
service, medical services, all-weather roads, and modern, well-staffed 
schools — those necessities which for so long were regarded as an 
exclusive right of those who lived in the city. And from those rural 
areas will continue to come the type of men and women who have 
proven their ability to adapt themselves to industrial activities when 
their services on the farms are no longer necessary. 

If we take advantage of the opportunity which we now have as 
industry decentralizes, we will find that our per capita income is 
going up — as the skills of our workers increase. The labor force 
will be highly productive and will have at its disposal the scientific 
knowledge and experience, technology, managerial know-how, and 
the attributes necessary to build an even greater state in peace 
as well as war. But perhaps of even greater significance — those 
young men and women so highly trained, and at so great a cost, 
who emerge from our colleges and universities each year, will be able 
to find employment at home commensurate with their abilities, and 
we will retain many of those who now must go elsewhere to find 
employment opportunities which are of interest to them. Experience 
has shown that we frequently lose the youth trained in the vocational 
schools of the state. "Day-trade training" for high school boys pre- 
pares them for entrance into the skilled occupational group; if these 
young people, equipped by training to do an especially skilled job, 
cannot find suitable employment locally they will seek it, even if 
they have to go out of the state. Greater industrialization will pro- 
vide the employment opportunities necessary to keep these young 
people at home — with their wealth of skill and income potential. 

With the growth of manufacturing will come many new oppor- 
tunities for still other types of enterprises which can be established 
to meet successfully the demands of an expanded economy. Our 
educational facilities can be improved as we grow in income and 
wealth, the needs for better highways can be more easily filled, and 
every North Carolinian will live a more abundant life. We have 
an excellent start; let us continue our progress. Let us accept the 
challenge we face and North Carolina can expect to remain in the 
forefront as the South continues to outstrip the rest of the country. 
In the words of Louis Bromfield, "of all the Southern states, and for 
that matter all the forty-eight, no state has shown more progress 
within the past generation than North Carolina." We must continue 



Addresses 211 

to merit that reputation and to maintain that position for North 
Carolina. The possibilities for industrial development are limited 
only by our imagination and our courage. Every effort must be made 
by the leadership of our state to enable us to continue to grow and 
to "Go Forward." 



THE MARCH OF DIMES 

Address Delivered Over Radio Station WPTF 

Raleigh 

January 14, 1951 

Fellow Citizens of North Carolina: 

It is always a privilege to come into your homes through the 
miracle of radio and talk to you about the problems that we, as good 
citizens and as Christians, face together. On this Sunday afternoon 
I want to talk to you for a few minutes about an enemy that stalks in 
our midst and strikes — without warning. 

I am speaking of polio, that dreaded killing and crippling disease 
that claimed 747 victims in North Carolina last year. In recent years 
polio has been shifting its target to some extent. It is striking more 
and more adults as the years go by. During 1950, in North Carolina, 
several persons between forty-five and fifty years of age succumbed 
to polio, and scores were crippled by it. 

These adult cases are in addition to the hundreds of North Caro- 
lina infants who became the victims of this horror among diseases 
that afflict mankind — a disease against which men and women of 
science work around the clock to halt. 

Last year there were more than 30,000 new cases of polio in the 
United States; and before a single new case of polio was reported in 
1950, more than 30,000 old cases were still in need of help. 

The records show that in four out of five cases of polio, the care 
and treatment of the disease is far beyond the means of the average 
family. It can break any of us, and it has sorely taxed the financial 
resources of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis for the 
third straight year. 

Our National Foundation, through its county chapters, gave fi- 
nancial aid to more than 54,000 patients, old and young, old cases and 
new cases, during 1950. For this patient care alone our National 
Foundation spent in 1950 twenty million dollars, with another five 
million dollars due and unpaid at the end of the year. 



212 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

And, also during 1950, the Foundation spent millions to under- 
write a research program dedicated to the proposition that polio 
must and will finally be wiped out. Research has proved that the 
control of polio is not an impossibility; that the key to control will 
be found in our lifetime. As we get closer and closer to victory 
over this disease, we cannot afford to drag our feet for a single 
moment. We must find the ultimate answer in the research labora- 
tory and field, and this search is a costly one. 

Activities of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, a 
non-profit organization which provides care and treatment for our chil- 
dren, our grandchildren, our neighbors, and their loved ones, are 
financed largely by the annual March of Dimes campaign. 

A million dollars is the goal that we of North Carolina have set 
for the March of Dimes in 1950; I hope that we will reach it and ex- 
ceed it. Let us remember that there are still more than 150 tiny, 
twisted, and pain-racked bodies, living and hopeful, in North Caro- 
lina hospitals. 

For them and for us this year's March of Dimes campaign is an 
opportunity. 

Let us, as people, once again, in the 1951 March of Dimes Cam- 
paign, demonstrate our concept of Christianity, our acknowledge- 
ment that we are our brother's keeper, and our realization that so 
long as polio stalks the land, no home is safe from invasion. Let us 
give, and give generously, to the March of Dimes. 



BOY SCOUTS PROGRAM IN NORTH CAROLINA 

Address Delivered 1 At The Boy Scout Ceremonies In The 

Governor's Office 

Raleigh 
February 9, 1951 

Doctor Rose, 2 I am glad that you and these Scouts, with Scout- 
master Arthur Muse, have come to Raleigh and have presented to 
the people of North Carolina this commendable report on your 
stewardship of scouting in the state for the year 1950. 

It is my guess that many of our state's leaders do not realize the 
magnitude of the good work that is being done for boys through the 



x This address was delivered when the annual report of the activities of Boy Scouts was made 

to Governor Scott. 

^Dr. David J. Rose of Goldsboro. 



Addresses 213 

Boy Scout Program. I hope that more and more of our people will 
take an active interest in this valuable citizenship work. 

You mentioned farm boys and village boys. I am glad you did. 
But let me urge all Scout leaders to do all they can for these boys. 
They are the bedrock of rural tomorrow. If the Scout experience is 
good for one boy, it is good for all boys; and I hope that you all will 
do all you can to join with the 4-H, the Future Farmers, the YMCA, 
and other boys' organizations in giving every boy in the state a good 
chance at honest living and the kind of character that will help North 
Carolina continue to be the good American state that it is. 

Tell your Scoutmasters to stick by their guns in Scout work. They 
may have discouragements and problems, but they should look to 
the crop of men of tomorrow that they can help today as boys. 

Civil defense in North Carolina during this international emerg- 
ency is very important — possibly more important than most people 
think. It is important that every citizen know more about self-preser- 
vation in case of disaster. It is important that every family know all 
it can about surviving as a unit. The Boy Scout motto, "Be Pre- 
pared," is evidence that Scouts and their leaders can be counted up- 
on. It is heartening to know that tens upon tens of thousands of 
Scouts have been trained in first aid and that should disaster strike, 
these youths — even though they are youths — are trained and pre- 
pared to aid materially, at a moment's notice, in the gigantic relief 
task which our people will face. 

Scouts today, like the rest of us, are faced with challenges never 
dreamed of a few years ago. The present is unsettled. The future is 
uncertain. But the Scouts, trained to "Be Prepared," will meet the 
challenges of their tomorrows and emerge victorious and triumphant. 
We count on them with great confidence! 



NORTH CAROLINA MUST MOVE FORWARD 

Address Delivered Before The Fifteenth Annual Farm 

Bureau Federation Convention 

Asheville 

February 13, 1951 

Mr. President, Guests, Members of the Farm Bureau, and Ladies: 

A little more than a month ago, as governor or general manager 
of the great corporation known as North Carolina, of which each of 
you is a stockholder, I had the privilege of reviewing North Carolina's 



214 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

remarkable progress with the members of the General Assembly, or 
our board of directors. 

On that occasion I urged the members of the board of directors 
to set and follow a course that would consolidate our gains and also 
insure a continuation of our progress to the best of our ability under 
existing conditions. I fully realize, then as now, that we cannot pre- 
dict with certainty what the morrow may bring. It may be peace. It 
may be war — war of such proportions and ferocity that all previous 
struggles will in comparison appear as preliminary skirmishes. Yet, 
I am firm in my conviction that we must not let these uncertainties 
sap our courage or paralyze us into inaction. 

It was my belief six weeks ago — and it is now — that by working 
together, we can balance a budget not alone in dollars, but also in 
terms of needs of the people. 

I sincerely believe that we can consolidate our gains without 
halting our progress. 

The Advisory Budget Commission, in working out the biennium 
budget recommendations, took the position that it was its duty to 
limit recommended appropriations to funds available. The budget 
presented by the Commission is a good budget as far as it goes. It, 
however, does not provide some essential services which are necessary 
to keep North Carolina going forward. 

For instance, this budget does not include bringing teachers' 
salaries up to the $2,200-$3,100 scale accomplished in this biennium 
on a contingency basis. To establish teachers' salaries at this level, on 
the basis of present teacher load, would require additional money esti- 
mated at $17,621,657 for the next biennium. I regard it as impera- 
tive that we bring our teachers' pay scale up to at least the $2,200- 
$3,100 bracket without attaching contingency appropriation strings 
to it. It is our responsibility to meet this and other needs of our 
public school system. We cannot neglect these responsibilities with- 
out directly retarding our children and our state. 

Education is of critical importance in a democracy. Thomas 
Jefferson spoke for all America when he said: "By far the most im- 
portant bill in our whole code is that for the diffusion of knowledge 
among the people. No other foundation can be devised for the pres- 
ervation of freedom and happiness." 

In our educational program in North Carolina, we cannot afford 
to stop now. Critical times, such as these, ought to spur us on to a 
new zeal to provide educational facilities sufficient to meet the de- 
mands of the hour. 



Addresses 215 

The Budget Appropriations Bill does not provide for salary incre- 
ments for state employees — other than school teachers — paid from 
the general fund. I consider such increments vitally important to 
the success of the personnel plan instituted this biennium. 

No provision is made in the Budget Appropriations Bill for carry- 
ing on the Medical Care Commission hospital building program — a 
lack of which will leave seventeen counties without proper hospital 
facilities. Two previous administrations, as well as this one, are com- 
mitted to rounding out this medical care program. It is estimated 
that at least $6,419,042 will be required to carry this work forward 
during the next biennium. 

There also is no provision in the budget for permanent improve- 
ments. In addition to adjusting the deficiency between original esti- 
mates and current building costs, which would permit finishing 
most essential permanent improvements already authorized, I urged 
the General Assembly to give serious consideration to appropriations 
for the following new permanent improvements: A primary class- 
room building at the School for the Deaf at Morganton, a psychiatric 
wing to the new hospital at the University of North Carolina, a 
diagnostic laboratory for our growing poultry and livestock industries 
to be located at North Carolina State College, and a spastic hospital 
wing at Durham. 

I said in my message to the General Assembly — and I repeat to 
you now — it is the course of wisdom to keep public services current 
with clearly demonstrated needs. It is not good management to let 
backlogs jam up where they can be avoided — either in just com- 
pensation for those who work for the state, or in necessary buildings 
for institutional, educational, or administrative purposes. 

A consistent year-by-year building program will not only better 
discharge the obligation of government to its taxpayers, but also 
prove a stabilizing force in keeping our economy on an even keel. 

It is my firm belief that these things that I have itemized over 
and above those specified in the budget can be accomplished if we 
face the future realistically and the people inform our board of 
directors of their desires. I am confident that the leadership in our 
Legislature can balance our revenues against necessary expenditures 
without undue hardship on anyone. 

However, I warn you now — if you want these things, we are 
going to have to work together to get them — all three of us, the 
Executive Department, the General Assembly, and the people. 

In the first six weeks of this session of the General Assembly, I 
have been appalled by the lack of vision of those who subscribe to 



216 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

the doctrine that North Carolina should permit her march of progress 
to grind to a stop simply because the future is uncertain. The future 
has always been uncertain, and the future will always be uncertain. 

Man never solves a problem by standing still — when a man 
stands still, the world goes on and leaves him behind. North Caro- 
lina has grown great because the leadership of North Carolina, 
throughout the years, has been inspired to press ever forward toward 
the goal of providing, within the ability of the people to pay for them, 
the maximum governmental services and facilities which are the 
heritage and right of a people who enjoy die privilege of living under 
the banner of democracy. 

Refusing to move forward and to meet our responsibilities of the 
present and of the future is nothing short of defeatism. I have no 
patience with this philosophy — call it conservatism, hold the line, 
or what you may! 

I do not believe that the people of North Carolina are so morally, 
spiritually or financially bankrupt that they want education in North 
Carolina to slip backward. I do not believe that the people of North 
Carolina want to deny adequate hospital care for the sick and the 
cripple, support for the aged, and adequate institutional care for the 
insane, the blind, and the deaf. 

During the twenty-five and one-third months that I have been 
governor of North Carolina, I have travelled from one end of the 
state to the other. I have talked with rich men and poor men, with 
farmers and with those who live in the cities and towns, with men, 
women, and children in all walks of life; and the overwhelming 
majority of them believe in the future and share the conviction that 
North Carolina should not throttle the future by a perverted hold 
the line interpretation. 

In some cases the hold the line school of defeatism is actually 
seeking to establish a line behind the present line. Such would be 
the case if we failed to consolidate the gains already accomplished 
in the field of education. 

A bill, 1 which diverts primary highway funds to the municipali- 
ties for the construction and maintenance of city streets, has already 
been proposed and is being steam-rollered through the Senate. This, 
too, is a line behind the line move. 

Everyone recognizes the needs of the cities and towns for money 
for building and maintaining streets; and I, for one, would like to 



Senate Bill 120 was introduced on January 30, 1951, by thirty-eight of the fifty senators. 
It was "to provide for the maintenance of city streets constituting parts of the State Highway 
System by the State Highway and Public Works Commission and to appropriate funds from the 
highway fund for the partial maintenance of other city streets." The bill with amendments was 
passed and became Chapter 260 of the Session Laws of North Carolina, 1951. 



Addresses 217 

see them get it. I am firm, however, in my belief that such funds 
should come from additional revenues and should not be diverted 
from primary funds. 

It was pointed out two years ago that the needs for our primary 
system were so great then that we could not afford to use these funds 
for secondary roads. So the people of North Carolina voted funds 
to be raised by a special gasoline tax to finance them. 

The need of our primary system is as great, if not greater, today. 
A commission created by the 1949 General Assembly spent fifteen 
months in making one of the most exhaustive studies ever attempted 
in North Carolina to find a solution to the problem of the municipal 
street needs. This commission recommended that if the Highway 
Commission is to be given responsibility in this matter, it would be 
necessary to provide the Highway Commission with additional funds, 
and suggested various sources of revenue. In recent months I met 
several times with officials of the Municipal League, and these officials 
agreed to a formula for providing additional funds so as to protect 
the primary highway system. 

During the past few days, however, it has come to light that at 
the same time we were discussing and agreeing upon a workable 
formula, another group was devising a plan to dip into the highway 
fund and divert monies from the primary highways to municipalities 
without providing additional revenue. 

At no time, and particularly at this time, can we afford to jeopar- 
dize our primary highways. They are the very lifelines of our 
economic life. They link us with the outside world. They link and 
bind together our commerce and all the people whether they live in 
city, town, village or remote rural cove or community. They are, 
indeed, the very bloodlines of our everyday existence; for without 
them our secondary highways and our city streets would be of little 
value, and our cities and rural communities would become mere 
oases in an economic desert. 

In my biennial message, I pointed out the needs of our primary 
highway system. Traffic has increased so rapidly as to make it neces- 
sary to revise plans in designing new highways. In the interest of 
safety and service, we must think in terms of heavy-traffic highways, 
bypasses, underpasses, overpasses, and other expensive items of 
highway construction. More than 300 major bridges are obsolete. 



218 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

This means that our regular highway income must not be spread 
out too thin. If we have new needs, we must make realistic provi- 
sions for financing them. 

It is my considered opinion that Senate Bill No. 120 would not 
only seriously impair the state's primary highway system, but also 
would result in a few big cities getting a lion's share of the money 
and many smaller cities and towns getting even less than they are 
now receiving in state aid. In addition, as the bill was devised, 106 
cities and towns, classified by the Municipal League as "inactive," 
would get nothing. 

I am just as convinced that now is the time to settle once and 
for all this recurring question of state aid to cities and towns in their 
street problems. A settled policy should be fixed and revenues pro- 
vided to support that policy. It is just as important to you — men 
and women of the soil — as it is to the city and town dwellers that 
a solution, fair to all, be found and adopted. 

The time is at hand for the citizenship of North Carolina to face 
the present as well as the future because the future of our state 
depends upon what is done in the present. If we muff the ball now, 
we will pay the penalty in the tomorrows that are ahead. 

Let us remember that you can't rob Peter to pay Paul unless you 
ignore all sense of economic responsibility and compromise with 
reality. 

Such a policy, if established, would not be holding the line. It 
would be a cowardly retreat from the principles of progress, prin- 
ciples that have guided North Carolina in the past in the field of 
education, highways, and humanitarian services. 

It has been said that legislation and appropriations are the prod- 
uct of compromise. This is generally true, but good citizenship 
demands that you do not compromise with reality, that you do not 
compromise with evil and injustice, and that you do not compromise 
with progress. 

North Carolina attained its leadership by daring advances in 
public service. Every such advance has paid handsome dividends. We 
cannot afford to choke off progress now because the pattern of the 
future is uncertain. I do advocate to you now that there be no 
halting the advance — that we move steadily forward, building by 
plan and with confidence in the future. 



Addresses 219 

REPORT TO THE PEOPLE 

Address Delivered Over State- Wide Network Originating From 

Radio Station WPTF 

Raleigh 

February 16, 1951 

Fellow North Carolinians: 

Since your 1951 Legislature has been in Raleigh, it has become 
popular for various committees to hold "executive sessions" — secret 
meetings from which the public is barred and the press and radio are 
prevented from reporting fully — for the discussion of important mat- 
ters affecting the welfare of you, your families, and your neighbors. 

Tonight, I want to go into executive session with you, the people 
of North Carolina, to discuss openly and not in secret some of the 
issues at stake and the kind of politics that are being played in Ra- 
leigh. I want to discuss this with you because you, your families, and 
your neighbors will be the ultimate victims of these highhanded tac- 
tics. 

I feel that it is my responsibility, as your governor, to keep you 
advised as to what is going on in state government. I firmly believe 
that you want to know, and that you are entitled to know, all the 
facts. 

The issues before the General Assembly are being overshadowed 
by personalities and factional politics. This is tragic and not in the 
interest of the people and their needs. The time has come to quit 
playing politics with human needs and get down to the business of 
considering legislation on its merits. 

Down through the years North Carolina has attained leadership 
among the states by daring to go ahead. We, as a people, have al- 
ways recognized our responsibilities and needs and have had the 
courage to meet them. 

In recent weeks the courage and vision which have guided North 
Carolina through the past half century have been obscured in part 
by a new and strange philosophy. The group which fathered this 
spirit of defeatism call themselves "hold the liners." 

Hold the line against what? 

Is it against the mental institutions, while 531 mentally disturbed 
citizens wait to be admitted? 

Is it against the tuberculosis sanatoriums, while 420 citizens are 
standing in the shadow of this dreaded killer? 



220 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Is it against the school for the deaf, where 425 children are crowded 
into a space adequate for half that number? 

Is it against our hospitals for mentally afflicted children, while 
412 are waiting for the state to assume its moral obligations to them? 

Is it against our aged and infirm who are dependent upon the 
welfare department for their daily bread and whose average monthly 
check amounts to only $22.20, which is less than half the national 
average for this group? 

Is it against the hospital program, while seventeen counties in 
this enlightened state do not have any hospital beds available when 
sickness strikes their citizens? 

Is it against merit raises for state employees whose responsibility it 
is to manage the business of your state government? 

Are these the things they are holding the line against? 

Can any group be so callous, so unmindful of the past, of the 
present, and of the future that it would hold the line against the 
progress of education in our state? The youth of our state — which 
is our hope of tomorrow, as well as our responsibility of today — 
cannot wait for their education until the clouds of uncertainty have 
passed. Our classrooms are overcrowded. The teacher load already 
is too great. Our teachers are underpaid. We face a crisis in our public 
school system. 

What about our institutions of higher learning where our sons 
and daughters, our young men and women, are trained in the pro- 
fessions and from which our industries and businesses draw their 
leadership? Are they, too, to become victims of a false philosophy of 
"hold the line," which has been built on a base of political expediency? 

I say to you that the spirit of Aycock still lives in North Carolina. 
The flames kindled by that immortal North Carolinian half a century 
ago still burn; and they will never be extinguished by any group of 
"hold the liners" so long as the fathers and mothers of North Caro- 
lina speak up and demand educational opportunities for their chil- 
dren. 

It has become clear that this bloc is committed to a policy of stop- 
gap, piecemeal legislation, of disregarding the work of study groups 
and railroading their legislation through on well-greased skids in 
order to win its political goal. I tell you tonight that it is seeking 
to obtain this goal at any cost and at the expense of your welfare. 

The most outstanding example of this policy has been the efforts 
of the "hold the line" group to undermine the program to assist the 
cities and towns in the construction and maintenance of their streets. 



Addresses 221 

A commission created by the 1949 General Assembly to study this 
problem with the view of working out a formula which would settle 
the question once and for all, after fifteen months of hard work, 
recommended that the state assume responsibility for such construc- 
tion and maintenance, and that additional revenue be provided to 
pay for the program. This commission, made up of a representative 
group of our citizens, travelled throughout the state, studying the 
problems involved. Conferences were held with municipal officials 
in our cities, our towns, and our villages. 

This commission's report, detailed and comprehensive, was an 
outstanding piece of work; and I commend its members who gave so 
willingly and unselfishly of their time. 

The commission's recommendations also won the approval and 
blessing of the League of Municipalities. It was agreed that nine 
million dollars annually was needed to do the total job. It also was 
agreed that additional revenue should be provided. 

In their zeal to concoct a bill which would sabotage this carefully 
considered plan, the "hold the liners" completely overlooked the 
recommendations of their own Municipal Roads Commission, and 
introduced a bill which would divert five million dollars yearly from 
our primary highway funds. This measure, born in desperation and 
of questionable parentage, has the blessing of the gasoline lobby. The 
chief of this lobby has bragged that Senate Bill No. 120 1 would not 
have been written and introduced had it not been needed to kill the 
sound recommendations of the Municipal Roads Commission. 

Members of the Municipal Roads Commission, the State Highway 
Commission, and other citizens who have studied the matter say that 
Senate Bill No. 120, also known as the Powell Bill, is confusing and 
ill-considered legislation which, in the long run, would cause much 
widespread dissatisfaction in the very cities and towns it proposes to 
help. They point out that it would not meet the total needs of the 
municipalities and would seriously impair the primary highway 
system. 

Neither the Municipal Roads Commission nor the Highway Com- 
mission was consulted about the Powell Bill; and when the Highway 
Commission proposed that its engineers and statisticians be allowed 
to sit down informally with a legislative committee and study the 
bill together, it was rudely rebuffed and told to appear at regular 
committee hearings which were rushed for time. The measure was 



1 See page 216. Note 1. 



222 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

ramrodded through before it could be studied and given full con- 
sideration despite the pleas of several members for more time for study. 

If this is a good bill, why has it been rushed through without the 
benefit of careful study? 

I have worked with the League of Municipalities and was assured 
by officials of the league that they were in accord with the plan for 
total and permanent solution of the problem. The temptation, how- 
ever, to pick up a few stopgap dollars for cities and towns with the 
"hold the line" boys proved too great. In a last ditch about-face 
move, they changed horses and joined hands with the "hold the 
liners." 

Already officials of small towns realize that they have been sold 
down the river and are protesting passage of the Powell Bill. County 
commissions throughout North Carolina, awakened to the fact that 
the diversion under provisions of the Powell Bill will result in the 
loss of fifty thousand dollars per county each year in primary high- 
way funds, are likewise protesting its passage. 

I want to say to you that I am against the Powell Bill for three 
reasons: First, it would not do the job for the cities and towns, a job 
that needs to be done; second, it would divert funds needed for other 
purposes; and last, I seriously question its legality. 

I have been advised that the New York bond attorney employed 
by North Carolina in connection with the state's two hundred mil- 
lion dollar road bond issue has reported, "Senate Bill 120, as amended 
would appear to divert state highway funds to purposes other than 
those specified in General Statutes 136-38 and 39." Our bond at- 
torney also warned that, in view of the seriousness of the apparent di- 
version and the probable impairment of contracts, it would be wise 
to ask — and I quote him again — "your Supreme Court to pass on 
the question before making allocations if the bill passes." He also 
suggested that passage of the diverting Powell Bill might have con- 
siderable bearing upon the marketing and interest rate of any further 
bonds offered for sale by our state. 

It was recognized two years ago that we could not afford to divert 
funds from the primary highway system to build secondary roads. 
The needs of the primary system are equally as great, if not greater, 
today; therefore, we cannot afford today what we could not afford 
two years ago. 

At no time can we afford to jeopardize our primary or main artery 
highways. They are the very lifelines of our economic life. They link 
us with the outside world. They link and bind together our com- 



Addresses 223 

merce and all the people whether they live in city, town, village, or 
remote rural cove or community. They are, indeed, the very blood- 
lines of our everyday existence; for, without them our secondary 
highways and our city streets would be of little value, and our cities 
and rural communities would become mere oases in an economic 
desert. 

Let's face facts, hard as they may be. We have in our existing 
state highway system in excess of one thousand bridges that are po- 
tential death traps. They are too narrow for today's traffic; and their 
surfaces, in many instances, are becoming potholed and hazardous. 

I want you to know, however, that I have been, and I am today, 
firmly in favor of extending assistance in full measure to the cities 
and towns in their street problems to the extent that additional reve- 
nues are provided for this purpose. I will continue to work to this 
end with any group. I call to your attention that such a plan or pro- 
gram would have the backing of our organized farm groups, includ- 
ing the Farm Bureau and the Grange, both of which have officially 
endorsed it. 

And, I say to you again, let's get the job done. Two years ago we 
provided additional funds for financing our secondary road program; 
and now we should all join hands to provide the full amount neces- 
sary for municipal streets. 

The progress of North Carolina and the welfare of our people 
are the paramount issues. It is time we asked our legislators to stop 
and examine with calmness and logic some of the issues they are 
advocating here in Raleigh. Members of the General Assembly are 
human. Most of them sincerely desire to vote as a majority of the 
people who elected them would have them vote. 

I have come to you tonight with this message because I sincerely 
feel that you, the people of this state, should know about these is- 
sues. The time has come for all of us to turn our attention to all of 
the needs of a prosperous and growing state. I repledge my support 
to the best interests of a North Carolina that looks with pride on 
her past and keeps her face ever forward. 



NORTH CAROLINA LOOKS AHEAD FOR ITS AGED 
Address Delivered To The North Carolina Conference On Aging 

Raleigh 
June 29, 1951 

During my administration I have been particularly concerned 
about those steps which will improve general living conditions for 



224 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

all of our people in this state. I do not need this morning to empha- 
size the importance of such matters as good roads, and rural electri- 
city, and telephones. But those are areas in which progress helps all 
the people of every age group. This conference is particularly con- 
cerned with just one segment of our population, namely, our older 
citizens, and how we may together look ahead for our aged. 

Through the years North Carolina has had what was known as a 
young population. Our people have been mainly children and young 
and middle-aged adults. But now that population trends are chang- 
ing, we are finding ourselves in the position of being a state with an 
increasingly higher proportion of older citizens. You have been 
discussing these trends and the resultant needs and problems during 
these two days. It, therefore, would be inappropriate for me to 
review those particular matters upon which you have brought to bear 
your specialized interest and knowledge. Rather it is pertinent for 
me to express my appreciation for your coming together in this 
Governor's Conference on Aging to give to the state your best com- 
bined thinking with regard to how we may make needed adjustments 
in order to meet the particular problems growing out of a larger 
proportion of persons in the older age groups. 

I am proud of the fact that during my administration we have 
taken certain steps in both the 1949 and 1951 legislative sessions 
which through law help to meet some of the needs arising out of 
our changing age distribution. We have increased the state appropri- 
ation for old age assistance in both 1949 and 1951. I am cognizant 
of the fact that the appropriation is still too low, so that the monthly 
payments are inadequate to meet a minimum level of living. It is 
nonetheless true that we have made efforts to increase the amounts 
allocated for this important program for older people. Also, the 
1949 General Assembly provided me with the machinery for setting 
up a special commission to study the problems of the aging. This 
commission, recognizing the fact that it could deal with only a 
limited segment of the problems, reported to the 1951 General 
Assembly. One major result was the enactment of an enabling statute 
which will make it possible in the years ahead, I believe, to facilitate 
the removal of more persons in the older age group than formerly 
from our state mental institutions. This in turn will make it possible 
better to meet their needs on an individual basis. We have also 
strengthened the state retirement system and the local governmental 
employees retirement system during these sessions of the General 
Assembly. We, furthermore, had the necessary legislation prepared 



Addresses 225 

to take advantage of the amendments to old age and survivors in- 
surance program so that those municipal and county governments 
which wish to do so may come under the provisions of old age and 
survivors insurance. Our older population is in greater need of 
hospital and institutional facilities than other age groups and we 
have made real progress during these last few years in meeting their 
needs by supporting the hospital building program and by increased 
appropriations for both buildings and maintenance in our system 
of state institutions. We also set up a special fund in 1949 for cancer 
patients and made provision in 1951 for an institution for cancer 
patients. These things we have done specifically at the state level. 

I, also, am aware of the many steps that have been taken in the 
individual communities and counties under both public and volun- 
tary auspices. Through such concrete measures as improvement in 
the county homes, the promotion of boarding home facilities for 
older people, the development of health clinics around those disesases, 
such as cancer, diabetes, and diseases of the heart and blood vessels, 
that are particularly serious in the older group, concern for programs 
of adult education and vocational rehabilitation in the older groups, 
specialized recreational programs, and so on, we have made measur- 
able advances. Also, several of our denominations have outstanding 
programs of services for older persons. These you have talked about 
during these two days in much more detail. 

I want to stress the importance of continued interest throughout 
the state in meeting needs of people as they grow older and in making 
the necessary adjustments at the community level where these people 
live. Those of you in attendance at this conference have a definite 
responsibility for helping to stimulate concern for our older citizens 
and for developing needed programs. 

It is fine to have state-wide programs and tremendously important 
that we strengthen in every way possible the services of the state to 
our older citizens. At the same time we provide for their particular 
needs where they are. In helping to provide more effectively for 
meeting their needs it is important that we realize that they them- 
selves should have a great deal to say with regard to what is done 
and how it is done and that in the last analysis our best efforts are 
those which will help older people to help themselves. Attitudes 
toward aging are rapidly changing on the part of both the general 
public and of older people themselves. It is not a matter of relegat- 
ing them to a less important place in our democratic state but rather 
of making greater utilization of their ability as productive workers 
and of their wisdom and their experience. 



226 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

I, along with other state officials, will be studying carefully the 
reports from this conference. I pledge to you my support during the 
remainder of my term as governor in trying to carry out such of 
your recommendations as are feasible from the point of view of 
state government. It is my sincere belief that this conference is an 
important milestone in building for the future — for the future of a 
major segment of our population. 



W. ROY HAMPTON: CITIZEN OF THE STATE AND NATION 

Address Delivered At The Dedicatory Service Of The Fisheries 

Museum Named In Honor Of The Late W. Roy Hampton 

Morehead City 

July 15, 1951 

Few men served the State of North Carolina longer or more faith- 
fully than did the late W. Roy Hampton. 1 It is a fitting thing that 
his fellow members of the Board of Conservation and Development 
name this Marine Museum in his honor. 

Mr. Hampton was appointed to the Board of Conservation and 
Development in the middle of the Ehringhaus administration, serv- 
ing under succeeding reappointments until his death in January of 
this year. 

His outstanding service was in the field of commercial fisheries. 
Long chairman of that very important committee, Mr. Hampton 
was regarded by many as the best informed layman in the state as 
to the whole fishing industry. He gave it many hours of study and 
uncounted days of administrative attention. North Carolina's com- 
mercial fisheries have profited to the over-all advantage of the entire 
state. 

But Mr. Hampton's interests did not stop there. He had an 
abiding concern for the conservation of all of the resources of his 
native North Carolina. He manifested this in his interest in new 
industries, in his concern for the development of the program of 
parks and their recreational values, and in his wide knowledge of 
forest, mineral, and water resources. To these he turned his attention 
with a diligence second only to those who by training and responsi- 
bility were charged with tasks incident to their preservation. 

In his relations with the members of the board, Mr. Hampton was 
always regarded cordially and with sincere appreciation. He was an 
individualist in his thinking and made no effort to seek a one- 

iSee page 422. 



Addresses 227 

mindedness of the board if that opinion countered with what he 
thought was right. In such moments of disagreement he was always 
the gentleman and turned from the consideration without rancor. 
He could take defeat of his ideas without resentment, and with re- 
newed vigor contend for another issue he believed important. 

In his relations with the officials of the state he was always frank 
and considerate. He was a patient man. He waited for others to 
think through what he had said. At the same time he obviously 
gave consideration to the opinions of others, particularly as those 
opinions related to a matter in hand and more so if they differed 
from his own opinions. 

During his years on the Board of Conservation and Development, 
Mr. Hampton saw the work of the board grow far beyond any earlier 
expectations. The appropriation of the first Ehringhaus legislature 
was approximately $27,000 annually for the entire Department of 
Conservation and Development. He lived to see those paltry thou- 
sands grow into millions. He had a great part in building the public 
confidence that vouchsafed that expansion. 

Roy Hampton came from a family of fisherfolk who were part 
and parcel of the state's grass roots. From his father and others he 
caught an inspired vision of a growing North Carolina. That growth 
would be along mechanical lines, but it would also be along spiritual 
lines as the people of the state became imbued with a single purpose 
to make the resources and services of the state available for all of 
the people of the state. 

This became the motivating impulse of Roy Hampton's life. 
After he graduated from North Carolina State College, he entered 
business, and extended himself in local politics with the end result 
that he was soon known to many public leaders in the state's life. 
Through local and state elective offices he immediately became a 
consecrated worker for the betterment of North Carolina. That dedi- 
cation paid great dividends, obvious to all of us who know what 
progress has been made in the special fields in which he was 
interested. 

But the confine of this interest was not limited to the State of 
North Carolina. His efforts to help his own state and his own 
people took his energies beyond its borders. There he demonstrated 
concern for the expanding development of the fishing industry, and 
all economic progress in general as it may contribute to the fuller 
development of this region of the nation. He knew that profit there 
meant profit in North Carolina. For these outside services he was 



228 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

accorded much praise, and won for North Carolina a position of 
leadership in outlying territories. 

As governor of the State of North Carolina, I am privileged to 
register here today the gratitude of the people of the state for all 
that Mr. Hampton was and meant to the prosperity and happiness 
of the great state we all love. I repeat: It is a fitting thing that 
this Marine Museum, so much a part of his dreams, his plans, and 
his life's work, should be dedicated today to the memory of the late 
W. Roy Hampton. 



BREVARD, THE MUSIC CAPITAL OF THE SOUTH 
Address Delivered From The Transylvania Music Camp 

Brevard 
August 10, 1951 

From this rustic auditorium in the beautiful mountains of western 
North Carolina, where a tiny stream flows unconcernedly beneath my 
feet, I speak to the nation with pride and admiration. This is 
Transylvania Music Camp at Brevard. Brevard has come to be 
known as the "Music Capital of the South," a befitting title for a 
community where music is the order of a summer day and the servant 
of a nation. 

The North Carolina State Legislature, during the 1951 session, 
passed a bill granting Transylvania Music Camp $30,000. With 
this gift the Brevard Music Foundation, a nonprofit corporation dedi- 
cated to the education of youth through music, was able to clear 
all indebtedness. With such financial assistance as this the arts of 
our state have been materially advanced. Such farsighted appropria- 
tions mark the path of progress in the interests of culture and peace 
at a time when the rumble of tank and cannon threatens to be the 
predominant music of the nation. 

I heartily commend James Christian Pfohl, director of Transyl- 
vania Music Camp and conductor of the Brevard Festival Symphony, 
for his initiative. During the camp season just concluded, 150 boys 
and girls representing eighteen states, advanced their music educa- 
tion. A constant inspiration, distinguished members of the faculty, 
composers, and conductors lived and played with their students. The 
physical and moral fiber of every boy and girl has been strengthened 
by the sun, the music, and the associations. Indeed, this is a camp 
with a purpose. 



Addresses 229 

Regretting that I was unable to be here for the Statesman's Holi- 
day, July 15, when so many of our legislators were feted at Transyl- 
vania, I have awaited this visit to the sixth annual Brevard Music 
Festival with great pleasure. The appearance of Jeanne Mitchell, 
America's brilliant young violinist, on this same program gives me 
the satisfaction of saying, she's ours, for Miss Mitchell was born at 
Wilmington, North Carolina. Now she has returned from New York 
to take part in this festival of music at Brevard. It is our sincere 
hope that through the training given at Transylvania Music Camp, 
other young artists are in the making, and someday they, too, may 
join Miss Mitchell in music's hall of fame. 

North Carolina, a state that has long been noted for its rich fields 
of tobacco and cotton, its picturesque mountains in the west, its 
folklore and its highways, now offers its children the added heritage 
of music. Transylvania Music Camp, the Brevard Music Festival and 
the North Carolina Symphony have combined to enrich our lives 
and to advance the nation's culture. 



NORTH CAROLINA'S PROGRESS 

Address 1 Delivered Before American Federation 

Of Labor Convention 

asheville 
August 13, 1951 
Mr. Fink and Delegates to this convention: 

I am happy to be here this morning for two or three reasons: 
One is to have the opportunity again to visit with you, and the other 
is to put off a day longer the time I have to go back to work. It has 
been very interesting to me about this vacation business. They put 
in the press in Raleigh that I will be out of the office several days 
on vacation. It always winds up that I have two or three meetings 
every day I am gone. Whether that is vacation or not, it is a change 
in scenery anyway, but there has been very little opportunity for us 
to have what we call an honest-to-goodness vacation. A lot of folks, 
however, are interested in seeing me take a long one. (Laughter) 

But it is good to be here with working people, people that need 
to work. Being with such a group you are naturally with the group 
that builds this state, as well as builds America. America was 
founded with a pioneer spirit of working people and coming here 
this morning, there were several things probably I might discuss 
with you to some profit, probably not. 

i-This address was delivered extemporaneously and taken by a stenographer and transcribed. 



230 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

I have had the opportunity to work with your president. 1 Once 
in a while we have been kicked around a little bit in getting things 
done which we thought ought to be done; but it was not always in 
the cards that we get everything done. 

I happen to be a Presbyterian, and I don't know whether or not 
there are any Presbyterians in this group. We Presbyterians kind 
of believe that what is to be will be, and that is a pretty good phi- 
losophy when you try to do something and don't get it done — it 
just wasn't destined to be that way. That is usually a pretty good 
way out. We use our religion when we can't do any better and it 
ought to be the other way around; but be that as it may, it is a 
pleasure to watch the development that is going on in North Caro- 
lina — and Mr. Fink said this was a great state. That statement is 
used by many of our platform speakers and it is entirely true. If 
the English language could give words strong enough, it could not 
be emphasized too strongly that this state is developing and things 
don't develop without people working. 

But friends, in the last meeting that I attended with you, I went 
over some of the things that we were doing in state government and 
kind of made a report to you. I would be wasting your time, perhaps, 
if I went over those things again except to say by way of emphasis 
that some of those things you certainly had a part in. I would like 
to say for your benefit that the road program has developed, and 
even with the handicaps of war restrictions and lack of materials 
we are ahead of schedule. If we could get steel, we could rebuild 
some of the bridges that need to be rebuilt and widened. We will 
have a great task there, but it looks as if the trouble is temporarily 
ended. We are going to give our people more mileage than we have 
ever promised that we would. 

The school building program is moving along on schedule. That 
program is a little more than half completed. I guess those of you 
that concern yourselves with school matters are interested in hearing 
that, but I do want to warn you and put you on notice as citizens 
of this state that a school program, even if we could complete it 
now, would not be ahead too long. Children were born this past 
year, the year before and the year before that. They will soon be in 
the school buildings of this state and there is not room for them. 
The buildings will be crowded. Then, there is another thing in 
connection with that program. I may have my figures wrong, or this 
statement may be just a little out of line, but I believe we have more 

iQ A. Fink. 



Addresses 231 

pupils for the average teacher than any state in the American union. 
If we have the highest teaching load, that means that the number 
of pupils is too high. If we were to cut that down to about twenty- 
four pupils to the classroom, we would need a lot more buildings 
and a lot more teachers. This indicates to you that we are not really 
current in the school building program, although you, together with 
other people in the state, have made it possible to step up tremen- 
dously the physical facilities of the schools of North Carolina. Our 
program, though, is moving fast as compared to former years. 

Our hospital building program for die mentally sick is moving 
along. While we see in the press that a good many people need 
hospitalization, I think we have about 600 distress cases of mental 
sickness in North Carolina, yet we have no place to put them except 
in the jails of the state until our institutions can take them. This 
is unfortunate. I mentioned three years ago how unfortunate that 
was, and I thought a state as great as ours ought to do something 
about it; and the Legislature did do something about it, but it takes 
a long time if anybody keeps up any kind of building program. It 
takes a long time from the time that the people consent to do some- 
thing and your Legislature acts to the time when that act is converted 
to brick and mortar. We have building programs already contracted 
for and under way and that will take care of a part of the problem. 
It is unfortunate the improvements are not already ready. Some of 
these buildings will be ready this summer; some of them by mid- 
winter. We hope that all of them will be ready by spring, but we 
do not foresee the future too well to know exactly what will happen, 
but our program is moving along reasonably well. 

Now, the other program that we are interested in is getting more 
electric current to the people out in the rural areas. That program 
is gradually moving along, and we hope by next year to have 95 
per cent of all the people who want electric current to have it. So 
many of you folks have had it all your lives you just don't realize 
what it means not to have it. Now, along with that, we have had on 
a big drive to get more telephones in the rural areas of the state, 
and that program is moving along reasonably well, but there is still 
some dragging of the feet on the part of the people who are respon- 
sible for getting the telephone service out to our folks. 

Now, I want to mention that so far as farm people are concerned, 
electricity is the cheapest labor that a man can employ. Telephone 
is the second cheapest, and other items accordingly. I want to men- 
tion something that you may not be so much interested in. I don't 
know exactly what it would mean to this group, but if you will notice 



232 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

the census for North Carolina in the last three or four days as it has 
come out — frankly, I am not able to analyze just what it does mean, 
whether it is for tremendous good or just doesn't make any difference 
— but a rather significant thing has been shown in that census as 
far as North Carolina is concerned. We have one-third of our 
people engaged in farming; one-third of our people living in the 
country who work in town, and in the schoolrooms, and filling 
stations and so on; and then we have one-third of our people who 
live in the city and work there. We have three groups of people 
there, but in the total you still have two-thirds of the people living 
in the rural areas. In our work in the Raleigh office one thing has 
been very noticeable to me, and that is that of all the letters that 
come in — those that want roads for members of the family or 
friends, those that are concerned with the hospital program, those 
concerned about the road program, those concerned about the elec- 
tricity — most letters come from people who either want a telephone 
or are thanking us for getting a telephone. 

Now, I don't know whether you have observed it or not, but 
there is more building going on along the various roads and high- 
ways than ever in the history of North Carolina. On every road 
new buildings are going up. Now, some people are working in the 
cities and towns, which I think is all right, and they get out there 
and they have some of the advantages that go along with it, but we 
find that this program which we have been working towards has had 
a tendency to stimulate North Carolina in all avenues of progress. 
Being up here in Asheville, you become conscious of the tremendous 
amount of money that we are spending for recreation, and that is 
the third largest industry in North Carolina. The shorter work week, 
the increased income per person, and the roads to travel on, and the 
money with which to buy an automobile or at least make the first 
payment, has stimulated people wanting to go somewhere. Television 
shows us places that we want to see, and the radio tells about places 
that we want to see and that is good. It has developed a tremendous 
industry in North Carolina over the state and we have plenty here 
for people to see. This ought to be encouraged. 

But going back a little bit — and I will if you will allow me to — 
I find that generally if you let a fellow go maybe a half a day or 
maybe a little bit longer, he has forgotten what you said. How many 
of you were delegates a year ago? Well, I am not going to embarrass 
you by asking you what I said a year ago because I don't exactly know 
myself, but I want to say this to you about the state program. There 
has been a lot of criticism as you know. Well, that comes for various 



Addresses 233 

reasons, but I want to leave this with you. Remember two years ago 
they were saying we were going to have to call a special session of the 
legislature because of our spending so all-fired much money, put the 
state in debt so hopelessly it would never get out, be generations 
paying it, but I want to remind you that we put into effect econo- 
mies within the government that are going to save over $5,000,000 
during this administration, probably a little more. The question of 
people needlessly driving the state automobiles for private use was 
a big saving, and then as you remember, I told you about various 
prison camps. When we made an inventory, the hogs didn't have 
but one ham up to three years ago. By working with State College 
and other people interested, we developed a hog now that has two 
hams. 

You would be surprised how much that saved. You fellows know 
that you have had some friends that were working for the state for 
nothing whom you go to visit at prison camps on Sundays. I am 
not throwing off on anybody, because everybody has some friend 
over there. At least that is the way they write to us. But you know 
that the people who have been going over there have sometimes 
stayed for a free lunch on Sunday. Well, we now ask you to pay 
sixty cents and we give you a mighty good meal — almost cheaper 
than you can have it at home. Just that item alone, when you think 
about all the 90-some-odd prison camps, amounts to around $200,- 
000 during this administration. You can hardly believe it. 

We always invited the grand jury to come out and we always 
invited the judge and solicitors because we didn't know ourselves 
when we would have to face those boys. We tried to be nice to 
everybody, but it cost the state nearly $200,000. We have changed 
this. We haven't got it down to perfection, but it is on the way. 

Another thing that may surprise you. We put another change 
into effect and your state treasurer has gone along with that program 
and has done an excellent job in that respect. We are investing the 
state's money, whereas we used to put it in your banks without 
interest, but when you wanted to borrow some of it the banks 
charged you six per cent interest. The fellow that used it for nothing 
was the banker. It is hard to realize, but the interest we have saved 
amounts to around $10,000,000. 

Even though the Legislature has done some good things, they 
are certainly not entitled to all the credit for this saving, because we 
said what we would do if given the chance; you gave us the chance, 
and we did it. 



234 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Now that policy will keep on. You might say, well now, if the 
state is in debt for any purpose, how is it you put money in the 
bank? 

I think most of you know why. I think, however, you ought to 
have an explanation. The state law requires that when you let a 
contract for a school building, a road, a bridge, or a hospital, that 
you must have the money available before you let the contract. That's 
good business. Since we have to set the money aside, it allows us 
to put that in what we call short-term notes or securities with the 
federal government so that whenever we want the cash, we just go 
down to the post office, cash the notes, and pay the contractor when 
the building is completed. By this procedure we get an enormous 
amount of money — it runs about two and a half or three millions a 
year — and we have been throwing that money away. Yet we balance 
the budget. 

There is another thing that a lot of people don't realize. When 
you build an electric line from here into the country or anywhere 
in town, you connect a man and his family with the electric service 
and he doesn't just have a little light bulb in his home. He has a 
refrigerator, and we get three per cent sales tax on the refrigerator. 
If he buys a deep well pump, he has to have a motor and we get 
three per cent sales tax on that, and all down the line. If he gets an 
electric fan, we get the three per cent sales tax on the fan; and on 
the profit that is made we get six per cent gross receipts. So it is not 
hurting us any to boost this expansion. I haven't been able to under- 
stand why the officials haven't been helping to push this expansion 
because if you don't have it, you want it and are anxious for it, and 
not only that, but the state also gets the sales tax to back up the 
state government. 

The same is true of the telephone business. We want you to 
have the telephone — I was thirty-one years getting mine and I had 
to go to a lot of trouble to get it. I hope you won't have to wait 
that long for yours. As you know, I had to run for governor and beg 
you folks to help me out just to get a danged telephone. 

Anyway, we get a six per cent gross receipts tax on what the 
telephone companies make. Isn't that right? All that helps to bal- 
ance the budget. Now the Legislature didn't know a dad-burned 
thing about it. That is our program with your help. 

Another thing I wish to mention is the building of new homes on 
our roads. We get three per cent sales tax on the paint used on 
these houses. I found out that you had to pay $42 for a first-class 
paint brush. We get three per cent sales tax on that. You are bound 



Addresses 235 

to have a little furniture, and we get a little on that. You are bound 
to have some hinges on the door, some hardware and all that. We 
get the sales tax on all those things. So this business of encouraging 
North Carolina to grow hasn't hurt the state any. Yet there are 
some buzzards that still think it is going to ruin the state to draw 
profits. Anyway, while I am talking I want to say this. I don't 
think these programs have at any time hurt North Carolina or the 
citizens of this state. In fact, they have encouraged and developed 
our people. 

Everyone of you are eating higher up on the hog than our daddies 
did. I think all of us have more conveniences. We certainly have 
better school conditions. We have better hospital programs which 
may be geared up to take every cent away from you. You have 
more conveniences now than you had a generation ago, and you 
have a growing population here. There is no reason why we shouldn't 
keep on growing. It appears that in 35 years we will have around 
eight millions of people living in North Carolina. Well now, if we 
have anywhere near eight millions of people, you can't stop your 
school building program, your school teacher training, or your 
hospital program, because if you have eight millions of people you 
will theoretically have twice as many people to break down with 
nervous diseases; and, in fact, with a highly stepped-up society you may 
have more to break down. You can't stop these programs. You have 
got to keep going along and the man who announces that he is run- 
ning for any state office and says he is against doing this and against 
doing that is either a liar or doesn't know what the situation is in 
the state, and sometimes both. (Applause) 

Now there is one more thing I want to mention to you people. 
You may not agree with me on this, but I do want you to keep an 
open mind on it. This is the future progress of North Carolina. 

This progress might individually affect you. I am firmly of the 
opinion that it would benefit the majority of the people far more 
than we have yet attempted to do. I am mindful of the progress 
that North Carolina has made in railroad building which back 
yonder was bitterly fought. They called it socialism. They called 
it everything else such as government in business. I am firmly of 
the opinion, however, that if the state hadn't initiated the move- 
ment to build what is now the Southern Railway, that western 
Carolina, especially Asheville and all these other cities up here, 
would not be as far along as they now are because the country 
would not have been opened. I don't think they could have held 
us back too many years, but they certainly helped and anybody who 



236 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

knows the financial standing of this area knows, too, that the state 
hasn't lost anything by developing it. 

Then we came along with old plank roads for the wagons and 
teams to go over. We butchered our forests at that time and we had 
plenty of lumber and could do it. That was a step in the right 
direction to help transportation. Then we came along under Mor- 
rison's administration with the building of roads that connected 
county seat with county seat, and whether you appreciated it or not, 
that stepped up the industrial development of the state which con- 
cerns you as much as anything that has happened. After building 
the ribbons of concrete from county seat to county seat, we began 
to take the textile industry away from the North. Of course, we came 
along with another program of road building which I think is going 
to help us tremendously; but with all of the programs we have 
behind us, I think there is still one thing that we have certainly got 
to do something about. How soon we will do it I don't know. 

Are there any people here from the Tennessee Valley area? I 
would like to see your hand if there is anybody here. I don't think 
there is. I think you people would do well if you appointed a com- 
mittee to go over in the Tennessee Valley area and perhaps make 
an industrial and social report to your organization and hear what 
the TVA has meant to Tennessee. North Carolina is furnishing a 
lot of that power by way of water — it has to go that way — yet we 
didn't care much about it because we weren't thinking in terms of 
water power. I want to say now that it is my honest opinion that the 
next big development in North Carolina — and it is going to come 
at a cost less than these other things because these new developments 
will be built around the old — will be the development of the 
streams of North Carolina for the use of the citizens of the state. 

I don't know how many of you were raised in the old school of 
"waste nothing," but I was. They say that we waste enough in North 
Carolina and in America every year for other countries to live on. 
Well, you are bound to admit that we have wasted a lot of our 
resources in one way or another. 

How many of you folks are members of the church? There is 
one thing that the Bible does teach us and that is that when God 
created this earth He put man on this earth as head of all. He gave 
him dominion over all creatures. They were to be subject to him. 
He made us the husbandmen of the earth to cultivate it. When I 
say cultivate it, I don't necessarily mean plowing which caused some 



Addresses 237 

of you people to leave the country, but to use the resources of this 
country. 

I was born and reared in the country, as I imagine most of you 
were, and I have lived most of my life there. We always had plenty 
of fruit during the winter. We would save the apples and put them 
away, and my mother would tell us never to throw an apple core 
in the fireplace, as we were tempted to do, because the birds could 
use that apple core. She also reminded us to throw the scrap grains 
of popcorn out to the birds; we never wasted anything. I was trained 
that way and that is the way most of us were trained. But what 
about this water power that we have? Don't we waste it, hour by 
hour, and moment by moment? The water that flows down the 
French Broad, Yadkin, Catawba, and Cape Fear rivers has been 
thrown away for generation after generation. 

The time has come when we have got to put it to its multiple 
uses. I don't want you to forget that, because we cannot long delay, 
as I see it, and still keep abreast of the rest of the country. If we 
keep up with the other sections of the country, we must act soon. I 
think you will find that all over these United States programs are be- 
ing started that will harness the waters. Look at the development 
of the Missouri Valley Authority, look at the west coast, the far 
west, and the South. Water power has been developed in Tennessee 
and in Virginia. If you will look at the map of North Carolina you 
will see that we are doing very little with the waters of this state. 

The last Legislature did give us a sanitation law that will be help- 
ful. The law isn't too strong, but it will be all right. Many of you 
remember the disastrous floods of 1912 and 1916 that cost us millions 
upon millions of dollars. Those floods are due to come again. I Was 
talking with one of the weathermen the other day. He said within 
the next four or five years we are headed for disastrous floods with 
the rivers that we have. 

Now, the rivers have several uses — sanitation, flood control, and 
irrigation, and I have been surprised to notice how irrigation is 
progressing in North Carolina. With the tobacco crop bringing the 
price that it does, I am satisfied that our farm people could look 
towards irrigating tobacco. As a dairyman I am satisfied that we 
can do what they have been doing at Biltmore. There they have 
been irrigating those hillsides for pasture. From my own experience 
I know during this recent drought we lost around $50 a day just 
because the pastures were too dry. Yet I had Haw River running 
on one side of the place and two creeks going through it, and I wasn't 
using the water. So long as that milk was needed for human con- 



238 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

sumption — if God gives me enough intelligence to know that that 
water was needed up there on that grass — I committed that part 
of a sin. It was costing me $50 a day not to use that water, because 
that is how much the milk flow fell off. 

The power companies have not agreed that we have got and can 
give an abundance of water power. I mean electricity in this state 
when we know that there is no competitive power in North Carolina. 
I don't know what company you are buying from, but if you decide 
to buy it from somebody else, see what you get. There's no place 
else for you to go. There is no competitive power. They claim that 
they have abundant power in this state, yet up in Alleghany County 
just recently those people petitioned the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission for the right to harness one river over there, cut a tunnel, 
and drop that water down into another river so as to give them 
electricity. Industrial development is being held up in that area 
because they do not have an abundance of electricity. I saw a letter 
that came from a prominent man in Watauga County writing Con- 
gressman Doughton asking him to do something to dam up the 
water that was going into Watauga Lake, which is over in Tennessee, 
furnishing power for the Tennessee Valley Authority. We could 
use that water up ahead of that dam, and it would give us more 
electricity here. 

I have nothing against the power companies, and yet they say we 
preach socialism. When Bryan ran for president, he was defeated be- 
cause he was too socialistic. We have been doing every dad-blamed 
thing that Bryan talked about since then. They put Norman Thomas 
in jail several times because he was talking socialism. We have been 
doing for a good many years now what Norman Thomas advocated. 
It is all right now. 

When we had this talk here the other day of putting the gasoline 
people under the Utilities Commission — I don't know whether 
any of you run gasoline stations — they accused our state attorney 
general of being socialistic. That is one of the most comical things 
I've heard, because if anybody is about to crack because of his con- 
servatism it is Brother Harry McMullan. There is nothing socialistic 
about that suggestion. When Aycock began his program in this state 
and talked of schools and that everybody ought to have equal educa- 
tional opportunities, that was 50 years ago, there was one of the 
greatest tirades of all times in this state about Aycock being so 
socialistic. It was very bitter, very unfair, and very hard. But still 
we in North Carolina recognized the law. 



Addresses 239 

Then when we began talking about the school bus system in North 
Carolina, oh! that was tremendously socialistic; then it became an 
accepted principle. Later we began to talk about the school lunch 
program and having school lunch for the kids in school and that 
was socialistic. 

In this state — I want you fellows to bear this in mind — in this 
state at this very moment, there is a group sending out letters to 
the industrial people — well not necessarily industrial people, any- 
body that has plenty of money they are sending letters to, asking 
for contributions to fight socialism in North Carolina. There is no 
program that I know of in this state other than what you have. 
There is no new program, and besides, what kind of socialism would 
it fight. I don't know unless it can be headed up by the power lobbies 
who are going to fight the multiple-use programs of the rivers of 
North Carolina. That is the only thing that I can see. Perhaps you 
know of some other things, but they are going to fight socialism in 
North Carolina. 

I just want you to know this because it is under way now. This 
multiple use of the streams of North Carolina for irrigation, power, 
flood control, recreation, and soil erosion — all those things tied in 
together — will bring great development to this country. The power 
lobbies are fighting this program and for some reason we have had 
only two congressmen or senators who have dared to get out in 
front and say anything about that. Now just why, I don't know. 
Maybe they are more sensitive to public opinion than I am, maybe 
you are, or maybe the public hasn't said anything about it, but they 
are not for those programs. In fact, they have killed them time and 
again, and I can point out places where it has been done and the meth- 
ods used to do it. Well now, I think the time has come that we need 
to let our public officials know what we want — and by the way, this 
will not be a bond issue in the state; that is something the federal 
government will have to do. It is their job, their responsibility to 
do it, but don't forget that we are helping to finance the TVA, the 
Coulee Dam, and these rivers out in the West such as the Missouri 
Valley Authority, and there is no reason why they can't jointly help 
us. If we don't ask for it, if we don't go out and work for it, if 
our public officials who are in positions of responsibility don't work 
for it, then there is nothing that we can do about it. 

But our public officials on the national level have not been con- 
scious of the need of the use of the waters in North Carolina for 
the development of our people. It means industrial expansion. It 
means so many things that you are interested in — just the North 



240 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Carolina way — but the North Carolina way, in my opinion, is not 
to waste any longer the things that we have before us that we can 
do something about. 

I say again, Mr. Fink, that I think it would be worth some- 
thing because we are North Carolinians here. I will soon be out of 
the picture, but you folks and your organization will certainly keep 
on going. I think for the general benefit of North Carolina and our 
people here that it would be well for your group to send a committee 
of your own people to study the social aspects, the industrial devel- 
opment, and see how that lends itself in preserving the soil. 

Probably not being on farms you wouldn't think that means any- 
thing to you, but we all have to eat. That is one thing certain. Some- 
times it gets a little slim, but just the same you got to eat; and how 
these soils are used for growing timber, growing food supplies, and 
growing the fibers that make your clothes and all that, how we use 
those, means, in large measure, how well we are going to live in the 
next generation. I think we ought to become conscious of those 
things. 

Governor Browning told me the other day over in Tennessee at 
the meeting on Roan Mountain, "I am jealous of the school program 
you got in North Carolina. I am jealous of your good roads. I am 
jealous of a good many other things that you have, but we have 
got the jump on you as far as using the water of our state, and if 
you would start now, if the public opinion was behind it, it would 
take you 15 years to catch up, or rather take you 15 years to get 
your waters harnessed, if everybody was in agreement." Let's think 
about it. You will never catch up. Tennessee is going to be ahead 
of us in that respect and you and I have the responsibility of 
citizens not only to ourselves but also to the generation coming on. 
We are responsible for what happens to the next generation just as 
the former generation was responsible for us. 

You and I sometimes think that we have done a whole lot, but 
now, if you will, just stop and see how you made this little decision 
and you made that little decision, and did this, and did that; you 
will find it went back to what your mother, or your father, or some 
friend in the neighborhood who suggested it to you, and they suggest- 
ed it because of certain things that go even further back. You know 
about the man out in Arkansas who had done a right good job on a 
poor farm. A preacher friend visited him one day and was admiring 
the crops and the animals he had. The preacher said "You ought to be 
very proud. You ought to thank God every day that He has worked 



Addresses 241 

with you and He has allowed you to do these things." Finally this 
fellow couldn't quite stand it any longer. He said, "Well, you ought 
to have seen how these fields looked before I took a hand and God 
had had them all these years." 

You think you got a job here that pays you right good wages 
and you think it is because you were smart, but it is because of 
what somebody did way back yonder that created it and made it 
possible. What you are going to do for your children will be what 
you and I decide now is good for the next generation. I am firmly 
convinced that the next big development in North Carolina is going 
to be putting to total use the water resources of this state. 

Friends, I have enjoyed being with you, and I hope to see you 
again as I move around the state to visit different groups of people. 

I join in with Brother Fink. We do have a great state, great 
opportunities, and great possibilities if we will coordinate our efforts 
with all groups and put our shoulder to the wheel, taking advantage 
of the wonderful opportunities and resources that God himself gave 
this wonderful country when this earth was created. 

If you stop to think about it, it is tremendous, and we are hus- 
bandmen of this land. We are given dominion over all creatures. 
God will work with us if we work with God. I say that in all humili- 
ty, because after all is said and done, there is a Supreme Being over 
us, and we are here for only a short while. Shakespeare said all the 
world is a great stage and we are but the mere actors. We will play 
our little part. We will move off the stage and others will move on; 
but in that final destiny of all, how well did we play the part that 
was given us to play? (Applause) 



"NICKLES FOR KNOW-HOW" 

A Transcribed Radio Broadcast Made For State- Wide Use 1 

Raleigh 
September 1, 1951 

Governor: Gordon, I wish every person in North Carolina could 
hear what you've just told me about the progress of the Consolidated 
University. I agree with you 100 per cent when you say that every 
farm, every patch of timber, every home, and every square foot of 



l Tbis informal discussion between Governor Scott and Gordon Gray, president of the Con- 
solidated University of North Carolina, was in behalf of the "Nickels for Know-How" program, 
pie General Assembly had authorized an election to be held on November 3, at which time the 
farmers were to vote on the adoption of the program for a three-year period. The vote was in 
favor of the program. 



242 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

factory floor space in the state is a part of the University campus. 
In other words, you mean it's the job of the University to teach 
wherever the information is needed. 

Gray: That's right, Governor. But teaching isn't our only job. We've got 
to have the right information to teach. And that's where another important part 
of our work comes in — I mean research. 

Governor: You don't have to sell me on the importance of re- 
search, Gordon. I've seen what it can do, especially for farmers. I re- 
member when the farmers up in Granville County just moved off and 
left their farms. Granville wilt on their tobacco drove them right out 
of business. If the research men at Oxford, State College, and Duke 
University in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture hadn't 
developed Oxford 26 and these new Dixie Bright varieties, I don't 
know where we'd be today. 

Gray: Yes, Governor, and it's not just solving problems with crops we're 
already growing. Research can make it possible for us to develop new crops 
and industries. I'm thinking of all these green pastures you see nowadays all 
over the state. Ten years ago, you had to go to the mountains to see a really 
good pasture. But this new Ladino clover seems to do as well down on the 
coast as it does in the mountains. 

Governor: That's right, Gordon. Improved pasture has sure made 
a difference up on my farm. The cows give more milk, they look 
better, and there's a big difference in the feed bill. Something else 
that's been a real help has been hybrid corn and the new methods 
for fertilizing and spacing corn. You've almost been able to see our 
corn crop improve each year since World War II. No wonder our 
state yield has doubled. 

Gray: And the list doesn't end there. Almost every crop or type of livestock 
we produce has benefited from research in some way. As you know, that covers 
a lot of territory. 

Governor: You bet it does. We have so many crops that I some- 
times think of North Carolina as "the California of the East." We 
grow nearly everything that they grow north of us, plus most of the 
crops grown further south. Then, on top of that, I think we have a 
few of our own. 

Gray: And for every crop there's a dozen or so problems that need solving. 
For instance, I've heard a lot about mechanical cotton pickers in recent years. 
But, you know, they tell me we still don't have a cotton picker that's adapted to 
our small fields and uneven land. 

Governor: We've also got a few problems to solve with livestock, 
Gordon, if we're going to develop a livestock industry. Take bloat 
for instance. I haven't had much trouble with it in my own herd, 
but there's been a lot of cases throughout the state this summer. I 



Addresses 243 

understand the scientists themselves still don't know the whole story 
on bloat. 

Gray: That's a good example of the problems we're thinking about, Governor. 
The people are demanding, and they have a right to know the answers. The 
only trouble is that the answers are usually hard to find. Even with the appropri- 
ations passed by the last two Legislatures, our experiment station still doesn't 
have a big enough staff to work on all these problems. 

Governor: And that's where your "Nickels for Know-How" idea 
comes in, I gather. 

Gray: Yes, you see our appropriations for the three institutions of the Con- 
solidated University measure up pretty well to those in other states. But the 
place where we are falling short is in our private contributions to supplement 
the work at State College, Chapel Hill, and the Woman's College. I find that 
every institution in the country that has made great progress in teaching and 
research has been strongly supported by private contributions. In fact, I'd go 
so far as to say that there's no university in the country that has done the job 
solely on the basis of state appropriations and student fees. 

Governor: Well, you're already doing quite a bit with private 
contributions aren't you? Let's see, you have Textile, Engineering, 
and Agricultural Foundations at State College; Medical, Journalism, 
Business, and Pharmacy Foundations at Chapel Hill; plus Home Eco- 
nomics at Woman's College. 

Gray: Yes, and they've all proved their worth many times over. All of them 
are set up to appeal particularly to those people who benefit most from their 
work — that's the business men in the case of the Business Foundation, the 
textile manufacturers for the Textile Foundation, and the newspapers for the 
Journalism Foundation. But the Agricultural Foundation has never begun to 
reach the people who benefit from it most — I mean the farmers. 

Governor: That's quite a job, reaching a million and a third farm 
people. 

Gray: Too much of a job the way we've been doing it. Tom Pearsall, who 
is president of the Agricultural Foundation, tells about one county where it cost 
$2,000 in travelling expenses to collect $12,000. Soliciting help from such a large 
group is difficult. What usually happens is that you find yourself going back 
to the same handful of people year after year. 

Governor: As I get it, then, here's our problem. First of all, we 
want to increase private contributions so we can do a better job of 
agricultural research and teaching. At the same time, we want to 
increase the number of people contributing; that is, we'd prefer 
thousands of small contributors to a few large ones. And finally, we 
want to do all this at no great expense. If you ask me, that's a rather 
tall order. How are we going to go about it? 

Gray: Well, briefly Governor, here's what the "Nickels for Know-How" idea 
is all about. The 1951 state Legislature passed an act which enables the Agricul- 
tural Foundation, the North Carolina Farm Bureau Federation, and the North 
Carolina State Grange to conduct a referendum. On November 3, all farmers 



244 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

in the state will have a chance to vote for a system of self-imposed contributions. 
The plan is to add five cents per ton to the cost of feed and fertilizers sold in 
the state. This will be no extra trouble to the farmer, since the contributions 
will be collected by the dealer. These funds will be used to expand the research 
and teaching activities which benefit the farmer. 

Governor: A nickel a ton, huh? I don't call that much of a con- 
tribution. Let's see, the farmer that buys a hundred pound bag of 
feed for his chickens will be paying only a quarter of a penny. Is 
that enough really to do some good? 

Gray: You bet it is, Governor. We figure it will bring in a little over a hundred 
thousand dollars every year, and that will really do some good. You see, the 
way most of these college fund-raising plans are set up, all contributions are 
placed in a "foundation" or a sort of trust fund. The income from this fund 
is then used to supplement appropriations from the state. It would take a good 
sized foundation fund to yield a one-hundred-thousand-dollar income every year. 

Governor: It hardly seems possible that a nickel a ton will raise 
that much money. It just goes to show you that there's strength in 
numbers. Gordon, I can see some real advantages in this idea. It's a 
pretty safe bet that if a man puts his money into something, he's 
going to put his heart into it, too, and will take a keener interest in 
what goes on. Out on the farm especially, it's easy to forget about 
the work going on at State College. You even forget about the free 
services that are available like soil testing, disease diagnosis, and the 
fact that your county agent is no further away than the county seat. 
You know, some folks go on paying taxes for these things all their 
life and never use them. 

Gray: That's one of the real advantages of private contributions. We're not 
talking merely in terms of dollars and cents. If our farmers support research 
work directly, they will have a greater interest in the results of research. I know 
of no program that can produce greater good for all the people of the state. 

Governor: It looks to me like there's a real job ahead. Before 
farmers can vote on this plan, they've got to know what it's all about. 
If they've never known the importance of research before, they'll need 
to know it before November 3. 

Gray: Yes sir, that's another advantage of this idea. The fund-raising plan 
is linked with our educational work. It's really an excellent way to get the interest 
and a sense of participation from a large proportion of our people. 

Governor: Gordon, there's one question that's bound to come up. 
If this idea goes through and if it works well, is there a chance that the 
Legislature may reduce its appropriation for State College? 

Gray: All our experience has been to the contrary, Governor. The most 
successful of our foundations is the Textile Foundation at State College. The 
intense interest the textile people have taken in this foundation has been a big 
factor in influencing the Legislature. As a result, we have at State College the 



Addresses 245 

best school of textiles in the nation. It seems to me there's a bit of psychology 
involved here. Is there any better way a farmer can convince his Legislature 
than by putting his own money into a project? 

Governor: Well, I reckon you're right. But that brings up another 
question. Some folks are going to wonder why they should pay extra 
to support agricultural research when they are already paying for 
it through taxes. 

Gray: Well, as I said a little while ago, we have been getting pretty good 
appropriations. But we must not forget that the state has a lot of obligations, 
and that we can't expect to get all the money we need from appropriations. 

Governor: Well, I don't think there's any question but that those 
nickels will be well spent. And our farmers will get their money's 
worth. After all, it only takes one thing like Atlas wheat or hybrid 
corn to add more money to our farm income than the whole amount 
we're spending now for research. 

Gray: I was just thinking, Governor, that this plan ties in well with the 
things you've been talking about for the past three years. You've made the peo- 
ple conscious of the need for good roads, for telephones, and electricity. But 
we've got to do something to raise our farm income so our farm people can 
afford the cars to drive over these roads. It isn't enough to have the electricity, 
but our people must be able to afford the washing machines, the home freezers, 
and the running water that go with it. And I think agricultural research and 
the dissemination of research results is the soundest way we can do it. 



RED FEATHER CAMPAIGN 

Address Delivered Over Radio Station WBB In Behalf Of The 

Community Chest Campaign In Alamance County 

Burlington 

October 9, 1951 

I am always glad to come home to visit again with friends in 
Alamance County; and thanks to the facilities of this radio station, 
I am happy to talk with you today on the occasion of the beginning 
of the sixth annual Community Chest campaign in Alamance County. 
Our Community Chest campaign begins tomorrow on October 10, and 
all of us in Alamance County will be working together for two weeks 
to set aside the funds necessary to operate fourteen different civic 
agencies for a whole year. 

The Community Chest idea is not a new idea, but because of 
circumstances, this campaign in 1951 has a new meaning for all of 
us. This year we have added to our local county agencies three 
drives which are combined nationally under the United Defense 



246 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Fund. This United Defense Fund could have been a new and 
huge campaign for funds in Alamance County and in North Caro- 
lina. Our citizens, however, have gotten together and undertaken 
to provide through the Community Chest drive the money which 
will be necessary to run the emergency agencies included in the 
United Defense Fund. I would like to talk to you particularly about 
one of these agencies, the USO, and, perhaps, we will see how much 
it means to have the USO come into the Community Chest drive 
under the standard of the Red Feather. 

This is the picture of USO as we look at it from a civilian stand- 
point here in Alamance County. The additional funds which are 
needed this year are not being solicited for a local USO club. As 
yet we don't have the need for such a facility. What we are thinking 
about is the welfare and happiness of 752 boys who belong to us 
here in Alamance County but who are in the armed forces here in 
our own country or fighting overseas. We now have 146 USO clubs 
set up in the United States or overseas, and many of these are in 
isolated communities or in small towns located near the huge Army, 
Marine, Air Force, and Naval Training centers. Our contribution 
for USO will make it possible for these clubs to continue, and, in 
addition, we will expand this number of clubs to a total number of 
273, which are needed for 1952. I like to think that every one of 
us has a stake in every one of the 752 boys who represent this county 
of Alamance in the armed forces. I believe that these boys are count- 
ing upon their families and their neighbors, which include all of 
us, to do our part and make USO possible for them. USO is a big 
addition to the local Community Chest drive, adding nearly $4,500 
to the goal this year. It's the main reason for the fact that the Com- 
munity Chest goal is up fifteen and a half per cent this year at a 
time when it seems like it will be hard for the goal to be reached. 

Now, what are the so-called Red Feather agencies and what do they 
mean to each of us in Alamance County? What benefit is derived 
for rural residents and what reason does the Burlington or Graham 
or other town dweller find for giving of his income to the Com- 
munity Chest campaign? 

Most of us know something about some of these agencies, and 
it isn't my purpose, nor do I have the time, to go over all fourteen 
of these drives at this time. The fact that we mention only a few 
services today does not mean that the others are considered less im- 
portant, but let's look at a few Red Feather services. 



Addresses 247 

In Alamance County we have nearly 1,000 boys enrolled in the 
Boy Scouts and over 500 girls active in the Girl Scouts. I'm sure 
that many of you listening wherever you live in the county have 
either a Scout in the family or know someone who does, because there 
are fifty-one Boy Scout units in seventeen different Alamance County 
communities, and there are thirty-seven Girl Scout units in eight 
communities. This is our stake in the future, molding good habits 
and building Christian character in our own boys and girls. How 
much is a boy or girl worth? Surely enough to invest about $12 per 
Scout per year. This is the amount carried in the Red Feather budget 
for support of scouting. It's much more than the fifty cents registra- 
tion dues paid by the Scout, but it's a small investment for the great 
dividends the community realizes in the future. 

In the field of youth services the work of the Red Shield Boys 
Club should be given special mention. This is a special branch of 
the Salvation Army set up to work with underprivileged boys and 
any others interested in the program of craft work, athletics, and 
training in clean living. A new item is included in the Chest cam- 
paign this year in order to put into operation the Boys Club Camp 
which was formerly known as Alamance Lake or the old V.F.W. Lake. 
This camp is already being used by boys and by other Alamance 
County groups such as Scouts, Sunday School classes, and clubs. The 
camp is situated near Graham, but hardly had it opened when, re- 
ports have it, boys began to arrive on bicycles from other parts 
of the county. Boy volunteers sprang to help clean out weeds, re- 
build the dock, and improve the property. With proper supervision 
much of the improvement of this property will continue to be done 
by the boys. But you can see the need for proper insurance, for money 
to carry a small mortgage, and for a lifeguard for next summer. This 
adds another small increase to the Chest campaign this year but 
again with the opportunity of making a profitable investment in the 
youth of Alamance County. 

The milk fund and the Salvation Army carry on with emergency 
services of a welfare nature while the North Carolina Children's 
Home Society plans careful adoptions of babies from Alamance 
County. This latter agency also places children in homes in our 
county for adoption, and this investment represents a lifetime of 
happiness for both child and foster parents. But already the time 
is about up, and I want to cover what seems to me one of the most 
important things about the United Community Chest campaign. 



248 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

This is community cooperation, working together to achieve a 
common goal. 

There are a number of county-wide campaigns for funds each 
year — in fact a great number. But in making up the united drive of 
the Community Chest, the agencies themselves have demonstrated just 
the type of community cooperation which we need. As I mentioned be- 
fore many of the Chest agencies have been supported and have been 
active in Alamance County for years and are well able to compete 
for funds, if necessary. Their directors, however, all local people 
with no super authority from New York or elsewhere, decided that 
the community would be better served by a combined fund-raising 
campaign. That's how we got the Community Chest in our 
county — to save the time of solicitors and givers, to save the ex- 
pense and duplication of many campaigns and to encourage work- 
ing and planning together in this effort. These agencies now have a 
symbol of community cooperation and that is the Red Feather. 

So when the Red Feather solicitor comes to your place of business 
or your neighbor calls on you to support the Community Chest cam- 
paign, there are two things which ought to be thought of which may 
not have occurred to you before. For one thing, it's a bigger goal 
because of USO, plus the increased needs for local services. The other 
consideration is that your one contribution goes for fourteen causes, 
not for just one. We can encourage more drives to join the Community 
Chest by providing enough for all fourteen of the member Red 
Feather services. The cooperation of these agencies in one united 
drive deserves approval of the givers expressed in generous giving. 

In closing I will read a quotation from Dr. Harry Emerson Fosdick 
who had this to say on the subject. "The Community Chest Cam- 
paign is not something to be dodged, but to be grateful for. It en- 
ables us with a single gift to support a group of indispensable social 
services which benefit our whole neighborhood. It is good citizen- 
ship and good religion." 



Addresses 249 

NEED FOR CONSERVATION OF WATER RESOURCES 

Address Delivered At The Annual Convention 

Of The North Carolina State Grange 

Hickory 

October 23, 1951 

Officers and Fellow Members of the North Carolina State Grange: 

It is a pleasure to meet with you again at our annual state con- 
vention. I find myself looking forward each year to this meeting, 
and I want to say here and now that the constructive thinking and 
progressive leadership provided by this organization has been a 
source of inspiration to me during my term as governor of your 
state. 

We will soon be approaching the end of another year — the end of 
the third year of my administration; and it might be a good idea for 
us to take an inventory of what has taken place during this time. 

Such an inventory would show that North Carolina has added 
nearly 9,000 miles of hard-surfaced, farm-to-market roads and that 
an additional 12,000 miles have been stabilized. This has been ac- 
complished from the funds of the $200,000,000 bond issue which the 
people voted in May, 1949, and which, I might add, is going to 
pave considerably more miles of roads than we first expected. 

In addition to the secondary road program, approximately 1,400 
miles of primary roads have been built or improved. As of Septem- 
ber 1, 108 primary road jobs were underway with sixty-one other pro- 
jects let to contract. To sum up this picture, North Carolina invested 
$272,850,774 during the last biennium on its highways and farm-to- 
market roads for construction and maintenance. 

In taking stock of our school building program we find about 
sixty per cent of the $122,956,000 total program completed. Of this 
amount $25,000,000 was appropriated from the general fund in 1949; 
another $25,000,000 was provided in the better schools and roads 
bond issue; and $72,956,000 was provided from local bond issues. I 
think, however, it is only fair to tell you that educational leaders 
in North Carolina report that all the needs will not be totally met. 

Rural Electrification Authority officials report that eighty-four 
per cent of our 288,000 farms in North Carolina have electricity and 
that 38,000 rural telephones have been added. They also point out 
that there is a demand for 150,000 additional telephones. In fact, 
the demand in the rural telephone program has reached such a peak 
that only this month the Council of State authorized additional funds 



250 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

to provide additional personnel to assist in this program. All of 
you here recognized the real value of electricity and telephones on 
the farm and I shall not go into that, but I do want to ask each of 
you to join hands and keep working until rural North Carolina 
has ample electrical and telephone facilities. 

Your Medical Care Program, started in 1947, shows an inventory 
of eight state-owned hospitals, sixty general hospitals, fifteen nurses 
homes, and nineteen health centers completed or under construction 
at a total investment of about $50,000,000. These facilities will pro- 
vide 3,654 additional beds in general hospitals and 633 in state- 
owned hospitals. 

North Carolina's current permanent improvement program is 
one of the most ambitious ever undertaken; however, right at the 
time it is feeling the pinch of defense restrictions. 

Correctional institutions located at Kinston, Hoffman, and Con- 
cord have a million-dollar program which is designed to improve ed- 
ucational facilities, central dining halls and to provide better recrea- 
tional and housing facilities. 

The state's five mental hospitals claim a large portion of the 
program with more than twenty million dollars set aside for dormi- 
tories, occupational therapy buildings, central heating plants, and 
staff housing. This, I am told, is equal to all previous funds ap- 
propriated since they were founded. 

The institutions of higher learning also have a major share in 
the $180,000,000 permanent improvement program. We are build- 
ing new modern libraries, laboratory and classroom buildings, in- 
firmaries, student unions, and making expansions in utilities and 
improvements on the campuses of the three branches of the Greater 
University and nine teacher colleges. Unique among these buildings 
is the first university-owned nuclear reactor in the United States, 
which is being built at North Carolina State College. 

The Department of Conservation and Development is develop- 
ing the state's system of parks and scenic areas to the tune of more 
than $1,600,000. 

Also listed in the inventory we find an investment of $7,500,000 
in two deep water ports at Wilmington and Morehead City. The 
funds for these projects were raised by a bond issue, and they are 
about sixty per cent completed. 

In the interest of time I cannot go into more details of all pro- 
jects; but I do want to point out that all of this has been accomplished 



Addresses 251 

without a single increase in taxes, except the one cent a gallon gas 
tax that the people voted themselves. 

There were four major factors in balancing the record budget 
without an increase in taxes: First, increased revenues from an ex- 
panded economy; second, stopping the leaks by improved methods of 
collection of all taxes; three, economies and curtailing of petty graft; 
and four, investment of state funds. These last two items may 
sound rather petty to you, but I can assure you they are worth-while. 

The Budget Bureau has estimated that the economy and efficiency 
program has saved the state a total of more than $7,000,000 since in- 
augurated; and State Treasurer Brandon Hodges reports earnings of 
$5,103,916 in interest on invested state funds. 

We may look with pride upon these efforts, but they will not 
do the total job. If we are to have a balanced state and a sound 
economy, we must plan, and plan now, for the conservation and 
management of our water resources. 

Throughout all history water has dominated human life and 
human progress. The earliest civilizations appeared in the great 
river basins of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Settlements and villages 
were limited to coast lines and river banks; trading centers arose 
where navigable streams met. Rainfall and drought, throughout the 
centuries, have set the stage for the drama of human existence. 

Today, on the American continent, the old and the new coexist 
and blend into each other. On their western lands Indian rainmakers 
dance their age-old dances and pray for rain while overhead airplane 
pilots seed the clouds in a scientific and materialistic effort to coax 
rain out of the clouds. 

Until fairly recent times man has not attempted to control water 
except in a limited way for domestic water supply and irrigation. He 
has, for the most part, been forced to adjust his ways to its vagaries 
as nature gave or withheld rain for his crops or overwhelmed him 
with raging floods. 

Today this picture is changing. It must change and change fast 
in all sections of the country, and particularly in North Carolina, 
if we are even to maintain our present agricultural and industrial eco- 
nomy. We have used water badly without proper respect for its na- 
tural cycle. We have destroyed forests, leaving barren and denuded 
hills and mountainsides from which rain water and melting snow pour 
unchecked; we have overplowed our lands; we have dangerously in- 
creased soil erosion allowing precious topsoil to be carried to the 



252 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

sea, muddying our streams, filling up our reservoirs, and increasing 
flood damage. 

These serious wastes, this bad usage of water, if continued un- 
checked, will impoverish us and our children. A growing recogni- 
tion on the part of farmers, industrialists, engineers, governmental 
agencies, and conservationists in general, that the time is upon us 
to do something about our bad habits in water usage, is timely and 
signifies progress. 

River basins are the natural subdivisions of our water resources, 
and watersheds are the natural units in these river basins. Water re- 
sources policy, therefore, will tend to deal with the ways and means 
of deciding how best to preserve and utilize the resources of water- 
sheds and river basins. People who live in these communities must 
learn to share in the cooperative application of sound policy to the 
development of water resources within the basin. 

I know that private power company people are going to shout 
"socialism" whenever you and I say anything about river basin de- 
velopment, or flood control, or irrigation, or anything else which 
will benefit the people as a whole. Don't be too concerned about their 
cries of wolf. It's the same old story. 

In 1907, when President Theodore Roosevelt backed a bill in 
Congress to create a commission to study water resources develop- 
ment to "serve the people as largely and in as many ways as pos- 
sible," he was charged with proposing socialistic ideas. 

In 1908, President Theodore Roosevelt reported to Congress, 
"Every stream should be used to its utmost. No stream can be so used 
unless such use is planned for in advance. When such plans are made, 
we shall find that, instead of interfering, one use can often be used 
to assist another. Each river system, from its headwaters in the forest 
to its mouth on the coast, is a single unit and should be treated as 
such." 

And again the charge of socialism was shouted from the treetops. 

A few years later, President William Howard Taft reaffirmed this 
policy when he vetoed an authorization for construction of a private 
company dam on a navigable stream. President Taft said, "To in- 
duce a diversity of title into a series of dams which may all become 
eventually a part of a single improvement directed at the same end 
would, in my opinion, be highly objectionable." 

Was William Howard Taft a socialist? The cry of socialism is 
not new. It many times is the automatic reflex of management with- 



Addresses 253 

out vision and committed to a policy of milking the public of every 
dollar it can squeeze out. 

Water is truly the vital link of all things living. Fresh water is 
our primary self-renewing resource. Our share of this vast resource, 
here in North Carolina, is enormous. Our success in making the 
best possible use of this water depends upon the way we handle the 
forests and other vegetation which cover the ground, the way in 
which we farm, the way we take advantage — as farmers, as industrial 
users, and as municipalities — of the surface and subsurface storage 
capacity, and the skill and foresight with which we manage our 
streams. 

The keystone of it all is to treat water and soil as great assets to 
be conserved and used, not wasted. It is not enough just to dam up 
a river and turn its mighty energy into hydroelectric power. The 
production of hydroelectric power is just one facet of proper utiliza- 
tion of the God-given benefits which fall as raindrops and snow 
from the heavens to flow finally into the sea, and thence back into 
the heavens. 

Merely to dam up a river for the production of electricity is like 
killing the calf, skimming a part of the cream off the milk, and then 
dumping the partly skimmed milk into the sewer. That is the private 
power company way of developing a river. 

It is time, high time, that here in North Carolina we embark up- 
on a sensible water management and conservation program; a pro- 
gram designed to serve irrigration needs, to lessen pollution, to halt 
soil erosion, to guarantee municipalities adequate water, to prevent 
destructive floods, and to increase recreational facilities for all the 
people. 

Such a program, a river basin development project, involving, 
say the Cape Fear River, which is said to be the largest unharnessed 
river in the United States lying within the boundaries of a single 
state, would embrace that historic stream from its headwaters to the 
sea. An important by-product of such a flood-control, irrigation, con- 
servation, and recreation project would be considerable hydroelectric 
power. The lower Cape Fear is not suitable for power projects. I 
think all of us recognize that. But in the upper reaches of the Cape 
Fear Basin, where we must deal with flood control if we are to harness 
the giant river, there are at least seven sites suitable for power projects 
having, I am informed, an aggregate production of approximately 
170,000 kilowatts. It should be said, however, that the value of 
flood control and other related benefits would far outweigh the 



254 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

values received as a producer of electric energy. Yet, the sale of this 
power would go a long way toward paying for the cost of the over- 
all basin development which would greatly improve the economic con- 
ditions of the entire valley. 

Army engineers have estimated that between Wilmington and 
the mouth of Black River, 870 acres per mile of the Cape Fear River 
are inundated by every large flood. They say that 1,000 acres per 
mile are flooded between the Black River and the first lock, and that 
between Fayetteville and the mouth of the Haw and Deep rivers 
approximately 200 acres per mile are flooded. These tens of thou- 
sands of acres of fertile farm lands made idle for a season constitute 
a tremendous economic loss — a loss running into millions of dollars. 

This loss does not affect just the farmers and their families whose 
crops are destroyed and lands made idle by raging flood waters. It 
affects the economy of this entire area, contributing to a lower aver- 
age per capita income. Its impact is felt even on the over-all tax struc- 
ture of the state. And, for that matter, farmers are not the only people 
who suffer losses from flood waters. 

Businesses and industrial plants located along and near river banks 
also fall victim and sometimes suffer heavy damages. In fact, I under- 
stand there have been some tremendous losses in Fayetteville as a 
result of floods. 

The engineers, have reported that one dam — just one flood-con- 
trol dam — placed in the vicinity of New Hope would have the 
effect of reducing the flood heights at Fayetteville by eight feet. Ad- 
ditional dams would reduce it still more. 

It would be indeed shortsighted and wasteful not to plan for 
the development of this power potential, along with a flood-control 
program. North Carolina, despite its proud leadership in other fields, 
remains a power importing state; and heavy industries shun North 
Carolina because of its lack of firm reserve power unless they have 
the facilities and know-how to manufacture their own power. 

Private power companies cannot be expected, and they are not 
expected, to finance river basin development, although they often- 
times are the chief immediate beneficiaries of such projects. Financing 
of river basin development which, because of the vital role water 
plays in the lives of every man, woman, and child, and every tax- 
paying unit of the state, is the responsibility of government. 

I, for one, care not who distributes the by-product power — 
whether it be by private company, REA, or some other agency. 




Courtesy Burnie Batchelar 

Governor Scott crowning Miss ; Lu. long Ogbu™ of Smuhfield , ' ^™*^±g£ £$&$£. 

miere of the motion picture, Bright Lear, junc i, i^ . 



Addresses 255 

Today, there are no new physical frontiers, no new lands or 
forests to exploit. Today, the problems of economic advance have 
been expanded to make more and more out of what we have — to 
use more efficiently our God-given resources. We need much greater 
knowledge, determination, and foresight than did our fathers to 
fulfill the promise of American life. That promise is as great for us 
as it was for them. It is all up to us. 

Ours has become an extractive economy as we slash up our forests 
and permit our topsoil to wash into the sea — the forerunner of 
dried up streams except in time of flood. We must plan, and plan 
now, for the conservation and management of our water resources and 
the lands upon which it falls and flows. Tomorrow may be too late. 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FM BROADCASTING 
Tape Recording For Rededication Ceremonies Of Station WMIT 

Mount Mitchell 
October 25, 1951 

Since I have been governor, I have been called upon to dedicate 
many things, but I believe that this is the first time I have dedicated 
a radio station operating entirely on FM. I am proud to note that 
in the reactivation of WMIT, located on Clingman's Peak on Mount 
Mitchell, North Carolina takes its recognized position as being 
"the FM state of the nation!" 

North Carolina has more FM stations and more FM listeners 
than any other state in the nation in comparison to population. It 
also has the most powerful FM station in the United States, and, 
I am told, in the world with a static free coverage of seven states 
and a radio population of over six million in the most properous 
section in the southeast. I understand that North Carolina is also 
recognized as having one of the largest FM listening audiences in 
the east and is also credited with being one of the first states to adopt 
this modern method of radio broadcasting. 

I remember that I made my first public announcement of my 
decision to run for governor of this state on the Dixie FM network, 
and I marveled at that time at the speed with which these fellows 
worked in setting up a state-wide network. This would have been 
impossible without the use of FM relay. Since that time I have been 
aware of the progress of FM in the state, of the generous donation 
of time to activities of a public interest. I have also been aware of 



256 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

the willing and unselfish sacrifices these and other broadcasters are 
ready to make to the nation's civil defense operation "Conel-rad." 
Because of military security I can't explain to the public what I mean, 
but I want the broadcasters to know that I know of the fine things 
they are doing in these and other fields of patriotic endeavor. 

And so it is with great pride and satisfaction that I take part in 
the rededication of WMIT, the most powerful frequency modulation 
station in the world. This is another milestone in the highways of 
the progress of North Carolina. May your megacycles penetrate the 
ether always. 



A CONCEPT OF FREEDOM 

Address Delivered At The Fourth Annual Convention Of The 

North Carolina State CIO Political Action Committee 

Raleigh 
October 27, 1951 

Today, in a world of unrest, men, women, and children every- 
where have a common objective — freedom. The desire for freedom 
is deep-seated and universal among men. Since the days before 
recorded history, human beings have been concerned with what they 
must do or not do in order to be free. But the concept of freedom 
has differed widely in different ages and different lands. In our own 
era freedom has many meanings to different people. 

Some think of freedom as the absence of all restrictions, the right 
to disregard the rights of others. That is not freedom; it is license, 
jungle anarchy where tooth and claw reign supreme. It is short- 
lived, and ends in death when it meets a mightier physical force. 
Such is the inevitable end of dictatorships whether they be pitched 
on the local level, the national level, or the international level. An- 
other false concept of freedom is that it must be limited to a narrow 
area hedged about by innumerable restrictions and regulations. This 
is only a freedom from thinking, venturing, or allowing others to 
venture along the high road to a better way of life for mankind. It, 
too, is the way of dictatorships and loses the individual in the mass. 

The true concept of freedom is that of "Freedom under God" 
upon which our own nation has been founded and from which has 
resulted what we, as a people, like to call the American way of life. 
It has within its warp and woof the eternal truth of the New Testa- 
ment that man and woman should do unto others as they would 



Addresses 257 

have others do unto them. It recognizes the rights of others, and 
thereby affords the only possible assurance of the rights of self. It is 
a kind of freedom which can never be crushed, freedom in every 
sense — physical, mental, and spiritual. 

Vigilance is a price of such freedom. The late Justice Brandeis 
was profoundly right when he said: 

"It [Democracy] substitutes self-restraint for external restraint. It is 
more to maintain than to achieve. It demands continuous sacrifice by 
the individual and more exigent obedience to the moral law than any 
other form of government. . . . Democracy which does not put the 
religious and moral values of personality above the achievement of the 
abundant life will achieve neither." 1 Men who acknowledge no alle- 
giance to God will not voluntarily sacrifice their own interest, curb 
their own passions and appetites, fulfill their contractural obligations, 
or obey the laws which they themselves have made. In other words, 
if there is to be freedom for all, individuals must be governed by a 
moral order to which they have voluntarily yielded themselves. 

One hundred and seventy-five years ago the United States of 
America was born when our God-loving forefathers refused to bow 
their necks to tyranny. On bloody battlefields they wrote livid proof 
of their conviction that men were born equal and that freedom 
should be the heritage of their children and their children's children. 

Since the founding of this nation, men have enjoyed the freedom 
of tilling the soil and exploiting our natural resources as they pleased. 
We have abused this freedom, and as a result we face a crisis. 

Our usable water resources are dwindling and our precious life- 
giving topsoil is washing away to the sea. In our abuse and misman- 
agement of water and land we have failed to preserve the rightful 
heritage of our children and their children. 

Throughout all history water has dominated human life and hu- 
man progress. The earliest civilizations appeared in the great river 
basins of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Settlements and villages were 
limited to coast lines and river banks; trading centers arose where 
navigable streams met. Rainfall and drought, throughout the cen- 
turies, have set the stage for the drama of human existence. 

Today, on the American continent, the old and the new coexist 
and blend into each other. On their western lands Indian rainmakers 
dance their age-old dances and pray for rain while overhead airplane 
pilots seed the clouds in a scientific and materialistic effort to coax 
rain out of the clouds. 



justice Brandeis to Robert W. Bruere. February 25, 1922. A. T. Mason's Brandeis: A Freeman's 
Life, 585. 



258 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Until fairly recent times man has not attempted to control water 
except in a limited way for domestic water supply and irrigation. 
He has, for the most part, been forced to adjust his ways to its 
vagaries as nature gave or withheld rain for his crops or overwhelmed 
him with raging floods. 

Today this picture is changing. It must change and change fast 
in all sections of the country, and particularly in North Carolina, 
if we are to maintain our present agricultural and industrial econo- 
my. We have used water badly, without proper respect for its 
natural cycle. We have destroyed forests, leaving barren, denuded 
hills and mountainsides from which rain water and melting snow 
pour unchecked; we have overplowed our lands; we have dangerous- 
ly increased soil erosion, allowed precious topsoil to be carried to 
the sea, muddying our streams, filling up our reservoirs, and increas- 
ing flood damage. 

These serious wastes, this bad usage of water, if continued un- 
checked, will impoverish us and our children. A growing recogni- 
tion on the part of the farmers, industrialists, engineers, government- 
al agencies, and conservationists in general, that the time is upon 
us to do something about our bad habits in water usage, is timely 
and signifies progress. 

River basins are the natural subdivisions of our water resources, 
and watersheds are the natural units in these river basins. Water 
resources policy, therefore, will tend to deal with the ways and means 
of deciding how best to preserve and utilize the resources of water- 
sheds and river basins. People who live in these communities must 
learn to share in the cooperative application of sound policy to the 
development of water resources within the basin. 

I know that private power company people are going to shout 
"socialism" whenever you and I say anything about river basin 
development, or flood control, or irrigation, or anything else which 
will benefit the people as a whole. Don't be too concerned about 
their cries of wolf. It's the same old story. 

In 1907 when President Theodore Roosevelt backed a bill in 
Congress to create a commission to study water resources develop- 
ment to, "serve the people as largely and in as many ways as possible," 
he was charged with proposing socialistic ideas. 

In 1908 President Theodore Roosevelt reported to Congress, 
"Every stream should be used to its utmost. No stream can be so 
used unless such use is planned for in advance. When such plans are 
made, we shall find that, instead of interfering, one use can often 
be used to assist another. Each river system, from its headwaters in 



Addresses 259 

the forest to its mouth on the coast, is a single unit and should be 
treated as such." 

And again the charge of socialism was shouted from the treetops. 

A few years later, President William Howard Taft reaffirmed 
this policy when he vetoed an authorization for construction of a 
private company dam on a navigable stream. President Taft said, 
"To introduce a diversity of title into a series of dams which may all 
become eventually a part of a single improvement directed at the 
same end would, in my opinion, be highly objectionable." 

Was William Howard Taft a socialist? The cry of socialism is not 
new. It many times is the automatic reflex of management without 
visions and committed to a policy of milking the public of every 
dollar it can squeeze out. 

Water is truly the vital link of all things living. Fresh water is 
our primary self-renewing resource. Our share of this vast resource, 
here in North Carolina, is enormous. Our success in making the 
best possible use of this water depends upon the way we handle the 
forests and other vegetation which cover the ground, the way in 
which we farm, the way we take advantage, as farmers, as industrial 
users, and as municipalities, of the surface and subsurface storage 
capacity, and the skill and foresight with which we manage our 
streams. 

The keystone of it all is to treat water and soil as great assets to 
be conserved and used, not wasted. It is not enough just to dam up 
a river and turn its mighty energy in hydroelectric power. The pro- 
duction of hydroelectric power is just one facet of proper utilization 
of the God-given benefits which fall as raindrops and snow from 
the heavens to flow finally into the sea, and thence back into the 
heavens. 

Merely to dam up a river for the production of electricity is 
like killing the calf, skimming a part of the cream off the milk and 
then dumping the partly skimmed milk into the sewer. This is the 
private power company way of developing a river. 

It is time, high time, that here in North Carolina we embark 
upon a sensible water management and conservation program; a 
program designed to serve irrigation needs, to lessen pollution, to 
halt soil erosion, to guarantee municipalities adequate water, to 
prevent destructive floods, and to increase recreational facilities for 
all the people. 

Such a program, a river basin development project, involving, 
say the Cape Fear River, which is said to be the largest unharnessed 



260 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

river in the United States lying within the boundaries of a single 
state, would embrace that historic stream from its headwaters to 
the sea. An important by-product of such a flood-control, irriga- 
tion, conservation, and recreation project would be considerable 
hydroelectric power. The lower Cape Fear is not suitable for power 
projects. I think all of us recognize that. But in the upper reaches 
of the Cape Fear Basin, where we must deal with flood control if we 
are to harness this giant river, there are at least seven sites suitable 
for power projects having, I am informed, an aggregate production 
of approximately 170,000 kilowatts. However, it should be said that 
the value of flood control and other related benefits would far out- 
weigh the values received as a producer of electric energy. Yet, the 
sale of this power would go a long way toward paying for the cost 
of the over-all basin development which would greatly improve the 
economic conditions of the entire valley. 

Army engineers have estimated that between Wilmington and 
the mouth of Black River, 870 acres per mile of the Cape Fear River 
are inundated by every large flood. They say that 1,000 acres per 
mile are flooded between the Black River and the first lock and that 
between Fayetteville and the mouth of the Haw and Deep rivers 
approximately 200 acres per mile are flooded. These tens of thou- 
sands of acres of fertile farm lands made idle for a season constitute 
a tremendous economic loss — a loss running into millions of dollars. 

This loss does not affect just the farmers and their families whose 
crops are destroyed and lands made idle by raging flood waters. It 
affects the economy of this entire area, contributing to a lower 
average per capita income. Its impact is felt even on the over-all 
tax structure of the state. And, for that matter, farmers are not 
the only people who suffer losses from flood waters. 

Business and industrial plants located along and near river banks 
also fall victim and sometimes suffer heavy damages. In fact, I 
understand there have been some tremendous losses in Fayetteville 
as a result of floods. 

The engineers have reported that one dam — just one flood- 
control dam — placed in the vicinity of New Hope would have the 
effect of reducing the flood heights at Fayetteville by eight feet. 
Additional dams would reduce it still more. 

It would indeed be shortsighted and wasteful not to plan for 
the development of this power potential, along with a flood-control 
program. North Carolina, despite its proud leadership in other 
fields, remains a power importing state; and heavy industries shun 



Addresses 261 

North Carolina because of its lack of firm reserve power unless they 
have the facilities and know-how to manufacture their own power. 

Private power companies cannot be expected, and they are not 
expected, to finance river basin development, although they often- 
times are the chief immediate beneficiaries of such projects. Finan- 
cing of river basin development which, because of the vital role 
water plays in the lives of every man, woman, and child, and every 
taxpaying unit of the state, is the responsibility of government. 

I, for one, care not who distributes the by-product power — 
whether it be by private company, REA, or some other agency. 

Today, there are no new physical frontiers, no new lands or 
forests to exploit. Today, the problems of economic advance have 
been expressed so as to make more and more out of what we have — 
to use more efficiently our God-given resources. We need much 
greater knowledge, determination, and foresight than did our fathers 
to fulfill the promise of American life. That promise is as great for 
us as it was for them. It is up to us. 

Ours has become an extractive economy as we slash up our 
forests and permit our topsoil to wash into the sea — the forerunner 
of dried up streams except in time of flood. We must plan, and 
plan now, for the conservation and management of our water re- 
sources and the lands upon which it falls and flows. Tomorrow may 
be too late. 



AMERICA LIVING IN A PERIOD OF TWILIGHT 

Address Delivered 1 At The Dedication Ceremonies Of The 

Organized Reserves Armory 

Asheville 

October 27, 1951 

Distinguished Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

We stand here today on a new military facility that is truly an 
important segment of our nation's first line of defense. Built at a 
cost approximating a quarter of a million dollars, this Organized 
Reserves Armory is a part of the over-all strength being nurtured to 
keep alive our heritage of freedom won on the battlefields by our 
forefathers with their blood. 

Today, we as a people, are living in a period of twilight — a pe- 
riod of half peace and half war, when we are trying to do business 



^his address was read by Brandon P. Hodges, state treasurer. 



262 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

as usual and at the same time build up a military establishment of 
sufficient strength to prevent the forces of aggression from sweeping 
over the seven seas and across all the lands of the earth. 

In fashioning this mighty force for peace we are not forgetting 
our national tradition that a military machine must largely be a ci- 
vilian one. It is clear to all of us, civilian and military alike, that our 
reserve forces are the key factor in the future security of this nation. 

Just as deeply ingrained in our American philosophy is the con- 
cept that it is the responsibility of all citizens to defend this nation 
in time of danger. This concept, this tradition, this very philosophy 
had its origin in the response and courage of the Minute Men of 
Lexington and Concord when our nation was going through its 
birth pangs. The threats to the individual freedom of the Minute 
Men, and to their collective security, were so immediate and so real 
that they found it necessary to integrate into their peacetime pursuits 
an individual military posture for defensive purposes. 

Out of this response to a common danger was born the American 
concept of relying upon civilian military forces in times of national 
peril. And from this concept came our National Guard and our 
Organized Reserve Corps. 

With the passing of time — and through the several wars that 
have been thrust upon our nation, including World Wars I and 
II — this concept has matured and been implemented. Today we are 
further implementing it. 

Sometimes we hear it said that we Americans are living in a pe- 
riod of imminent danger in our history. I cannot and do not en- 
tirely agree with this statement. Not many generations ago, our 
pioneer forefathers who opened up the West also lived and worked 
under extremely perilous and difficult conditions. While trying to 
clear his land, build his log or sod house, and pursue other peaceful 
tasks, the pioneer had to keep his rifle close by to defend himself 
against recurring Indian attacks. In those times even the women- 
folk had to know how to handle a rifle and oftentimes to stand shoulder 
to shoulder with their menfolks to beat back the marauders. Along our 
western frontiers when wars flared up — even as war has flared up on 
our global frontier in Korea — civilian defenders stepped into the 
breach and saved the day. 

In that hardy pioneer society it was the accepted responsibility of 
all — meilj boys, and women — to help defend the community against 
any and all aggressors. 




Mrs. W. Kerr Scott (left) and Miss Libba McGee (right) of Spartanburg. S. C, who was Cotton 

Maid of South Carolina for 1950. On August 3, 1950, Governor and Mrs. Scott gave a tea at tne 

Executive Mansion for those attending Farm and Home Week held at State College. 



Addresses 263 

That traditional responsibilty of the citizen, all citizens, to share 
the defense of his or her country has not changed. It will not change 
so long as we cherish and preserve our democratic form of government. 

Technological developments in the science of making war, how- 
ever, have made it necessary to change some preparedness practices. 
In the days when war was waged largely with rifle, bayonet, sword, and 
small bore artillery, the converting of a civilian army into a hard 
hitting and effective force was relatively a simple matter. Transporta- 
tion then was slow. A defensive army — and America fights defensive 
wars, not wars of aggression — could be assembled, trained, and rushed 
into the field on a timetable that assured victory. 

Today the problem is more complex. The submarine, the air- 
plane, the tank, radar, the guided missile, and that most destructve 
of all forces, atomic power, have changed all that. We must have, if 
we are to survive as a nation, and even as individuals, and we do 
have in the Organized Reserve Corps, a backlog of highly trained 
personnel to augment almost at a moment's notice the defensive 
power of the regular Army, Navy, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps. 

In the past the National Guard, the Militia, and the Reserves con- 
stituted our second line of defense in times of peril. Today the 
Organized Reserve Corps is a part and parcel of our first line of de- 
fense. The men who make up the ORC have the know-how to wield 
the terribly efficient machines of war which have been developed by 
our scientific-engineering-production-military team. Machines are 
only machines. It still takes the hands of men to set them in motion, 
the hands of men who have been trained in their complex operation. 

The Minute Man of yesteryear, armed with a rifle and bowie 
knife, was a worthy foe in his day. He could drop his civilian tasks 
at a moment's notice to rush into battle, and he acquitted himself 
well when he did. Today, he is as outmoded as his cumbersome flint- 
lock rifle. War today, defense of the nation today, in the light of 
modern weapons and transportation that is faster than the speed of 
sound, must have on call a reserve force of officers and men who 
have had progressive, professionally efficient training in the use of 
these weapons and in airborne transportation. 

It has been said that "the Reserves are the indispensable element 
in our national security." With this statement I agree. As governor 
of North Carolina I take pride in the fact that this facility we are 
dedicating here today is the second ORC armory to be established in 
North Carolina. The first was dedicated last Armed Forces Day in 
Winston-Salem. In the classrooms of this magnificent structure the 



264 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Organized Reservists of the Asheville area, without interruption of 
their civlian pursuits, will learn more about the know-how to pro- 
tect our nation, themselves, and their loved ones from the heel of the 
aggressor. 

This three-unit facility — a fortress of defense — has been de- 
signed to help meet a world situation where the citizen army of the 
United States must be prepared to fight upon much shorter notice 
than ever before. Through its doors will pass some of North Caro- 
lina's finest sons — sons we hope and pray will be able to remain 
civilians, but who, if the tocsin of another world war sounds, will be 
ready, as were the Minute Men of long ago, to rush to their ap- 
pointed posts on the field of battle. 

As a civilian I have been concerned and am concerned by the 
demands being made upon the resources of the nation by the military 
as we build the greatest defense machine in the history of the world. 
I am convinced that we must give serious consideration to the 
sobering fact that our resources are limited. Already these demands 
upon our manpower, our raw materials, and our industrial produc- 
tion are tremendous. These demands, growing by leaps and bounds, 
come on the heels of a war that dug deeply into our mines, cut with- 
out stint into our forests, drained heavily from our oil pools, and 
called for tremendous manpower sacrifices. 

Nothing could be more damaging to the future of this nation 
than a blind stockpiling of the so-called expendable armaments and 
sinews of war without regard for the total picture. 

To those of us who look with alarm at the unprecedented de- 
mands upon our resources it is heartening that our national military 
leadership is placing increasing emphasis upon the vital role the 
civilian or reserve soldier must play in our over-all military establish- 
ment if our nation and our American way of life are to endure. The 
Organized Reservist, whether he be in the Army, Navy, Coast Guard, 
or Marine Corps, is basically a civilian. His economic concepts, both 
civilian and military, are not one-sided. He sees both and is affected 
by both. He is more likely to have his feet upon the ground. 

As magnificent as has been the record of the regular military 
throughout the history of our nation we have always called upon 
the civilian soldier in times of national emergency and peril. We 
will rely upon him in the future. 

The reserve is truly the indispensable element in our national 
security and America's answer to ruthless dictators who would de- 
stroy our freedom. 



Addresses 265 

WHAT WE MUST DO TO STAY FREE 

Radio Address 1 Delivered Over Station KYW 

Philadelphia 

November 9, 1951 

The desire for freedom is deep-seated and universal among men. 
Since the days before recorded history human beings have been 
concerned with what they must do or not do in order to be free. 
But the concept of freedom has differed widely in different ages and 
different lands. In our own era freedom has many meanings to 
different people. 

Some think of freedom as the absence of all restrictions, the 
right to disregard the rights of others. That is not freedom; it is 
license, jungle anarchy where tooth and claw reign supreme. It 
is short lived, and ends in death when it meets a mightier physical 
force. Such is the inevitable end of dictatorships whether they be 
pitched on the local level, the national level, or the international 
level. Another false concept of freedom is that it must be limited 
to a narrow area hedged about by innumerable restrictions and reg- 
ulations. This is only a freedom from thinking, venturing, or 
allowing others to venture along the high road to a better way of 
life for mankind. It, too, is the way of dictatorships and loses the 
individual in the mass. 

The true concept of freedom is that of "Freedom under God" 
upon which our own nation has been founded and from which has 
resulted what we, as a people, like to call the American way of life. 
It has within its warp and woof the eternal truth of the New Testa- 
ment that man and woman should do unto others as they would have 
others do unto them. It recognizes the rights of others, and thereby 
affords the only possible assurance of the rights of self. It is a kind 
of freedom which can never be crushed, freedom in every sense, 
physical, mental, and spiritual. 

Vigilance is a price of such freedom. The late Justice Brandeis 
was profoundly right when he said: "Democracy substitutes self- 
restraint for external restraint. It demands continuous sacrifice by 
the individual and more exigent obedience to the moral law than 
any other form of government. . . . Democracy which does not put 
the religious and moral values of personality above the achievement 
of the abundant life will achieve neither." Men who acknowledge 
no allegiance to God will not voluntarily sacrifice their own interest, 



iRecorded by radio station WPTF, Raleigh, the latter part of October, 1951, and broad- 
cast over station KYW, Philadelphia, November 9. 1951. 



266 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

curb their own passions and appetites, fulfill their contractural obli- 
gations, or obey the laws which they themselves have made. In 
other words, if there is to be freedom for all, individuals must be 
governed by a moral order to which they have voluntarily yielded 
themselves. 

One hundred and seventy-five years ago the United States of 
America was born when our God-loving forefathers refused to bow 
their necks to tyranny. On bloody battlefields they wrote livid proof 
of their conviction that men were born equal and that freedom 
should be the heritage of their children and their children's children. 
We who enjoy the political freedom they bequeathed to us, can 
stay free and will stay free only by keeping alive the consciousness 
that to be free we must do unto others as we would have them do 
unto us. Through this eternal truth we can stay free. 



A NEW YEAR'S MESSAGE 

Address Delivered Over Radio Station WPTF 

Raleigh 

January 1, 1952 

Today we are celebrating the arrival of a new year. Although 
it is a period of great tension, difficulty, and danger — for our 
country, our freedoms, and our civilization — we face it with firm 
resolution. 

Our problems in 1952 will be more complex, due to the defense 
program. All of our plans for the coming year must be subject to 
revision as we meet the needs for the defense of our country. We 
cannot afford, however, to let general conditions confuse or divert 
us unnecessarily from our course of progress in the state. We must 
remain strong at home if we are to win in the world conflict be- 
tween democracy and communism. A genuine peace among nations 
may seem distant now; but by doing our best with the things that 
are available here at home, we will be doing our share to hasten 
the coming of peace for all mankind and the achievement of the 
better world that is our goal. 

It has been a privilege and a pleasure for me and the other 
members of this administration to work with you, the citizens of 
North Carolina, during 1951; and we shall continue in your service 
with unabated vigor in 1952. There will be no coasting. All hands 
are joined together to plow to the end of the row. 



Addresses 267 

The people of North Carolina can look back with pride upon 
their accomplishments in the year now ending; a record achieved 
despite the clouds of world crisis which overshadowed them and 
limited, in some respects, the scope of their accomplishment. Not- 
withstanding these difficulties, we have continued to "Go Forward" 
in building more and better roads, in adding to and improving 
educational facilities, in enlarging our hospital building, in develop- 
ing our ports and in many other fields. 

Without attempting at this time a comprehensive report of our 
achievements, I list this brief progress report of our "Go Forward" 
program. 

Roads 

During 1951 our huge construction program on secondary roads 
moved forward steadily. During the quarter ending September 30, 
road builders were laying down farm-to-market roads an average 
of over eighteen miles per day. Figures for the entire year have 
not been completed, but in the first nine months of 1951, nearly 
3,500 miles of secondary roads were paved, bringing the total paved 
under the $200,000,000 bond program to 9,249 miles. Approximately 
12,000 miles have been stabilized. In addition to this, over 1,500 miles 
of primary highways have been paved since January, 1949. 

Electricity 

The Rural Electrification Authority reports that 261,440 of the 
state's 287,412 farms have the benefit of electric power. As of July 1, 
1951, the report shows 451,311 rural customers using electric power. Of 
this amount, 83,988 customers were added since July 1, 1949. An addi- 
tional 1,394.84 miles of lines are under construction which will 
serve 3,468 customers, and 3,774.94 more miles to serve 16,446 cus- 
tomers have been authorized. Upon the completion of the lines 
authorized 87.5 per cent of North Carolina farms will have access 
to electric power. 

Telephones 

The telephone situation has improved, but it is not yet altogether 
satisfactory. Since 1949, an estimated 49,270 rural telephones have 
been installed. In the over-all picture approximately 154,711 tele- 
phones have been put in service in North Carolina to bring the 
total to an estimated 597,455 telephones now in service throughout 
the state. This amounts to about a 34.5 per cent increase during 



268 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

the last three years. REA officials estimate that there are more than 
50,000 applications on file for telephones as of this date. 

One telephone company has recently secured an REA telephone 
loan and is now constructing its facilities. Four telephone member- 
ship corporations in western North Carolina are currently in various 
stages of organizations. These facilities, when completed, will pro- 
vide 5,400 additional telephones with provision to serve up to 8,500. 

Building Program 

The 1947, 1949, and 1951 General Assemblies appropriated a 
total of $141,397,990 for the permanent improvement program. Of 
this amount approximately $46,000,000 has been expended on 
projects which have been completed or are 90 per cent complete as 
of January 1, 1952. Another $65,397,000 in projects are under con- 
tract and will be completed in 1952 provided materials are available. 
Approximately $30,000,000 is allocated to projects which are yet 
to be contracted. It is estimated that at least $15,000,000 of this 
amount will be contracted in 1952 if conditions permit. The re- 
maining $15,000,000 is earmarked for equipment. 

Ports 

Two deep water ports at Wilmington and Morehead City, au- 
thorized by the 1949 General Assembly at a cost of $7,500,000 are 
nearing completion. Buildings, dredgings, and installation of equip- 
ment are now in process. Completion of both projects is scheduled 
for the summer of 1952. 

State Tourist Industry 

The state's tourist industry had its best year. Its value was esti- 
mated at $300,000,000 by the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, 
making it our third largest industry and exceeded in dollar volume 
only by the textile and tobacco industries, in which we lead the 
world. Our varied tourist attractions, from mountains to coast, 
drew nearly 6,000,000 visitors during the year. Tourists are also 
our fastest growing industry. It has increased sensationally since the 
inauguration of the state advertising program in the Department of 
Conservation and Development. The State Advertising Division is 
recognized as a leader in this field. Its unique "accessible isolation" 
campaign, covering both tourist and industrial attractions, is pro- 
ducing the best results in the thirteen-year history of our state ad- 
vertising. 



Addresses 269 

Industry 
Preliminary estimates of the Division of Commerce and Industry 
of the Department of Conservation and Development show that in- 
dustry earmarked more than $100,000,000 for new and expanded 
industries in North Carolina in 1951 for the second consecutive 
year. 

Prisons 

From highway funds there has been $1,664,102.84 allocated for 
the improvement of present facilities at Woman's Prison and hos- 
pital rooms at prison camps; school in prison management for all 
supervisory personnel of the Prison Department has been held by 
the Institute of Government at Chapel Hill; there have been estab- 
lished eight honor camps as part of the rehabilitation program for 
prisoners; and there was canned $171,712.75 worth of food items 
and 5,938 hogs were raised for feeding prisoners. 

Paroles 

A policy of careful parole selection and strict supervision was 
continued. Paroles have been granted to 552 prisoners, about 5.5 
per cent of the average prison population. Of the 1,200 or more 
parolees under supervision during the year, only 149 violated the 
conditions of parole and were returned to prison. This means that 
more than 85 per cent of parolees are well on their way to rehabili- 
tation. 

Economy And Efficiency 

A program initiated in 1949 to stop leaks, unnecessary spending, 
petty graft, etc. netted the state, according to the Budget Bureau 
estimates, a saving of $3,339,747 the first year and $3,970,519 the 
second year. Estimated savings for this administration are over 
$10,000,000. 

Medical Care Commission 

The Medical Care Commission, in administering federal, state, 
and local funds, has approved 102 projects. Of these 44 were com- 
pleted prior to November 1, 1951; 46 are under construction; and 
12 others have been approved and are now in the planning stages. 
Of the 102 projects, 60 are local general hospitals located in 53 
counties, 19 county health centers, 15 nurses' homes, and eight state- 
owned projects. 

North Carolina has followed the national trend and has empha- 
sized the construction of local general hospitals. A survey made 



270 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

during the first nine months of 1946 showed that the general hos- 
pital beds in the state numbered about 9,262 or 2.7 beds per 1,000 
population. According to the 1951-1952 state plan, there are now 
existing or planned 13,169 beds or an increase to 3.3 beds per 1,000 
population. 

This increase in beds is quite significant because many of the 
original beds have since been declared unacceptable and excluded 
from the count. Moreover, North Carolina has had an increase of 
about 680,000 in population since 1947. In all North Carolina has 
built or contracted for 4,287 new hospital beds, making it rank 
among the states second only to Texas in the number of new beds 
constructed since July 1, 1947. 

The 102 projects aided by the Medical Care Commission have 
cost roughly $50,000,000. Of this sum Hill-Burton federal funds 
have approximated $20,000,000, state funds $11,000,000, and local 
funds $19,000,000. 

Revenue 

We closed our fiscal year ended June 30, 1951, with an unen- 
cumbered credit balance of $17,738,031 in our general fund. This 
credit balance was accomplished not only after payment of all fixed 
general fund appropriations for the fiscal year, but also after pay- 
ment of the contingent increase in public school teachers' salaries 
amounting to $8,100,000 which was made as fixed appropriations by 
the 1951 General Assembly. 

Our general fund collections for the past fiscal year reached an 
all-time high amounting to a total of $162,072,863. Significant was 
the increase in individual income tax collections of $5,500,000. Our 
collections for the highway fund, derived from motor vehicle regis- 
tration, title registration, and road tax on gasoline, amounted to 
$87,686,440 which was an increase of $14,527,668 over the previous 
fiscal year. Some of this increase was attributed to the increased 
rate of road tax on gasoline. 

The General Assembly of 1951 made total appropriations for 
the biennium ending June 30, 1953, in the amount of $499,075,729. 
Of this amount the two most important items are the general fund 
maintenance of $336,394,576 and the highway fund of $156,525,849. 
For the current fiscal year our general fund requirements are esti- 
mated at $162,439,474 which is only a slight increase in our general 
fund collections for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1951. 

Our Revenue Department has not yet compiled total collections 
for the month of December, but according to the most accurate esti- 



Addresses 271 

mate presently available, our percentage increase in general fund 
collections for the first six months of the current fiscal year amount 
to approximately 12 per cent. This percentage increase may be 
attributed principally to sales, beverage, income, and franchise tax 
collections. Present indications are that if our general fund require- 
ments for the current fiscal year will be met, we must necessarily 
take into account corporate earnings in predominant North Carolina 
industries during the past calendar year and difficulties which they 
have encountered. 

It is impossible to estimate at present how net earnings for this 
year will compare with last, but we are hopeful that the increases 
in other major tax schedules will be sufficient to offset any probable 
decrease in corporate income tax collections and thus enable us to 
close the year with a substantial credit balance. 

Public Welfare 

The State Board of Public Welfare, in helping more people in 
need of welfare services than in any previous year, continued its 
emphasis upon preventive and rehabilitative programs. It inaugu- 
rated the program of aid to the permanently and totally disabled, 
resulting in a 50 per cent reduction in the general relief cases 
financed by the 100 counties. As authorized by 1951 legislation the 
welfare department began using federal funds to help counties pay 
for hospitalization of public assistance recipients. The lien law 
applying to old age assistance grants as of October 1, 1951, resulted 
in a reduction by the end of the year of approximately 12 per cent 
in recipients of such aid. As a check on the economy and efficiency 
of public welfare administration and as a basis for future policies, 
a survey was made by a constructive accountant at the state board's 
request. Special emphasis was placed upon the strengthening of 
the adoption and other child welfare programs despite sharp limita- 
tions of funds, developing boarding home care for the aged, utilizing 
all available community services, and stressing a variety of specialized 
nonfinancial services to the end that people may be helped to help 
themselves. 

Mental Hospitals 

During the past three years the number of patients admitted to 
the four state hospitals for the mentally ill and Caswell Training 
School for the mentally defective has increased from 9,159 to 10,769. 
Butner Training School has been opened to relieve Caswell by 
accepting transfers from it. Nevertheless, the number of applicants 
for admission continues to increase and to exceed available facilities. 



272 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

The increased population of these institutions has been made 
possible by the completion of large parts of authorized construction. 
New patient beds have been provided as follows: State Hospital at 
Raleigh, 200; State Hospital at Morganton, 100; State Hospital at 
Goldsboro, 1,000; Caswell Training School, 320. 

Improvements also include power plants, kitchens, etc., costing 
approximately $18,000,000 of the $22,000,000 appropriated. Other 
buildings and renovations will be completed in the near future 
unless further delayed by the national defense program. 

Investment Of State Funds 

Since the passage of legislation by the 1949 General Assembly 
authorizing the investment of idle state funds by the state treasurer, 
the State of North Carolina has earned $6,923,072 in interest as of 
December 30, 1951. 

School Building Program 

During the past year, approximately $35,000,000 were invested in 
the school building program. Of this amount $15,000,000 came from 
the state with the remaining $20,000,000 coming from local funds. 

These funds were used in the erection of 118 new school build- 
ings and 65 additions to plants already in existence. One hundred and 
eighty-three other projects were included in the program. 

This brings the three-year total for school construction to ap- 
proximately $115,000,000. 



THE STATE'S RESPONSIBILITY FOR ITS CHILDREN 

Address Delivered Before The Southern Regional Conference 

Child Welfare League Of America 

Raleigh 

March 13, 1952 

We welcome you to North Carolina. The fact that you have come 
from states throughout the Southeast to spend some three days in 
consideration of improving services to children is an indication of 
the fact that we in this section of the United States have placed ma- 
jor emphasis upon children as our greatest resource. 

I am glad that we have the opportunity of holding this conference 
in North Carolina. I am told that we have representation from one 
end of our great state to the other at the institutes and meetings 



Addresses 273 

which are being held in connection with this program. That means 
that we will be able to profit extensively from the guidance given by 
the experts in child welfare who are participants in this program. I 
believe that this meeting will give new impetus to our child wel- 
fare programs throughout this state and that it will provide new in- 
spiration and specific help in better meeting the needs of children. 

Throughout my administration I have been especially concerned 
with providing more adequately for North Carolina's children. It 
is my philosophy that a state cannot escape its responsibility for seeing 
that certain basic needs for every child are met. That philosophy has 
guided my decisions in trying to strengthen on-going programs for 
children and in meeting emergencies in our services to children as 
they have arisen from time to time. 

Some children are privileged to be born into homes which can 
offer them every opportunity from the standpoint of social and eco- 
nomic resources. They live in areas which are readily accessible to 
all of the advances of our current civilization. To a large extent these 
children can take advantage of the best which our individual states 
and nation have to offer. But we must be concerned, you and I, 
especially with the children who live in remote sections, and there 
are many of them in the South, and the children who come from 
homes which may be lacking not only in the comforts but even in 
the necessities of everyday living. Such children have just as great 
potentialities as children born into more privileged homes. It be- 
comes the responsibilty then of each of our states to see that where a 
child happens to be born and to grow up is not a seriously limiting 
factor in terms of the advantages and the opportunities made avail- 
able to him for well-rounded growth and development. 

We are properly concerned both in this state and throughout the 
Southeast about our human resources. We should see that our human 
resources in terms of children and youth are not only protected from 
the various hazards of growing up, but also that they have the ad- 
vantages of the stimulation and the opportunity which are provided 
through adequate facilities and services of many types. By and 
large the progress of any state is dependent upon the quality of its 
citizenry. We know that we have quality of the highest grade in our 
boys and girls throughout the states represented here. We must see 
that they have the opportunity for development of their inherent 
capacities. 

It has been my privilege to be governor of North Carolina during 
much of the preparatory period for the Mid-century White House 



274 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Conference on Children and Youth, and for the immediate follow-up. 
I have followed closely the work of the state committee as it has 
emphasized improved services for children. We have laid special 
stress upon the opportunity which this direct focusing of attention 
upon the needs of children and youth throughout the nation has 
offered for concentrating our efforts in the direction of greater op- 
portunity for all children and young people. We have recognized 
the fact that a government through its various channels has not only 
the opportunity but also a great responsibility for moving forward 
as rapidly as possible in terms of better meeting the needs of children 
and young people through all the services which it seeks to provide. 
I should like to comment briefly upon a few of these areas of service. 

First of all, since we are rich in children, especially rural chil- 
dren, and low in per capita income, we have many boys and girls who 
lack essential food and clothing and shelter. To meet the needs of 
many of them we have the program of aid to dependent children, 
a program which none of our states, because of legal limitations, 
is able to use to the fullest extent in terms of providing for all the 
children who do not have adequate financial support through their 
own parents. Moreover, we recognize the inadequacies of the monthly 
grants to meet the ever mounting cost of living. There has, however, 
been some progress. We can see average grants slowly increasing, 
but all too slowly in terms of the well-being of children. 

One of the grave problems facing many state governments in the 
Southeast today is that of providing their shares of the necessary 
funds to meet in full the minimum health and decency needs of chil- 
dren dependent upon this far-reaching program. We should make 
every effort to attain that level in the program without further delay. 

Welfare officials in North Carolina talk a good deal about fi- 
nancial and non-financial services for children. We certainly realize 
in this state that money to help take care of the daily needs of chil- 
dren is only part of the answer to a state's obligation for social services. 

In many cases it is a matter of working with children with ex- 
ceptional needs and special problems. This in turn calls for staffs 
well-trained and understanding of the problems of children. I am 
aware of the great deficit in workers particularly trained in child wel- 
fare in this section of the country and of the importance of our recruit- 
ing sufficient young people for this field of service and seeing that 
they receive the proper training. The efforts of such well-qualified 
workers, and there are many of you here in this room who meet that 



Addresses 275 

definition, bear substantial dividends in terms of the well-being of 
children and young people. 

In all of our welfare programs for children we must not forget 
that the great majority of our boys and girls live in the country and 
in small communities. This places particular responsibility upon 
each of us to see that services for children are geared, in so far as neces- 
sary, to the characteristics of rural living, and that child welfare 
workers are provided in rural areas wherever needed. We must 
strengthen social services for children who live in urban areas, but 
I know from first-hand experience that there is even greater need for 
intensifying federal, state, and local efforts for providing services in 
rural areas. 

In our concern for the welfare of children, we are also cognizant 
of the fact that we must think in terms of a great variety of other 
services. Among these are the need for expanded health facilities, 
facilities to meet the health needs of the normal child and to provide 
for the child requiring special medical care and treatment. We must 
be concerned with raising the level of our educational opportunities 
so that schools throughout this section of the country will compare 
favorably with those in any part of the nation. In our state we also 
recognize the need for recreation as another great area for govern- 
mental concern in terms of the over-all welfare of boys and girls. These 
broad areas along with related specialized services are all interrelated 
and should progress together. 

I shall not try to review for you the advances in these several 
fields of facilities for children which have occurred in our own state 
during my period as governor. I am well aware of how much more 
we need to do in order to meet that level of service which it is our de- 
sire, albeit our obligation, to try to provide. It is my earnest hope 
that in the years immediately ahead continued progress may be 
made so that we shall rank second to none in the opportunity pro- 
vided for all of our children. 

I have stressed particularly the repsonsibility of the state for all 
the children. At the same time this is a responsibility in which the 
state shares with others. First of all the state shares responsibility 
with the individual family. We are concerned with the ability of the 
family to provide for itself and for its children. We are interested in 
strengthening the bases for family economic security. Progressive 
steps to encourage the development of agriculture or business or 
industry will help in this general direction. Along with economic 



276 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

security, however, there must be emphasis on well-adjusted family 
members as you well know. 

At the same time that we stress state responsibility and the role 
of the family itself, we are mindful of local responsibility. State gov- 
ernment alone cannot supplement the family in its efforts to pro- 
vide all needed services as defined in this day and age. We must also 
count upon local governmental and general community resources. 
Here in the South we are especially mindful of the strengths inherent 
in a high degree of local governmental responsibility. Likewise, vol- 
untary programs for children are an essential part of the total pic- 
ture. The private social agencies with strong and forward-looking 
programs for children have carried, and continue to carry, a sig- 
nificant part of the total load of child welfare services. 

The state's responsibility for its children is truly a shared re- 
sponsibility. It is important that we work together, setting our 
goals in terms of wiping out existing deficits in services for chil- 
dren and in providing in full measure the services to which all of 
our children have a basic right. We do look, whether we come 
from the field of government or as citizens in a local community, to 
those of you who have specialized in the field of child welfare to 
help point the way. 

We know that without the fullest development and safeguarding 
of our human resources, this great region cannot bring to highest 
fulfilment the development of any of its other riches. We must 
cherish our human resources. We must see that there is equitable 
treatment for all of our children regardless of the particular section 
of a state in which they live or other special factors. 

By a shared evaluation of our accomplishments in the field of 
child welfare and through joint discussion of our problems yet to 
be solved, such as I judge is taking place in this regional meeting, 
we can all look toward the same important goal, that of making hap- 
pier and more complete the lives of all of those children who have 
the good fortune to live within the borders of the great common- 
wealths represented here tonight. 



Addresses 277 

ANNIVERSARY OF GREEK INDEPENDENCE 
Address Delivered Over Radio Station WPTF 
Raleigh 
March 25, 1952 

Fellow Citizens: 

Today it is my privilege, as governor of North Carolina, to call 
your attention to a memorable date in history; the one hundred 
and thirty-first anniversary of the Greek people's efforts to throw 
off the tyrannical yoke of foreign domination. 

Today in Greece, the cradle of democracy, and in all the far- 
flung corners of the world where Greek immigrants and their 
descendants live, this anniversary is being observed. All of us may 
well and profitably join with our Greek-American friends in their 
celebration. 

In fact, freedom-loving people everywhere may well pause and 
contemplate for a moment on the highly developed civilization that 
had its birth in Greece many centuries ago, and on the moral, spirit- 
ual, and political code of ethics which was a part and parcel of that 
civilization. This code, or codes, expressed the consciousness of men 
that mankind can, and should, lay aside the law of the jungle, the 
law of tooth and fang, and live in amity, each with the other. 

The whole world is greatly indebted to the artists, philosophers, 
mathematicians, lawmakers, and statesmen of Greece whose names 
adorn the pages of history. They left an indelible stamp on the 
pages that record man's earliest steps on the highway of culture. 
They and their descendants have pointed the way for the dignity 
of the individual to be established and maintained. 

Art lovers find in Greek sculpture perfection. High school stu- 
dents find the imprint of the old Greek masters of that pure science, 
mathematics, in their geometry studies. Those who study the sun 
and the stars and wrest dominion and power from the atoms stand 
firmly on a foundation of observation and learning bequeathed to 
them by early Greek scholars. 

In the field of fundamental thinking, in the application of pure 
logic with all bias and prejudice cast aside, the philosophers of no 
age, past or present, can compare with those of the Golden Era 
of Greece. 

The history of the Greek revolution, or war for independence, 
which started on March 25, 1821, and continued for eight years, is 
an inspiring one. For four centuries the Greek people, a proud and 
nationalistically conscious race, suffered under the tryanny of the 



278 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Ottoman Empire. At no time during these four hundred years did 
the Greeks cease to plan and strive for freedom. Fifteen different 
uprisings and three major revolts flared up and were extinguished, 
at least on the surface, during this period. The love of freedom 
and the hope for its final attainment, and the consciousness of the 
Greek tradition kept vigorously alive the determination of the 
people to become masters of their own nation and of their own 
individual lives. 

At long last, strengthened by an intellectual revival and a grow- 
ing position of economic importance in the empire, the Greeks again 
set burning the fires of revolt on that fateful March 25. This was at 
a time when individual liberty and the ideals of practical democracy 
were at a low ebb throughout most of Europe. The European powers, 
therefore, frowned upon the Greek struggle in the belief, and per- 
haps half hope, it would be easily crushed by the then powerful 
Ottoman Empire. 

Not so in America. American leaders, as well as the people, 
greeted the revolt with enthusiasm. The faith of the Greeks in the 
righteousness of their cause and the success of their efforts was 
ardently shared. President Monroe wrote in a message to Congress, 
"the name of Greece fills the mind and heart with the highest and 
noblest sentiments. Superior skill and refinement in arts, heroic 
gallantry in action, disinterested patriotism, enthusiastic zeal, and 
devotion to liberty are connected with our memories of old Greece. 
The disappearance of this country for a long time under an aggres- 
sive dark yoke has profoundly grieved the general spirits of the past; 
it was therefore natural for the reappearance of this people in its 
original character, fighting for its liberty, to arouse enthusiasm and 
sympathy everywhere in the United States." 

President Monroe's words were acclaimed in Congress and 
throughout the land. 

During the same period, Daniel Webster wrote, "What I have to 
say of Greece concerns the modern, not the dead. It regards her, 
not as she exists in history, triumphant over time, and tyranny, and 
ignorance; but as she now is, contending against fearful odds; for 
being; and for the common privileges of human nature." 

The long fight went on and on. Interest in America heightened 
at reports that in that portion of Greece that had been freed, a 
federal constitution had been established and senators and repre- 
sentatives had been elected. Spectacular naval victories by the 
Greeks followed and the American people were stirred by the thou- 
sands to contribute their dollars to aid the embattled Greek patriots. 



Addresses 279 

After eight years of bitter fighting the bloody struggle ended. 
"The glory that was Greece," 1 as the poets have sung, lived again, 
and Greeks from the mountains to the seashores breathed the air 
of freedom once more. The price had been heavy, but the chains 
of bondage are heavier, and it was an exultant people that took 
their place in the family of free nations. 

The decades rolled by, almost a century in fact; decades of prog- 
ress and growth until 1925 when a republic was formed to replace 
the nation's old constitutional monarchy government. Ten years 
later the constitutional monarchy was re-established and the old 
king was recalled by will of the people. 

Dark days were ahead for the valiant and freedom-loving Greeks. 
In 1940 Greece was attacked by Italy. Then the Germans came to 
turn Greece into one of the bloody battlegrounds of World War II. 

The defense of their homeland against the Axis aggression by 
the Greeks was magnificent and inspiring to the forces of democracy 
throughout the world. President Roosevelt officially advised King 
George of Greece, "All the free peoples are deeply impressed by the 
courage and steadfastness of the Greek nation. Steps are being 
taken to extend aid to Greece, which is defending itself so valiantly." 

The New York Times, in a lead editorial, said of the struggle of 
the Greeks, "Whatever happens, their instant determination to prove 
worthy of their ancestors and of our freedom vindicates the heroic 
tradition of Marathon, Thermopylae, and Salamis, and establishes 
once more the title to nationhood of a brave and ancient people. . . . 
Greece has struck her modern blow for freedom not in blind fury, 
but with impassioned skill. She has done the unpredictable, achieved 
the impossible. She may go down underneath overwhelming force, 
but it is as certain as tomorrow's dawn that she cannot be permanent- 
ly enslaved." 

The significance and importance of the resistance of Greece to 
the armies of Mussolini and Hitler cannot be overestimated. On 
the material side it delayed the extension of Axis rule to the eastern 
Mediterranean; and above all, it forced the armies of Hitler and 
Mussolini to waste precious months in the spring of 1941 while the 
Allies were building their strength. 

On the moral or spiritual side the effect likewise was tremendous. 
At a time when one nation after another was yielding to the Axis 
with only token or no resistance, the free world was thrilled by the 
Greek and Yugoslav people standing firm against aggression and 
tyranny. A spark was provided for setting in motion the forces of 



1 Edgar Allan Poe. "To Helen. 



280 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

freedom, liberty, and Christian civilization which are the heritage 
of man and his possessions forever if he is willing to fight for their 
preservation. 

America's avid interest in and ardent sympathy for the Greek 
people and their nation are deep rooted. Our founding fathers, the 
architects and builders of the Constitution of the United States, 
turned to ancient Greece for a pattern of democratic institutions. 
Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Alexander Hamilton studied 
the life and writings of Solon, the incomparable Greek lawyer whose 
very name has come to denote lawmakers, to find democratic pro- 
cesses to implement the governmental structure of our own nation. 

During these early critical days when the form of our govern- 
ment was being fashioned, Thomas Jefferson wrote, "Possessing our- 
selves the combined blessings of liberty and order, we wish the 
same to other countries, and to none more than to Greece, which, 
the first of civilized nations presented examples of what men should 
be." 

James Madison, another founding father, in successfully arguing 
for the establishment of a senate in the new American governmental 
structure, went back to the ancient Greeks, and especially to the 
Spartans, for a model and justification. He recalled, "History in- 
forms us of no long-lived republic which did not have a senate." 

Yes, Greek elements are blended into our Constitution, and the 
American form of government has within it much of the checks and 
balances of the federal organizations of the ancient Greeks. 

Let us not, however, make the mistake of assuming that "The 
Glory that was Greece" has died, for it has not. The record of the 
last few years clearly proves the eternal will of the Greeks against 
the isms that would destroy the liberties of the individual. Assaults 
from within by imported Communists have been successfully dealt 
with, although the going was extremely rough at times. The end 
of civil strife, pitched battles between communistic forces and the 
freedom-loving and liberty-demanding Greeks, was proclaimed on 
October 16, 1949. The Greeks have once again beat back and thrown 
off the threat of foreign domination. 

Truly the Greeks are a valiant and industrious people. Their 
pages in history will never dim. It was Greek thought and Greek 
experience in the democratic way of life which laid the foundations 
of our modern western civilization and which put the cause of liberty 
and justice on its way to become the cornerstone of our western 
world. 



Addresses 281 

On this, a sacred day in Greek history, a busy western world, 
working to preserve the ideals and principles of democracy, liberty, 
and justice, is thrilled and inspired by the story of the Greek 
people, for to them liberty is a living thing. 



NORTH CAROLINA IS A WELL-BALANCED STATE 

Address Delivered At The Graduation Exercises Of The First 

Aviation Cadet Class Of The United States Air Force Basic 

Pilot Training School, Kinston Air Base 

Kinston 

June 25, 1952 

Today is the most important day to each of you young men in 
your careers as air force pilots. Having completed the primary 
phase of gaining your wings, you have shown that you can "Keep 
'em Flying." That was the byword of the men of World War II, 
and it is the primary mission of the Flying Training Air Force. 

We, in North Carolina, are proud to have been your hosts for 
the past six months for a number of reasons. North Carolina, as many 
of you have learned by now, is a great state. From the mountains 
to the sea, it is a well-balanced state, with industry, agriculture, 
education, and a grace for living. And not least of all, there is the 
important role it has played in the national defense of our country. 

It is fitting and proper that North Carolina should be the loca- 
tion of one of Flytaff's most important training bases. After all, the 
Wright brothers got their start in North Carolina, and North Caro- 
lina has never dragged its wings in aviation development. 

We are here today to pay tribute to you, the first graduating 
class, and to this base and what your training mean in terms of 
national security. 

During World War II, when air power changed the tide of that 
great conflict in our favor, we were turning out the world's best 
pilots. With 200 hours of training here and that which you will 
achieve in your next 130 hours of jet or multiengined training, you 
will tower head and shoulders above that possible in the lives of 
your predecessors, because of the refinements which have taken place 
in military aviation since World War II. The requirements now are 
for the highest type of human resources and technical skill. Less 
than five years ago only a hand-picked few of the Air Force pilots 
were entrusted with jets. Just a few weeks from now, you young 
men will be flying even faster jets in routine training missions. The 



282 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

intensification of training which you have successfully mastered is 
symbolic of the pace with which American defense is forging ahead 
to keep America safe for democracy. 

To fit in with the sharp, clean lines of a modern-day jet requires 
a sharp, clean, quick-thinking lad, and from my personal observation, 
you graduates fill all of these necessary requirements. Assembled 
here are aviation students from every section of our great country, 
together with representatives from seven allied countries. 

The mission of this base emphasizes American ingenuity. Military 
and civilian aviation have been synchronized to produce the world's 
best air power, and making the early dream of the Signal Corps, 
cherished in the days of the Wright brothers, a reality. 

Aviation is not only an instrument of culture and commerce, but 
has become the master of our defense today. The United States Air 
Force is an instrument forged by the people of this republic for 
their common defense, and for the defense of free peoples every- 
where. In so far as this Air Force, this instrument, is strong and sharp 
and ready its existence tends to deter the potential aggressor, and 
gives warning of swift punishment for the lawless. A great and 
historic interest of the American people lies in their desire for a 
world of peace and justice. 

Twice in ten years the people of the United States have ordered 
their armed forces to subdue international brigands who broke the 
peace and flaunted human justice. The United States Air Force, 
through prompt and efficient completion of its assigned missions, 
can insure the arrival of that long hoped for day when all human 
beings may walk in freedom, and in fear of none save their God; 
or, by slipshod and indifferent performance on its part, the Air 
Force can cause the American people to lose what Abraham Lincoln 
called the last, best hope on earth. 

I would like to leave a final thought with you. It was contained 
in remarks made by your Commander-in-Chief, the President of the 
United States. 1 This is what he said: 

"We are determined to seek peace by every honorable means . . . 
mindful of humanity everywhere, to spare the world the tragedy of 
another world war. We are likewise determined to spare ourselves 
and the world the even deeper tragedy of the surrender of justice 
and freedom. 

'Another system — powerful in resources, hostile in intent, and 
ruthless in method is seeking the destruction of all the values that 
we would preserve. 



iHarry S. Truman, President (1944-1952). 



Addresses 283 

"That system is under the mastery of men guided by a twisted 
dogma. 

"They can be restrained only if defensive strength is arrayed 
against them. Our best hope is to build our strength to a point 
necessary to bring them to caution — if not wisdom. 

"We are compelled to make the creation of strength a paramount 
aim." 

In conclusion I salute you young men — you are the master of 
a new art — the art of flying. You are our hope for peace. We all 
hope and pray that the threat of your might will be sufficient to 
avoid another major conflict. 

I wish you happy landings, Godspeed, and no flame outs. 



THE EISENHOWER TROPHY 

Address Delivered At The Presentation Of The Annual N. C. 

Eisenhower Trophy To The Service Battery, 112th Field 

Artillery Battalion, Of The North Carolina National Guard 

Fort McClellan, Alabama 

July 12, 1952 

I have the honor on this occasion to present the North Carolina 
Eisenhower Trophy for the calendar year 1951. This trophy — cre- 
ated and established in 1947 — is awarded after the end of each 
calendar year to the most outstanding company-sized army unit of 
the National Guard in each state and territory. In 1948, 1949, and 
1950, this trophy was won by the 94th Army Band, and its name has 
been engraved on this urn. The winning unit retains custody during 
the current year; thereafter it will be replaced with a smaller replica 
to remain in the permanent possession of the unit. 

The winning unit was selected by a board composed of: Major 
General John H. Manning, the Adjutant General; Brigadier General 
Claude T. Bowers, Assistant Division Commander, 30th Infantry 
Division; and Colonel Lee C. Bizzell, Senior Army Instructor for 
North Carolina. 

Under National Guard regulations, the board could consider 
only such units as accomplished all of the following qualifications: 

1. Strength 

A. All company, battery, or troop-sized units which had attained 100 per 
cent officers and warrant officers and fifty per cent enlisted personnel of 
the applicable table of organization. 

B. All detachment-sized units, full table of organization strength of less 



284 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

than fifty enlisted personnel, which attained 100 per cent officers and 
warrant officers and ninety per cent personnel. 

2. Units which have thereafter maintained an average of ninety per cent of 
their strength authorized above. 

3. Units which have maintained during the calendar year an average aggre- 
gate attendance of officers and enlisted personnel of ninety per cent of the 
actual strength. 

4. Training was judged on the basis of: 

A. Performance of annual field training, based on NCB Form 115. 

B. Performance of armory drill training, based on OCS Form 339. 

C. Qualification of members with individual and crew-served weapons. 

The winning unit approved by the board was officially announced 
by the chief, National Guard Bureau, on 15 May, 1952, and this 
distinct honor goes to: 

Service Battery, 112th Field Artillery Battalion, 1st Lt. Darwin 
E. Beach, commanding, Home Station, Lenoir, North Carolina. 

Lt. Beach, on behalf of the chief, National Guard Bureau, I 
am happy to present to you and your battery the Eisenhower Trophy 
for 1951, and to congratulate the Service Battery, 112th Field 
Artillery Battalion, 30th Infantry Division, North Carolina National 
Guard, upon attaining the high degree of excellence required for 
this award. 



FLUE-CURED TOBACCO REFERENDUM 

Address Delivered Over Radio Station WPTF 

Raleigh 

July 19, 1952 

I welcome this opportunity to talk to the tobacco farmers of 
North Carolina for a few minutes because I feel the two referendums 
being held today are of great importance — not only to flue-cured 
tobacco farmers, but also to the entire economy of our state. 

North Carolina is proud of the record of its flue-cured tobacco 
farmers. In North Carolina we produce more than two-thirds of all 
the flue-cured tobacco grown in the entire United States. We were 
the first to use the flue-cured method, and we have long been the 
leading state in the manufacture of tobacco products. 

Yes, the history of this state is tied closely to the growing of tobac- 
co. The welfare of a large proportion of our farm people depends 
greatly on the rise or fall of tobacco prices. Last year, for example, 
almost $522,000,000 was derived from the tobacco crop. This repre- 
sents approximately sixty-one per cent of our total cash farm income. 



Addresses 285 

But farmers are not the only ones who benefit from the golden 
weed. Merchants, bankers, professional men, fertilizer dealers, ware- 
housemen, and others feel directly the market trend. We have seen 
what happened to the economy of our state when low prices for 
tobacco prevailed, and we have observed our prosperity when prices 
were good. 

As I see it, the tobacco grower is now sitting on a well-built, solid, 
three-legged stool; and, I might add, this stool was not built over- 
night — it took years, and its true worth and value has been proven. 
Today it is recognized everywhere as the most comprehensive and 
well-rounded program in operation for any commodity. 

You know what the three legs of this stool are as well as I do. The 
first one is acreage quotas to keep production in line with consump- 
tion; the second is price supports through loan guarantees to assure 
fair prices; and the third is the export promotional program of 
Tobacco Associates, which was formed to promote, develop, and 
expand the export markets for your tobacco. Take away any one 
of these legs and the tobacco grower, as I see it, would suffer de- 
pressed prices which means loss of income. 

In connection with the quota vote today, here is a point I would 
like to emphasize and re-emphasize: The same law authorizing quotas 
also provides for government loans to support tobacco prices at 
ninety per cent of parity. One depends upon the other. If the 
farmers do not vote self-imposed acreage quotas, the ninety per cent 
parity price guarantee automatically collapses. I think every tobacco 
farmer in this state realizes the effect which the price support pro- 
gram has had in maintaining prices in recent years. 

Let us not be confused about price supports. It is as simple as 
that. If there are no quotas, there is no price support. 

Now let's talk about the third leg of this stool. Six years ago, 
tobacco growers and their allied interests wrote a new and different 
kind of chapter in the nation's history of agricultural exports. They 
demonstrated they were willing to pay a small special levy of ten 
cents per acre in an effort to maintain and extend the export trade 
for tobacco upon which they depend so heavily for the sale of about 
forty per cent of their yearly crop. This was the first, and is still, 
the only farm export program of its kind; and it demonstrates the 
wisdom of the tobacco farmers and their willingness to do something 
for themselves, without looking to aid from the federal government 
at the taxpayers' expense. 

Ten cents per acre is cheap protection when you depend upon 
foreign countries to buy at least forty per cent of your yearly crop. 



286 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

It costs the average farmer only about forty-five cents per year, less 
than the price of a movie or a ball game. 

Last year, as I mentioned a minute ago, the value of our flue- 
cured tobacco crop was something over $522,000,000. Forty per 
cent of that figure is $209,000,000. So $209,000,000 is the amount 
North Carolina farmers receive for their tobacco that was exported 
last year. That is a lot of money. Cut down the income of North 
Carolina tobacco farmers by that amount, and it will be felt in every 
niche and corner of the state. 

For the past several years tobacco has been selling for about fifty 
cents per pound. But I remember and you remember what happened 
in 1939 after quotas failed to carry. In case you have forgotten I 
would like to refresh your memory — the price dropped down to 
14.9 cents per pound on an average for the whole crop. 

You, tobacco growers, know too well what it means to have 
uncontrolled production and unsatisfactory prices. No one has or 
can question the importance or soundness of a program that is 
designed to keep supply and demand in balance by stimulating 
export markets. This program is North Carolina home grown. It is 
practical and deserves your continued support. 

Acreage marketing quotas and price support legislation are made 
in Washington. Your guess is as good as mine as to who will be in 
power come next January. But this I do know — federal govern- 
ment officials will be watching the results of this tobacco growers' 
election. They are interested in knowing if you, as tobacco growers, 
are satisfied with your present program to the extent you are willing 
to back it with full participation at the polls. A favorable vote, 
with only a small number of growers voting, will not be sufficient 
to do the job. But with 100 per cent participation or near 100 per 
cent participation by the 260,000 growers in North Carolina, there 
should be no doubt in the minds of any person or group as to what 
you want in the way of a tobacco program for the future. 

As governor of North Carolina my challenge to you is simply 
this: "Vote to protect what you now have, and work to build it 
better and stronger." No one wants to tackle a well-organized group 
that knows what it wants and is willing to fight for it. 

I urge most strongly every producer of flue-cured tobacco to make 
it your business to visit your local polling place today, right now, to 
do your part in helping to preserve a solid foundation for the flue- 
cured tobacco growing industry. 




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Addresses 287 

THE FARMERS' ECONOMIC AND EDUCATIONAL 
OPPORTUNITIES 

Address Delivered At Farm And Home Week, State College 

Raleigh 
August 20, 1952 
My Friends: 

I am happy to be here with you and your families today. For 
three and a half years I have been governor of the finest and most 
progessive state in the land; for fifty-five years I have been a farm 
boy and a farmer. 

No one can shake my belief that no state or nation can prosper, 
and no civilization can long endure, unless those who till the soil 
are full-fledged partners in governmental functions. 

Here in North Carolina those who earn their daily bread through 
farming make up one-third of the state's population. Another third 
lives in the country with the breadwinner of the family working in 
town or city. The other third of our population both lives and 
works in town or city. 

Four years ago, when I was a candidate for governor, I promised, 
if elected, to do all in my power to give rural people more representa- 
tion in government and to equalize the services rendered by govern- 
ment so that the farmer and his family would have the same economic 
and educational opportunities as his town and city cousins. 

To attain this objective, the people, all the people, were asked to 
approve a $200,000,000 bond issue to take the farmer out of the 
mud and a $25,000,000 bond issue for the construction of sorely 
needed schoolhouses. A majority of the people agreed with me and 
voted the bonds. 

During the past three and a half years more than 12,000 miles of 
rural secondary roads have been paved. And this was accomplished 
without any slowdown in development of the state's primary high- 
way system. In fact, the primary highway system and streets within 
towns and cities have also been eating high on the hog; approximately 
$130,000,000 having been invested in the primary highway system, 
and slightly more than $21,000,000 in state money having been spent 
on streets in towns and cities. Many of these dollars that have been 
spent on the primary system and city streets came from funds that 
formerly were spent on country roads. 

Local school units have matched state funds on a basis in excess of 
dollar for dollar with the result that more than $120,000,000 worth 
of new school buildings have been built or are under construction. 



288 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Roadwise and school wise North Carolina is definitely "Going 
Forward"; and the old inequalities between living in the city and 
the country are being wiped out. 

I do not need to tell this group how important electricity is on the 
farm, how it works day and night, not only for the farmer, but also 
for the farm wife. No invention or development of the twentieth 
century has taken more drudgery out of farm life than has electricity. 

Since initiation of North Carolina's "Go Forward" program three 
and a half years ago, electricity has been carried to 140,947 rural cus- 
tomers, 66,000 of them being farm homes, over 19,356 newly built 
lines. By the end of this year ninety per cent of North Carolina's 
farms will have electricity in use on them. 

At times, the going has been rough to persuade the heads of 
public utility companies that their semimonopolistic franchises carry 
with them absolute obligation to render service to all the people in 
the area they claim as their territory. The record shows, however, 
that real progress has been made in this field; and if there is no let- 
up in pressure, further expansion of service will result. But I warn 
vou here and now — we cannot afford to rest on our laurels. We 
must keep pressing. 

The Rural Electrification Authority, born of the desperate long- 
ing of rural people for the benefits of electric power, has been, and 
is the faithful friend of all those who live in the country. Its bene- 
fits surge not only over REA lines, but also over private company 
lines, because REA is the cocklebur under the utility company saddle. 

Just as important on the modern day farm as electricity is the 
telephone. And while the expansion of telephone service in the 
farm areas has not equalled that of electric power, progress has been 
made. Out of a net gain of 186,000 installed telephones, 64,156 have 
been in rural areas with slightly more than 30,000 in farm homes. 

These are some of the major accomplishments that most directly 
affect the farmer. There are others — in public health and hospital 
facilities, investment of state funds, economy in administrative costs, 
reduced insurance costs, and reduced teacher load, to mention some — 
that more generally affect the entire citizenship of the state. 

Important as are these gains, the surface has barely been scratched. 
We, as a people, and we, as farmers, must not gloat over our gains 
or sink into a rut. With courage and determination, if we are true 
to ourselves and to our children, we must face the challenge of to- 
morrow. 

And what is the challenge of tomorrow? 



Addresses 289 

The challenge of tomorrow, and the challenge of today, is the 
conservation and use, and the re-use of our God-given natural re- 
sources. Let us consider together some of these resources and see 
where we are falling down on the job. 

Take our water resources. We have just gone through one of 
the most disastrous droughts in our history. Conservative estimates 
of actual crop damage in North Carolina range up to $200,000,000. 
This means a loss of one-fifth or more of farm income for 1952. 

What this will mean in dollars in the over-all economy of the 
state remains to be seen. One thing is certain. State government fi- 
ances will be affected. Income tax collections from farmers will be 
reduced; and according to economists, for each dollar of appreciation 
or depreciation in the value of raw products, there is a seven-dollar 
effect on the over-all business life. This means a staggering business 
loss of one and a quarter billion dollars. This is just another way of 
saying that what is bad for one segment of the people is bad for all. 

Side by side in the daily newspaper a few weeks ago appeared two 
stories. One told of hundred-degree temperatures and no rain for 
weeks; the other one told how a few farmers, here and there, were 
making bumper crops as a result of irrigation practices. This has the 
effect of at least casting a shadow of doubt on Mark Twain's famous 
statement that everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does 
anything about it. A few people in North Carolina are doing some- 
thing about it. 

A generous Creator endowed North Carolina with a network of 
streams that can be dammed to supply a plentiful reserve of water 
for times of need. In the past few years, more than ten thousand 
fishponds have been fashioned. With proper equipment that is 
relatively cheap in original cost, many acres on a number of farms 
could be made highly productive by irrigation of adjacent lands 
during dry spells. 

It is estimated that today approximately ten thousand North 
Carolina acres are being irrigated. In this acreage is included to- 
bacco, pasture, orchards, hay, and truck crops. A study of weather 
records indicates that dry periods in which irrigation would greatly 
help most of our crops occur in at least nine out of ten growing 
seasons. 

Water is not only the lifeblood of agriculture; it is also the most 
important single factor in the life and well-being of the city dweller. 
Cities simply cannot exist without an abundance of water. Disease 
and death stalk the streets of the city deprived of an adequate sup- 



290 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

ply of water. Industry dries up and withers away in the community 
which continues short in its water supply. 

Parched fields and water-stricken cities with drastic restrictions 
upon the use of this precious fluid which falls free out of the skies, 
are living proof that we have not planned intelligently in the conser- 
vation and use of our water resources. 

As our scientists seek to peer behind the veil of the future, they 
are confronted with visions of even greater demands upon our wa- 
ter resources and are convinced of the necessity of conservation and 
re-use. 

The age of air conditioning is dawning. Air conditioning — mak- 
ing homes in city or country, stores, factories, and offices comfortable 
in the summertime — is just as important as keeping them warm 
in the winter. Air conditioning can no longer be considered a 
luxury; it is truly as much a necessity as heat is in the winter. 

Recently a bank president told me that his board of directors 
had set up a policy of making just as liberal loans for the purchase 
of air conditioning equipment as for heating equipment. This is as 
it should be, and I am glad to see the bankers recognizing this need 
of the people. 

Tremendous quantities of water are required to operate efficiently 
the larger air conditioning units; and as their installation gains 
momentum, cities and towns are going to be hard put to meet the 
increased demand unless supplies and reserves are expanded before 
the hour of absolute need arrives. 

Why kid ourselves? We are face to face, right now, with a water 
conservation and use problem that needs to be wrestled with if we 
are to continue to grow agriculturally and industrially, and in home 
comfort. City and country people alike have a stake in this matter. 
All will be benefited by a solution. 

Man's use of water is practically unlimited, and year by year the 
per capita utilization is growing by leaps and bounds. The greatest 
increase in utilization in the past two or three decades has been in 
the industrial field. For instance, I am told that it requires 60,000 
gallons of water to manufacture one ton of steel, and an amazing 
250,000 gallons of water to make one ton of nylon. 

But it is not in cities and industrial plants alone that the de- 
mand for more and more water is heard. The story is the same on 
the farm. In the old days when water for the home was raised by a 
hand pump or even by a more labor demanding windlass, use of 



Addresses 291 

water was held to a minimum. That was the age of the Saturday 
night tin tub bath and the water bucket. 

Today the electric pump does the chore, and the story is different. 
The water bucket, the dipper, and the gourd have joined grandma's 
bustle and grandpa's mustache cup. You turn the faucet, and water 
flows freely. 

Running water — lots of running water in the farm house — is 
the rule rather than the exception. Federal loan agencies refuse to 
finance the building or purchase of a farm home that does not have 
running water. They recognize that a home without running water 
is a white elephant. 

A great mistake of the past has been our negligence in harnessing 
the destructive power of water. Erosion of the soil takes a heavy toll, 
annually wiping out millions of dollars in soil fertility and produc- 
tive capacity. Flood waters that could be controlled wash away low- 
land crops and cause untold damage in cities located upon river 
banks. Location of industrial plants is influenced by flood records. 
Good judgment demands that industrial plants costing millions of 
dollars be placed where the raging waters of a flash flood cannot 
reach. An industrial plant site could have all the advantage of near- 
by labor supply, ideal transportation conditions, climate, and near- 
ness to raw material, and, yet be worthless because it is in a potential 
flood area. 

The challenge of water resources has many sides, but the answer 
to most of them is simple and relatively easy to set to work. The 
conservation, control, and intelligent use of water start in the hills 
where big rivers are born. Terracing, contour plowing, and the con- 
struction of small flood-control dams are the first steps. 

Reforestation of barren and eroded hills is another investment in 
conservation. This is an investment that will pay rich dividends down 
through the years long after the original investment has been re- 
turned in full ten times over. 

Flood-control dams, if wisely located and properly planned, can 
and will pay dividends through by-products. One of these dividends 
is the production of hydrolectric power as a by-product. 

As we face this problem, we should keep before our eyes the basic 
fact that what is good for some of the people of the state benefits all 
the people, and that down east along the North Carolina coastline, 
which incidentally is the longest coastline of any state in the union, 
there awaits a golden opportunity and economic challenge. 



292 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Under present laws, rules, and regulations, operators of private 
and commercial boats and ships that ply the waterways of North 
Carolina are rebated the tax on the gasoline used in their marine 
engines. A study of the gasoline tax refunds in the eight counties 
which border the coastline shows that marine engine gasoline tax 
revenues amount to approximately $225,000 a year. 

This sum might well be retained by the state and used in dredging 
and otherwise improving the waterways and channels to provide more 
fruitful fishing and recreational facilities. 

The state's seafood industry, important to those who depend upon 
it for their daily bread and to those of us who relish and delight in 
fresh seafood, could easily be doubled, yes, tripled in volume. And 
this increase could be accomplished without cost to the general 
public. 

It might be well to create a North Carolina Maritime Authority 
and charge it with the development and maintenance of our water- 
ways in the same manner as the State Highway and Public Works 
Commission is charged with the development and maintenance of 
the highways. Activities of such a Maritime Authority would be 
supported exactly in the same manner as activities of the Highway 
Department are supported — by gasoline taxes paid by the users of 
the facility. 

And, like the highway system, the waterway system would have 
available federal government funds to assist in development and 
maintenance. Experience has demonstrated that federal participa- 
tion in waterways is much higher percentage wise than is the case 
in the highway system. Under normal conditions six federal dollars 
are matched with each state dollar. 

Under such a matching arrangement, if the $225,000 were re- 
tained, there would be available something like a million and a half 
dollars a year to carry out the purposes of the proposed State Mari- 
time Authority. 

Other benefits will flow from the modernization and improvement 
of the state's marine highways: Recreational and health building op- 
portunities for all the people of North Carolina, and a substantial 
increase in the tourist dollars left in our state by the 5,000 out-of-state 
tourists who annually travel North Carolina's inland waterways. 

Transportation by water is older than recorded history, but modern 
methods of transportation have not outmoded the water lanes and 
their importance in the economy of the 20th century. Three and a 
half years ago the General Assembly provided funds for the con- 



Addresses 293 

struction of up-to-date port facilities at Morehead City and Wilming- 
ton. Last week port dedication ceremonies were held at Morehead 
City, and next month like ceremonies will be held in Wilmington, 
marking completion of this $7,500,000 joint program. 

These two facilities — gateways to lower transportation costs — 
where hill-born rivers meet the sea, can attain in their maximum 
service to the economy of our state only if we wisely plan the fu- 
ture conservation and use of the waters that flow into them. 

Conservation of our woodlands presents another challenge. 

Forests, which cover 59 per cent, or 18,500,000 acres, of the land 
area of North Carolina, constitute a natural resource that has been 
exploited, depleted, and neglected. Our forest land has been misused 
since colonial days. Cutting practices too often have followed the 
slogan of "cut the best and leave the rest." Destruction of nature's 
hillside blotters to absorb rainfall has aggravated the destructive 
force of flash floods. It has also contributed mightly to soil erosion. 

One of the economic challenges of today is better forest manage- 
ment practices. Wood products harvested and processed from North 
Carolina's forests in 1951 were valued at $778,000,000. Lumber 
sales alone totalled $305,000,000. Pulp and paper products added 
another $244,000,000, and furniture $239,000,000. 

North Carolina has more sawmills than any other state — more 
than 4,500 of them. Approximately 86,000 workers now are employed 
in the woods and wood conversion industries. This is about one- 
fifth of the total industrial employment in the state, making these 
industries second only to textiles as a source of industrial employ- 
ment. 

Forestry research scientists report that with proper cutting and 
other management practices, within a few years the annual yield of 
North Carolina forests could be doubled and maintained at that level 
indefinitely. This is a goal we should seek to attain. 

When I see most of you again — probably next year during Farm 
and Home Week — I will be an ex-governor, but still a farmer and 
a dairyman. 

As your governor let me say in closing that our state is firmly 
planted on a sound foundation. There has been no change since 
1933 in the financial structure of our government. This is no time 
to change the pattern. It has been proved that the people of North 
Carolina can have good roads, good schools, and more adequate 
health facilities. Let's keep on reducing the deficit in these services 



294 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

and at the same time accept the challenge of conserving and develop- 
ing all our God-given natural resources. 

Government cannot stand still and remain of, for, and by the 
people. Let us face the future with confidence and continue to go 
forward individually and collectively. 

And our children and their children will rise up and bless us. 



EMPLOYING THE REHABILITATED 

Address Delivered At The Meeting Of The President's Committee 

On Employment Of The Physically Handicapped 

Washington, D. C. 

September 4, 1952 

Mr. Chairman: 

Down in North Carolina where I have the honor of being gover- 
nor, we are proud of the fact we recognize "that it is good business 
to hire the handicapped." 

Next January I will no longer be governor of North Carolina 
and will go back to being a farmer-dairyman. At that time, I will 
find on my farm a labor force, as there is today, of two disabled 
workers, both of whom are doing a full, honest day's work. 

As an employer and as governor of North Carolina, I am a bit 
impatient with those who say that a man or woman who is physically 
handicapped is not capable of earning his own livelihood. I know 
differently. 

In North Carolina we have a proven program for fitting into 
the economic pattern those who are physically handicapped. 

Let me cite a few figures from the records of our Vocational 
Rehabilitation office. Last year 2,634 physically handicapped men 
and women, not including those who are blind, were rehabilitated 
and found jobs within the economic structure of our state. Of this 
number, 140, when given jobs, were automatically removed from the 
public assistance rolls of the state. Prior to that time they and their 
families had been receiving assistance amounting to over $83,000 a 
year. The 2,634 individuals mentioned above are today earning at 
the rate of $3,000,000 a year. 

During the same year, last year, 364 blind men and women were 
provided with employment through the state's rehabilitation and em- 
ployment services for handicapped persons. Of this number, seventy- 
five, prior to training given them by the state, had been receiving 



Addresses 295 

on behalf of themselves and their families $31,000 a year in "grants 
in aid" assistance. Today there is no drain upon the public purse 
by these people, and these 365 rehabilitated blind people are earning 
at the rate of over $400,000 annually. 

These are some of the cold, hard financial facts involved in the 
North Carolina program for rehabilitation of handicapped people. 
I shall refer to them again in a few moments. 

Physically handicapped people are all around us. Their dis- 
abilities in most instances are no fault of their own. The handicap- 
ped person is anxious to live as nearly a normal life as possible. It 
is the duty, as I see it, of society to assist them in realizing this am- 
bition; and in addition, it is just simply good business to help them 
to become self-sustaining. 

There are two basic problems involved. One is to train the 
handicapped individual for a type of work that he or she can per- 
form just as well as can one who is not handicapped. It would be 
unfair to ask industry or any other type of employer to give em- 
ployment to a person unless that person is able to perform services 
which will benefit the employer. Second, there is the problem of 
convincing the employer that the trained handicapped person can 
perform the services required by the particular job involved just 
as well or better than one who is not physically handicapped. 

In the operation of our program of rehabilitation, our adminis- 
trators are constantly conscious that it takes know-how to do any 
job well, and that in the case of a person who is physically handi- 
capped, the need for adequate training in know-how is even more 
acute. So we try to make sure that our handicapped people are 
fully prepared for the jobs within their physical and mental capaci- 
ties. Once that is accomplished, they are placed in jobs that are 
right for them, and they make good. 

Let me illustrate what is meant by a job that is right: A man 
with no legs will, in most instances, do more work at a desk or work- 
bench than a normal employee, for the very good reason that it is 
easier to sit and work than to wander around. 

In the field of finding employment for the trained handicapped 
person, we have found that just going out and finding employers 
who are willing to give a handicapped man or woman a chance on 
a job is not enough. There are all kinds of resistance to the em- 
ployment of the handicapped. 

We know, on the other hand, that employers generally are not 
only pretty good people, but that they are business men. So we deal 
with employers on a business basis, as well as on a humanitarian 



296 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

basis. We do a selling job to explode the fallacy that physical per- 
fection is a primary consideration for employment. This is not an 
easy job, particularly where industrial establishments still place more 
stress upon the physical completeness of the applicant than upon 
the mental requirements of the job. 

When the two basic conditions are met — a trained, able, and 
willing worker on one hand, and on the other hand recognition by 
employers of the value of his services despite physical handicaps — 
the problem is solved and our handicapped people are employed. 

The problem of the physically handicapped is not just their in- 
dividual problem. It is a social problem and an economic problem 
which cannot be ignored. Every time we are able, through an en- 
lightened program of education and rehabilitation, to place in gain- 
ful employment a physically handicapped individual, the public as- 
sistance rolls are relieved. In an individual case, this may amount 
to only a meager sum; but if this figure is multiplied by several 
thousand disabled persons removed from public assistance rolls to 
gainful employment — and most states have several thousand handi- 
capped people on their relief rolls — the total becomes substantial. 

From the completely selfish angle of the taxpayer seeking to 
reduce his bill, it is good business to educate and rehabilitate the 
physically handicapped so that they may become active earning 
employees of the community and sharers in the cost of their gov- 
ernment, rather than having them remain on relief rolls. But to 
me this is a secondary reason for giving enlightened educational 
training to these unfortunates. The primary need, to my mind, is 
that we do everything in our power to assist them in becoming self- 
supporting contributors to society — restoring their self-respect and 
enhancing their value to society. 

As we know only too well, disability is not limited to physical 
defect. I refer to those unfortunate men and women who have be- 
come mentally ill under the stresses and strains of modern life. 
Mental illness is not a disgrace. I am informed that there are statis- 
tics showing that one out of eight people at some time during 
his life is seriously ill mentally. 

Unfortunately, there has developed a prejudice against employing 
any person who has ever been a patient in a mental institution. 
This need not be. 

Modern methods of treating mental illnesses permanently restore 
the vast majority of mentally ill patients to normal thinking and 
actions. 



Addresses 297 

North Carolina's rehabilitation agencies, recognizing the needs 
of mentally restored individuals, are rapidly expanding services to 
them and are placing them in ever-increasing numbers in gainful 
employment. These services enable these people not only to become 
self-supporting, but through employment to maintain their restored 
mental stability. 

Last year in North Carolina public employment service found 
jobs for 5,890 persons with varying degrees of disability. 

Last October alone, as a result of National Employ the Physically 
Handicapped Week activities, 983 handicapped men and women 
were placed in paid employment. All they had asked for was a 
chance to work. 

Our rehabilitation agencies work closely with the medical schools, 
the hospitals, and, just as important, with the practicing physicians 
and surgeons in every corner ?nd byway of the state. We have learned 
that wonders can be worked to repair a physical or mental disability, 
frequently to remove it, and in almost every case to reduce it. 

We believe we have the right formula for getting the job done. 
We know that we are materially reducing the annual outlay of 
public funds formerly paid out to maintain life and a certain degree 
of comfort for the unfortunate disabled. We are striving to do a 
better job. 

The problem is a serious one. It demands our best thinking. Our 
brother's troubles and his handicaps are our troubles and our han- 
dicaps. His victory over handicaps is our victory also. 



NORTH CAROLINA FACES A CHALLENGE 
Address Delivered At The Dedication Of The Port At Wilmington 

Wilmington 
September 18, 1952 

Mr. Chairman, Members of the Ports Authority, Distinguished Guests, 
and My Friends from all over North Carolina: 

These ceremonies herald an important era in the economic de- 
velopment of our state. As governor of North Carolina, it is a 
privilege to take part in them. 

For the past century, for a hundred long years, this seaport of 
Wilmington, where we are christening these modern terminal facili- 
ties today, has been going through its birth pangs. Four full gener- 
ations of North Carolina boys and girls have been born and have 



298 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

grown to maturity while events and developments leading to this 
major economic achievement were taking place. 

In 1924, more than a quarter of a century ago, the first real effort 
was made on a state-wide basis to develop port terminals in North 
Carolina. Governor Cameron Morrison that year led a movement 
to get approval of the people for an eight and one half million 
dollar ports bond issue. Governor Morrison's effort was unsuccessful. 
The people rejected his proposal in a special election, but his zealous 
crusade for a better North Carolina was not for naught. 

Successive governors endorsed proposals for better ports, but it 
was not until the Legislature of 1949 that these efforts bore fruit. 
Then it was my privilege to renew these recommendations for ade- 
quate port facilities. The legislators of 1949 made possible, without 
a dissenting vote, what we celebrate today. 

In the meantime, also during this historic past century, ribbons 
of steel were fashioned to tie together the various areas of our state 
to serve agriculture and industry. The old wood burning locomo- 
tives of a hundred years ago gave way to the coal burning "iron 
horse" which is now being turned out into the junk yard pasture 
in favor of the sleek, distance eating diesel engine that slips, seem- 
ingly without effort, along the steel rails. 

Those who ride the skies over North Carolina in passenger and 
cargo airplanes look down upon a network of paved highways — 
more than 28,000 miles of them, of which over 12,000 miles have 
been built in the past three and a half years. 

Over these streamers of progress travel daily one of the largest 
fleets of freight carrying trucks of any state in the nation. 

As a state we have been keeping pace with our transportation 
needs in the air and on the land; and now, through completion of 
the modern port facilities we stand upon today, we are adding low 
cost water transportation to the opportunities North Carolina offers 
to agriculture and industry. 

I would not for a moment consciously dampen the enthusiasm of 
one single celebrant here today. Rather, I would add to it, and 
kindle, if I can, the fires of ambition for the future. We celebrate 
a mighty achievement, but if this celebration is to be fully significant, 
its accent will not be upon looking backward to what we have done, 
but upon looking ahead to what we must still do to build a better 
North Carolina. 

We face here today a new challenge. 

The acceptance, or non-acceptance of that challenge, will be 
vitally important in deciding our future. Where we stand today, 



Addresses 299 

silent dockside winches and merchandise-empty and bat-filled ware- 
houses, can become, and will become, the order of tomorrow, unless 
the same vision and good judgment that brought about their con- 
struction is exercised in developing and keeping them busy in the 
service of North Carolina. 

These facilities, these piles of concrete and steel, and the services 
they are capable of rendering, are in Wilmington, but they belong 
also to all the people of North Carolina. They have been built to 
serve the entire economy of North Carolina by furnishing an outlet 
to the seven seas and the lands that lie beyond. 

Therefore, let no man or woman assume that the building and 
dedication of these facilities finishes the job. No. This job is far 
from finished. The entire citizenry of our state, over four million 
strong, must become promoters in the never-ending quest for new 
and expanded industries; industries to process the raw materials 
from faraway places which now can flow cheaply into North Carolina; 
industries which will export to the other peoples of the world ma- 
terials processed by North Carolinians. 

That is the challenge that faces all of North Carolina. 

That is also the challenge that confronts Wilmington in a more 
intimate sense. The people of Wilmington, more than any other 
one group, can make or break this new port. 

The manner in which you treat shippers' representatives and 
steamship company employees, men from our own country as well 
as those from foreign lands who come for a few days stay in your 
city, will be an important factor in the future of North Carolina's 
port at Wilmington. 

The policies governing the operation of this port, which will be 
adopted by the Ports Authority, must, to be effective, have the full 
cooperation of the people of Wilmington and those of all southeast- 
ern North Carolina. Only with administration of sound policies, 
and wholehearted public cooperation, can the development of 
this port justify and fulfill the confidence of the people from all 
sections of North Carolina who have made its construction possible. 

There is another factor that goes into the success or failure of a 
port which is the responsibility of all our people. That is the matter 
of feeder ports — small inland ports for the transshipment of import 
and export commodities. 

Development of feeder ports up and down the eastern rivers of 
North Carolina and along the Inland Waterway — at Southport, 
Fayetteville, Washington, Belhaven, and Greenville, to mention only 
a few important potential sites — can, and in all probability will, 



300 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

mean the difference between a hand-to-mouth existence and success 
such as we today dream of, and hope for, for the port of Wilming- 
ton and the sister port of Morehead City. 

We are fortunate as a state to have in our possession the longest 
coast line of any state in the union and also to have so many inland 
and coastal feeder port sites. 

To neglect their potentialities would, to my mind, be economic 
folly. 

As we face this challenge let's not delude ourselves. Difficulties 
lie ahead. At the moment, we cannot look to Washington for the 
federal assistance which under normal conditions goes to the develop- 
ment of rivers, harbors, and ports. Funds of that sort are now being 
poured into the national defense effort. 

We must rely upon our own resources, upon our own ability to 
develop and finance worth-while projects that will tie up the loose 
ends of our economic fabric. This we can do with proper leadership 
and with determination to work together for the common good. 
What is needed is an over-all plan of river, waterway, port develop- 
ment, and the development of a spirit of good will among individual 
communities that have a contribution to offer in the over-all picture 
of a greater North Carolina — a North Carolina ever going forward. 



THE SOUTH PROGRESSES 

Address Delivered Before The Ohio State Convention Of The 

United Daughters Of The Confederacy 

Akron, Ohio 

October 8, 1952 

I stand before you not to fight over the battles of more than 
three-quarters of a century ago, including the glorious exploits of 
the "Game Cock Brigade" led by the immortal and heroic General 
George Edward Pickett for whose wife you have named the LaSalle 
Corbell Pickett Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. 

I glory with you in the traditions which the United Daughters 
of the Confederacy keep alive. The ideals for which General Pickett, 
the illustrious Robert E. Lee, and your ancestors fought and died 
are not dead. No, those ideals and soul-possessed convictions are 
alive and will never die so long as the mothers, wives, and daughters 
of men keep vital and militant the spirit of your great organization. 

I am as proud as you are of the heroic deeds which history records 
as performed by our forefathers and mothers. And then I am hum- 



Addresses 301 

ble as I speculate on how they would behave if faced with the prob- 
lems confronting Americans today. 

Let us review what America was like economically when those 
great statesmen and patriots were on the threshhold of writing some 
of the most thrilling and vivid pages of history. In 1860, America 
had a population of 31,443,000, of which 8,103,100, or twenty-two per 
cent, lived in the eleven southern states. The nation's total wealth 
then was $12,084,660,005, of which $4,333,757,942, or 35.8 per cent, 
was in the South. 

Seventy years later, in 1930, the story was quite different. The 
nation's total wealth had climbed to $163,317,104,000, but in the 
same eleven southern states there was only $17,410,671,000, or 10.7 
per cent of that total wealth. 

Imagine the change! The South's percentage of wealth, as com- 
pared with that of the nation, had dropped in seventy years from 
35.8 to 10.7 per cent. Such a decrease seems inconceivable, but it 
is truly verified by history. 

History shows that the Republican party, through a long line of 
Presidents, fashioned and forced a mortgage upon the South. Those 
same Republican presidents, callous and indifferent to the cries of 
our bleeding and hungry humanity, saddled this special mortgage on 
the South for seventy years! (I'll talk a bit more about that mort- 
gage and recent developments a little later on.) 

And, in addition, one of those Republican presidents was a 
famous and victorious army general, and still another general about 
that same time had been just a little careless with fire on his march 
through Georgia and the Carolinas. 

When the Republican politicians and the army generals got 
through picking the economic bones of the South eight decades ago, 
and I am still looking at the record, more than $3,000,000,000 of its 
$4,333,575,942 in wealth had been stripped away. 

A land area considerably larger than most foreign countries lay 
desolate and in smoldering ruins. 

And there was no Marshall Plan back in the days when General 
Sherman was dropping matches through the heart of the Southland. 
There was no Point Four and no CARE organization. There was 
not even sympathy, understanding, or mercy. 

I have no doubt, had President Lincoln lived, that the South 
would have had some kind of a modified Marshall Plan to help it 
bridge over its economic disaster. Unfortunately, for the South and 
for all America, "Honest Abe" was assassinated. 



302 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

And then what happened? Why, just as soon as they possibly 
could, the Republicans nominated and elected a West Point-gradu- 
ated army general, even using bayonets in the South to assure his 
election. 

A great American historian and Princeton University scholar in 
describing the presidential administration of General U. S. Grant 
wrote that the nation soon began to see, and I quote him, "how 
impotent the amiable soldier they had put at the head of the govern- 
ment was to guide or better it." 1 

This same historian, in 1902, wrote in his History of the American 
People that during General Grant's administration many things 
happened to stir the country which, and again I quote him, "made 
Congress seem corrupt and the party which controlled it (the Re- 
publican party) without a watchful sense of honor." 

This was during the days when the transcontinental railroad 
scandals were taking shape and form. Two members of Congress 
and a United States Senator were found to have deliberately engaged 
in transactions which touched their integrity and honor. Many de- 
tails came to light which showed that members of the Republican 
Congress carried very easy consciences in such matters. They accept- 
ed favors without looking too curiously into their motive or signifi- 
cance, and thought more often of their personal interests and pocket- 
books than of public honor and interest. 

Accustomed to the forthrightness and discipline of military life, 
General Grant, through no fault of his own since he had been 
trained in that atmosphere, was a soft tool in the hands of the wily 
politicians and big businessmen who controlled many of the so-called 
public servants of his day. 

The stockbrokers — we refer to them today as Wall Street — and 
their political friends in the administration, greedy for more wealth, 
dreamed up a vicious scheme to corner the gold market. The success 
of their scheme depended upon intimates of the General's plying 
him with false arguments based upon claims of public policy and 
public good. 

Finally came the day of reckoning — "Black Friday" — and the 
business structure of America toppled. It was the worst economic 
panic which the world up to that time had ever seen. 

The once victorious general, untrained to cope with civilian and 
business matters, realized too late that he had been duped and the 
nation plundered. He took the only course then open to him and 



iWoodrow Wilson, A History of the American People (Harper Brothers, New York, 1902), V, 88. 



Addresses 303 

ordered treasury gold reserves sold on the public market. His action 
came too late. The Republican politicians and their big business 
masters had plunged America into the panic of 1869 which has been 
exceeded in severity only by the Hoover 1 depression of 1929. 

In fairness to the memory of the amiable and impotent General 
Grant, historian Wilson describes his ultimate retirement from the 
presidency in the following language, and I again quote him, "The 
quiet figure of the retiring President began to seem almost like a 
figure lingering out of an age gone by. The honest, simplehearted 
soldier had not added prestige to the presidential office. He himself 
knew he had failed. He had come to a great office untrained in 
affairs. Men's eyes followed his retreating figure with respect, with 
veneration, with deep affection, and forgot that he had been duped 
by politicians; remembered only that he had been the successful 
leader of the armies of the Republic." 

That, my friends, is history's evaluation of a great general un- 
trained in civilian affairs. 

Is history going to repeat itself? Is America going to elect to the 
presidency another amiable general — untrained in civilian affairs? 

I don't know how the rest of America will vote, but not even 
Governor Jimmy Byrnes 2 of the great State of South Carolina can 
lead the Southland — the Southland that I know so well — to revolt 
against the Democratic party. The South will not betray the party 
which in the last twenty years has done so much to lift the Republi- 
can imposed economic yoke from its neck. No, the South, where 
men and women still breathe free air and are nurtured on the virtue 
of loyalty, will plow to the end of the row with and in the Demo- 
cratic party. 

Of course, we like Ike down South. We like him a lot as a victorious 
general, but we just can't see him as President of the United States. 

Flying up here from North Carolina, I got to thinking about how 
things have changed since the Republican convention in Chicago. 
In the "Windy City" we were treated to the spectacle of Governor 
Dewey 3 , a twice defeated Republican candidate for President, leading 
the General Eisenhower crusade and calling the shots. 

Senator Taft, 4 Mr. Republican himself, was shouting from the 
housetops that General Ike 5 was untrained and unfitted to do any- 
thing except give and take military orders. 



Herbert Hoover was President 1929-1933. 

2 James F. Byrnes. 

Thomas E. Dewey, Governor of New York. 

4 Robert A. Taft, Senator from Ohio. 

5 General Dwight D. Eisenhower, General of the Army. 



304 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Now, all that is changed, and there has been a reversal of posi- 
tions among the chief GOP elephant tenders and trainers. 

The New York governor is frantically swinging on to the ele- 
phant's tail. 

Senator McCarthy 1 is whispering in one ear of the animal, and a 
motley crew of modern-day carpetbaggers and camp followers are 
whispering in the other. 

And all the while Senator Taft, with a sour expression on his 
face, is feeding the candidate peanuts filled with all kinds of sugar- 
coated confections. 

All this confusion would be funny if it were not so tragic and 
so dangerous to our future. 

General Eisenhower, wearing his boyish grin and waving his arms 
like the blades of a windmill, promises to strengthen the Taft-Hartley 
Act, and to water it down; to reduce government spending and at 
the same time increase government activities; to clean up govern- 
ment and at the same time condoning government officials accepting 
favors and money from seekers of governmental favors. 

So far, he has remained constant to his opposition to Commu- 
nism. 

What an amiable but untrained-in-civilian-affairs Houdini the 
general has turned out to be. How Senator Taft must be laughing 
up his sleeve as he sees his preconvention evaluation of the general 
proven. Senator Taft has even convinced the general that "Nixon- 
ism" is good. 

The general has publicly adopted Hollywood's contribution to 
American politics. He says Senator Nixon 2 is his boy. I am still con- 
fused, however, because the general switches advisers so fast I am 
not sure just whose boy he is and who his political father would be 
should he be elected. 

I just can't be sure about a man who suggests that all Democrats 
who own refrigerators or more than one war savings bond are 
crooked, and on the other hand endorses and praises "Nixonism." 

And while we are on the subject of "Nixonism" let me say that 
I agree with Senator Nixon that cocker spaniels are fine dogs and 
that there is no all-compelling reason for him to hurt the feelings 
of his admirer in Texas who sent him one by returning it. 

On the other hand, every Californian I have ever met has insisted 
there is no climate like California climate. Checkers, therefore, 
should have the advantage of living in California, and all dog lovers 



Joseph R. McCarthy, Senator from Wisconsin. 

2 Richard M. Nixon, Senator from California and now Vice-President. 



Addresses 305 

should go to the polls on November 4 and help him escape the in- 
dignity and disadvantage of a dog's life in Washington. 

Now, as I said before, down below the Mason-Dixon line we 
have an affection for General Eisenhower and his recognized military 
qualities receive our praise. But we fear him when he gets out of 
the role for which he has been trained. 

His remark down in Charlotte, North Carolina, a few days ago 
about lifting a political mortgage — knowing as we do all about the 
Republican party's economic mortgages — frightens us to the core. 
Bitter experience has taught us that eighty-odd years is a long time 
to pay on one. 

We remember 1929, and are unwilling to trade our birthright 
and loyalties for a mess of pottage. We don't trust the cooks nor 
the ingredients the Republican party uses in its broth. 

The early thirties are vivid in my memory. The great engineer 
— oh, what engineers and generals can do to wreck a country — had 
just been retired from the White House in Washington. For a 
time I had more than 2,700 volunteer workers assisting me in ad- 
justing the land debts of farmers in all the southern states except 
Mississippi. It was a heart-rending task. Economic ruin, want, hung- 
er, and despair were on every side and around every turn in the road. 

It was during this period that Ma Perkins 1 spoke about the bare- 
foot South, and Franklin D. Roosevelt commented that the South 
was under-fed, under-clothed, and under-housed. Most southerners 
got mad as hops about being so described, but it was the literal 
truth. That's why it cut so deep and hurt so bad. 

Reading in the newspapers that there were breadlines in the 
larger cities throughout the nation and that misery stalked the land 
from one end to the other was no solace and did not soften in the 
least the ringing blows of the auctioneer's hammer. 

Then, slowly, from the ashes of near ruin visited twice in seventy 
years, the South began to rise out of its despair, its poverty, and 
economic hopelessness. 

By 1950 the South's wealth — the comparative measure of its 
standard of living and relative place in the community of states — 
had risen from 10.7 per cent of the nation's wealth in 1930 to 17.3 
per cent of the nation's total wealth in 1950. 

The South, at last, at long last after seventy years of decline, was 
on the march toward a better way of life. 



iMiss Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor, 1933-1945. 



306 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

And under what mantle and behind what banner were those 
gains made? I'll tell you what mantle and what banner! Under the 
mantle and behind the banner of the Democratic party. 

And that, my friends, is the reason, even if there were no other, 
the South, to a state, will cast its electoral votes in 1952 for Steven- 
son and Sparkman. 1 

The South will not turn on the party which is restoring to it its 
political stature in the union of states and helping it to grow toward 
economic maturity and security. 

You, transplanted southerners, daughters and granddaughters of 
southern fathers and mothers, cannot help but recognize the ever- 
lasting truth of my reasoning and conclusions. 

Let me reassure you. The Southland whose history thrills you 
and whose traditions you revere has risen. It will continue to rise 
during the next four years under a Democratic administration. 

• I thank you and salute you in the name of all the people of North 
Carolina. 



THE TELEPHONE IS A MIGHTY FORCE IN MODERN LIVING 
Address Delivered At REA Telephone Day Celebration 

Rockwell 
October 9, 1952 

Call today what you will — REA Telephone Day, RTA Day, or 
Granite Quarry Day — it makes no difference, because today, October 
9, is going down in history as a red letter day in this community and 
in North Carolina. 

Today we are celebrating the completion of the first Rural Electri- 
fication Authority financed telphone system in North Carolina and 
one of the first in the United States. 

We rejoice with the five hundred rural families of eastern Rowan 
County whose homes will be linked up by this modern telephone 
system. Heretofore, they have been penalized in their social activities 
and have suffered economic losses through not having telephone 
service. 

The management of the Eastern Rowan Telephone Company is 
to be congratulated upon its vision in taking advantage of the REA 
telephone loan program to provide modern communication service 
for this area. It is unfortunate that more companies do not have 
the same sense of responsibility toward fully serving the territories 
handed to them and protected by their franchise. 



^Adlai E. Stevenson and John J. Sparkman. 



Addresses 307 

The telephone is a mighty force in modern day living. It is a 
necessity, even more of a necessity on the farm and in the rural 
community than it is in the city home. 

And, if there is one thing that more North Carolina people want 
more than anything else, that thing is a telephone. Since I have 
been governor, I have received thousands of letters on the subject of 
telephones, and everywhere I go people tell me how badly they need 
one. Right now there are on file more than fifty thousand active re- 
quests for a telephone, just any kind of a telephone, even on an 
eight or ten party line. 

Some of the most touching letters I have received have come 
from people who are so thankful that they have at long last gotten a 
telephone that they just had to express their gratitude. 

Only one other single modern service — and that is electricity — 
saves more labor, more time, and more money on the farm than does 
the telephone. These two services are bringing rural opportunities 
up to those enjoyed by urban dwellers. 

Nowhere in the whole nation is there a greater need for utility 
companies to do something for rural people than there is in North 
Carolina. That is because of the way we live. We don't go for living 
in crowds. We would rather live away from congestion, out where 
there is plenty of fresh air and elbow room. 

The census people can tell you about that. Here's what they 
found out about us in their latest head count. One-third of our 
four million people live in cities and towns; one-third live and work 
on the farm; and the remaining third live in the rural area but work 
in town. That way of life is North Carolina's own. 

As a county agent more than a quarter of a century ago, I learned 
about how necessary lights and telephones are to rural living. I also 
learned how hard it can be to get them. It is extremely doubtful 
that I would ever have run for governor if I had been able to per- 
suade the power and telephone people to give me and my neighbors 
electricity and telephone service on our farms. 

The Haw River country, where I was born, raised, and still live, 
was one of the unmarked deserts on the maps of the public utility 
companies. It made no difference to them. They had their reserved 
territories, fenced in by franchises, which they could serve, or not 
serve, as they pleased. They did not have to pay any attention to 
the voices crying in the utility wilderness. 

But it is different now. With the people in a position to help 
themselves through REA power and REA financed telephone lines 



308 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

when public utility companies fall down on the job, many utility 
companies are developing a refreshing interest in the needs of rural 
people. 

I am proud of the part I played in helping to set up the first 
Rural Electrification Authority, and in setting up facilities for fi- 
nancing rural telephone systems. Back in 1931, in nearby Statesville, 
I made my first speech urging creation of a Rural Electrification 
Authority and I served during Governor Ehringhaus' administra- 
tion on the first North Carolina REA, which was created by legis- 
lative act in 1935. 

In this day of tractor and machinery farming, something is al- 
ways breaking down. New parts for repairs are needed quickly. 
The farmer who has a telephone can pick it up and locate the needed 
parts without having to waste precious hours driving here, there, 
and yonder looking for them. He can make arrangements for the 
sale of his livestock and his crops without having to drive from market 
to market to realize the highest dollar. His chores are lessened. His 
time is saved, and his trucking costs are reduced. 

Electricity, the telephone, and the system of farm to market all- 
weather roads we are building free the farmer from the shackles of 
economic slavery. They lift him and his family out of darkness and 
drudgery, silence, and mud. 

The impact of the telephone in the rural home is not limited to 
the economic side. Equally important, both to the individuals di- 
rectly affected and to society as a whole, are its social influences. 

Rural boys and girls need and demand association with youths 
of their own age. A telephone call is next best to running next door 
to visit with a pal. A quarter of a century ago one of the more popu- 
lar tunes of the day was "How You Gonna Keep 'Em Down on the 
Farm?" I'll tell you one way — see that they have a telephone. 

The lot of the rural housewife — particularly if she doesn't have 
a telephone — is a lonely one. The husband is out in the fields, or 
away at his job all day. The children, after a few years of toddling 
at her heels, are off at school. She is isolated, alone, and lonely. 
For her, the telephone — even if she does not use it for days at a 
time — is an instrument of security and mental satisfaction, and a 
protective shield. 

Only those who have lived in a home far back in the hills where 
there is no telephone can measure the anguish and fear that grips a 
home when serious illness or accident suddenly strikes and medical 
aid is miles away. Regardless of weather or time of day or night, 



Addresses 309 

somebody must leave the stricken to obtain even the assistance of a 
neighbor. 

These services which help build a greater North Carolina must 
be made available to the people at reasonable rates. And it is the 
people themselves — through exercise of their governmental au- 
thority — who grant utility companies their franchises. 

I say to you in all sincerity — and I know what I am talking 
about — any rate-fixing agency of government that authorizes ex- 
cessive rates or fails to compel a utility company to render good 
service, and expanded service, if needed, is not true to its trust. 

Understand, I am not a rate expert. My training has been in 
different fields, and many factors go into the determination of what 
is or is not a fair and reasonable rate. But this I do know, rates and 
over-all service rendered should match each other. 

If our rate-fixing government agency does not have the power 
and authority to force public utilities to live up to the moral and 
ethical obligations of their franchises, they should publicly state 
that fact. Then the people, through their elected General Assembly, 
could apply the necessary remedy. 

Let us never forget that in a democracy the people are supreme. 
Governmental processes may grind slowly, but in the end it is the 
voice of the people that is decisive. 

The utilities trust annually spends millions of its revenue dol- 
lars — millions that come from the rates it charges the public — in 
newspaper, magazine, and radio advertisements shouting that the 
nation is on the verge of socialism because the people, through their 
legislative bodies, are making it possible for more and more homes 
to have utility services. The true story is that REA finances have 
been used only to fill the gaps in imperative public needs which have 
not been otherwise met. 

This wolf cry — paid for by the customers who have to foot the 
advertising bill — is as phony as a wooden nickel. It is the age-old 
cry of special interests that arises when the people elect and legislative 
officials pledge to give the people what the majority want for them- 
selves and for their children. 

This celebration here today demonstrates what can be accomp- 
lished if there is complete cooperation between a utility company and 
governmental agencies. As a result of this cooperation, better tele- 
phone services are available for a large and important area of our 
state, and five hundred rural families have telephones for the first 
time. 



310 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Other companies and communities could well follow this exam- 
ple in helping to build a greater North Carolina — a North Caro- 
lina ever going forward. 



THE NATION PROSPERS UNDER DEMOCRATIC 

LEADERSHIP 

Address Delivered At The Nash County Harvest Day Festival 

Nashville 
October 10, 1952 
Mr. Chairman, Ladies, and Gentlemen: 

It is entirely fitting that the Nash County Harvest Day Festival 
should have as its principal speaker the young man 1 we had just 
heard. He grew up in an atmosphere dedicated to bringing the 
blessings of plenty to all the people. His talk was an inspiring one, 
and he proved his right to bear the magic name, Roosevelt. 

Two decades ago his father, Franklin D. Roosevelt, a smile on his 
face, a song in his heart, and conviction in his voice, kept his ap- 
pointment with history. 

Hooverism and Republicanism had brought America to the very 
brink of economic ruin and spiritual despair. 

The sound of the auctioneer's hammer was heard more often 
than the carpenter's hammer. 

The whine of hungry children outweighed the whine of industry's 
machinery. 

Creaking "Hoover carts" were crowding automobiles off the high- 
ways. 

Tobacco was selling for less than ten cents a pound, and cotton 
went begging for buyers. 

The people everywhere were groping in economic darkness and 
seeking a leader to show them the way to a better standard of living 
and security. 

And then there arose the towering figure of Franklin Delano 
Roosevelt to tell the nation that it had nothing to fear but fear it- 
self. 

Standing on the platform of the Democratic party he told the 
discouraged Republican-burnt public that the party of Jefferson, 
Jackson, and Wilson could, and would, remedy their ills. 

franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr., Representative from New York's 20th Congressional District, 
addressed the fifth annual Nash County Harvest Festival, October 10th. The News and Observer, 
October 11, 1952. 



Addresses 311 

By a landslide the people gave him and the Democratic party 
their vote of confidence. 

Franklin Roosevelt had kept his first appointment with destiny. 

Under his leadership and working within the framework of the 
Democratic party, the land became prosperous and the standard of 
living for all reached all time heights. 

It was positively demonstrated that the Democratic party is the 
party of prosperity and the party of the common man. For twenty 
years proof of this has piled upon proof. 

We, as a people, have come to regard as commonplace the blessing 
of prosperity and economic security, forgetting the titanic battles of 
yesterday with the forces of Republican greed that brought on the 
great Hoover depression. 

Besides the immortal Franklin D. Roosevelt and his illustrious 
son who is here with us today, the Empire State has produced at 
the other extreme the most ridiculous political figure of the century. 
I refer to Thomas E. Dewey. 

Twice Governor Dewey, who has all the bounce of a rubber ball, 
has been the Republican candidate for President. Four years ago he 
had even made plans for remodeling the White House and is said to 
have already written his inaugural address. 

When the votes were all counted not even those of the Gallup 
poll were enough, and bouncing Tom had been slapped again. 

Just the other day, smarting under the humiliation of Senator 
Taft having supplanted him in the affections of General Eisenhower, 
Governor Dewey came up with a formula which he guaranteed 
would assure a Republican victory. He proposed that Governor 
Stevenson and Senator Sparkman resign as the Democratic candi- 
dates. Well, that is one way, and the only way, the Republicans could 
win. 

The Republicans are offering a likeable general who every day 
is making it more obvious that he has had no training in civilian 
affairs and has no concept of the science of government or of the 
needs of the people. They are saying it is time for a change. A 
change to what? Confusion! 

The Democrats, on the other hand, are offering a man whose 
outstanding ability as an administrator of civilian affairs has been 
proved; a man who has shown no hesitation about frankly and in- 
telligently discussing the issues which confront the nation. Under 
the leadership of Governor Adlai E. Stevenson, who is fighting the 



312 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

people's fight in the best traditions of the Democratic party, we are 
headed for another great victory on November 4. 



ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN THE SOUTH 

Address Delivered Over Radio Station WMFR 

High Point 

October 28, 1952 

Fellow Democrats and fellow voters of North Carolina: 

In this land of ours, this land we call America, we have the 
privilege of deciding each four years the kind of government we 
want to live under, and the opportunity of expressing our individual 
choice. 

Here in the South, and particularly in North Carolina, we take 
second place to none in our devotion to the ideals and heritages 
our forefathers and mothers handed down to us. We do not give 
blind devotion; rather we keep before us those ideals, and then 
intelligently measure men and political parties by them. 

In that atmosphere we have followed the inspired leadership of 
Wilson, Roosevelt, and Truman. By the same formula we are reach- 
ing our decision to march victoriously behind the banner of Adlai 
E. Stevenson. 

North Carolina men and women are not easy to fool. The misery 
and heartache that have flowed since Civil War days out of Republi- 
can administrations in Washington left scars that have not yet 
healed. 

Let us review what North Carolina and the South were like in 
1860 when the Republican party embarked upon its long continued 
scheme to keep the eleven southern states, including North Caro- 
lina, in political and economic bondage. 

In 1860 thirty-six per cent of the nation's total wealth was in the 
South. 

Seventy years and thirteen Republican presidents later, in 1930, 
the story was quite different. Only eleven per cent of the nation's 
wealth was in the South. 

Imagine the change! The South's share of the national wealth 
had dropped in seventy years from thirty-six per cent to eleven per 
cent. Such a decrease seems inconceivable, but it is truly verified by 
history. 

History, the written record that cannot be changed, shows that 
the Republican party, callous and indifferent to the cries of bleeding 



Addresses 313 

and hungry humanity, saddled a special mortgage on North Carolina 
and the South for seventy years! 

Let's not forget that one of those thirteen Republican presidents 
was a professional soldier, a famous and victorious army general who 
had been associated about the same time with another general who 
was just a little careless with fire on his march through Georgia and 
the Carolinas. 

A land area considerably larger than most foreign countries lay 
desolate and in smoldering ruins. 

And there was no Marshall Plan back in the days when General 
Sherman was dropping matches through the heart of the Southland. 
There was no Point Four and no CARE organization. There was not 
even sympathy, understanding, or mercy. 

I have no doubt, had President Lincoln lived, that the South 
would have had some kind of a Marshall Plan to help bridge over 
its economic disaster. Unfortunately, for the South and for all 
America, "Honest Abe" was assassinated. 

And then what happened? Why, just as soon as they possibly 
could, the Republicans nominated and elected as President of the 
United States a professional soldier, the five-star general of his day. 
They even used bayonets in the South to assure his election. 

What a tragedy that turned out to be. What a mockery and 
failure the professional soldier became in civilian government. 

A great American historian and Princeton University scholar, in 
describing the presidential administration of General U. S. Grant, 
wrote that the nation soon began to see, "how impotent the amiable 
soldier they had put at the head of the government was to guide or 
better it." 

This same historian, in 1902, wrote in his A History of the Ameri- 
can People that during General Grant's administration many things 
happened to stir the country which "made Congress seem corrupt 
and the party which controlled it [the Republican party] without a 
watchful sense of honor." 

Three members of the Republican Congress and United States 
Senate were found to deliberately have engaged in transactions which 
touched their integrity and honor. Personal interests and pocket- 
books came ahead of public honor and public service. 

Accustomed to the forthrightness and discipline of military life, 
General Grant, through no fault of his own, since he had been 
trained in that atmosphere, was a soft tool in the hands of the wily 
professional politicians and big businessmen who controlled many 
of the so-called public servants of his day. 



314 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

The New York stockbrokers, we refer to them today as Wall 
Street, and their political friends in General Grant's administration, 
greedy for more wealth, dreamed up a vicious scheme to corner the 
gold market. The success of their scheme depended upon feeding 
the general false arguments based upon claims of public policy and 
public good. 

Finally came the day of reckoning, "Black Friday," and the busi- 
ness structure of America toppled. 

The once victorious general, untrained to cope with civilian and 
business matters, realized too late that he had been tricked and the 
nation plundered. He took the only course then open to him and 
ordered treasury gold reserves sold on the public market. His action 
came too late. The Republican politicians and their big business 
masters had plunged America into the panic of 1869 which has been 
exceeded in severity only by the Hoover depression of 1929. 

In fairness to the memory of the amiable and impotent General 
Grant, historian Wilson describes his ultimate retirement from the 
Presidency in the following language, "The quiet figure of the retir- 
ing President began to seem almost like a figure lingering out of an 
age gone by. The honest, simple-hearted soldier had not added 
prestige to the Presidential office. He himself knew he had failed. 
He had come to a great office untrained in civilian affairs." 

That, my friends, is history's evaluation of a great general un- 
trained in civilian affairs. 

Is history going to repeat itself? Is America going to elect to the 
presidency another amiable general — untrained in civilian affairs? 

Of course, we like Ike in North Carolina. I like the men who 
milk my cows. They have been trained for it and do a good job. We 
like Ike as a victorious general, who, with the aid of a lot of ser- 
geants, corporals, and privates, turned back the forces of aggression 
in Europe, but I can't see him as President of the United States. He 
has not been trained for that job. 

General Eisenhower, like General Grant before him, seems to be 
confused and rattled when he takes off his uniform. He has changed, 
and has changed friends a lot, since the Republican convention in 
Chicago. In the "Windy City" we were treated to the spectacle of 
Governor Dewey leading the General Eisenhower crusade. 

At that same Chicago convention, Senator Taft, Mr. Republican 
himself, was shouting from the housetops that General Ike was 
untrained to do anything except give and take military orders. 

Now all that is changed, and there has been a reversal of posi- 
tions among the chief GOP elephant tenders and trainers. 



Addresses 315 

The New York governor is frantically swinging onto the ele- 
phant's tail. 

Senator McCarthy is shouting all kinds of foul things about 
General George C. Marshall in one ear of the animal, and a motley 
crew of modern-day carpetbaggers and camp followers is whispering 
in the other. 

And all the while Senator Taft, a sour expression on his face, is 
feeding the candidate peanuts filled with all kinds of sugar-coated 
confections. 

All this confusion would be funny, if it were not so tragic and so 
dangerous to the future of the country. 

General Eisenhower, wearing his boyish grin, swinging his arms 
like the blades of a windmill, and looking out of place without a 
uniform, is now promising all things to all men. He promises, de- 
pending upon what part of the nation he is speaking in, to 
strengthen the Taft-Hartley Act, and to water it down. 

He promises to reduce government spending and at the same 
time increase government activities. 

He promises to clean up government and at the same time con- 
dones officials accepting favors and money from seekers of govern- 
mental favors. 

So far he has remained constant to his opposition to Commu- 
nism. 

What an amiable but untrained-in-civilian-affairs Houdini the 
general has turned out to be. How Senator Taft must be laughing 
up his sleeve as he sees his preconvention evaluation of the general 
proven. Senator Taft has even convinced the general that "Nixon- 
ism" is good. 

The general has publicly adopted Hollywood's contribution to 
American politics. He says Senator Nixon is his boy. I am still con- 
fused, however, because the general switches advisors so fast I am 
not sure just whose boy he is and who his political father would be 
should he be elected. 

I just can't be sure about a man who suggests that all Democrats 
who own refrigerators or more than one war savings bond are 
crooked, and on the other hand endorses and praises the actions of 
his running mate, Senator Nixon. 

And while we are on the subject of "Nixonism," let me say that 
I agree with Senator Nixon that cocker spaniels are fine dogs and 
that there is no reason for him to hurt the feelings of his admirer 
in Texas who sent him one by returning it. 



316 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

On the other hand, every Californian I have ever met has insisted 
there is no climate like California climate. Checkers, therefore, 
should have the advantage of living in California, and all dog lovers 
should go to the polls on November 4, and help him escape the 
indignity and disadvantage of a dog's life in Washington. 

Now, as I said before, here in North Carolina we have an affec- 
tion for General Eisenhower, and we praise his recognized military 
qualities. But we fear him when he gets out of the role for which 
he has been trained. 

His whistle-stop remark in Charlotte about lifting a political 
mortgage, knowing as we do all about the Republican party's eco- 
nomic mortgages, frightens us to the core. Bitter experience has 
taught us that eighty-odd years is a long time to pay on one. 

We remember twenty years ago, and we are not going to trade 
our birthright and loyalties for a mess of pottage. We don't, and we 
can't trust neither the cooks nor the ingredients the Republican 
party uses in its broth. 

The early thirties are vivid in my memory. Hooverism and Re- 
publicanism had brought America to the very brink of economic 
ruin and spiritual despair. 

The sound of the auctioneer's hammer was heard more often 
than the carpenter's hammer. 

The whine of hungry children drowned out the whine of indus- 
trial machinery. 

Fourteen million industrial workers were without jobs. 

Creaking "Hoover carts" were more numerous on the highways 
than automobiles. 

Tobacco was selling for less than ten cents a pound, and cotton 
went begging for buyers. 

The people everywhere were groping in economic darkness and 
seeking a leader to show them the way to a better standard of living 
and security. 

And then there arose the towering figure of Franklin Delano 
Roosevelt to tell the nation that it had nothing to fear but fear 
itself. 

Standing on the platform of the Democratic party, he told a dis- 
couraged and bankrupt Republican-burnt public that the party of 
Jefferson, Jackson, and Wilson could, and would, remedy their ills 
and make life worth-while once more. 

By a landslide the people gave him and the Democratic party 
their complete vote of confidence. That confidence has never been 
betrayed. 



Addresses 317 

For a time soon after President Roosevelt's inauguration, I had 
more than 2,700 volunteer workers assisting me in adjusting the 
land debts of farmers in all the southern states except Mississippi. 
It was a heart-rending task. Economic ruin, want, hunger, and 
despair were on every side and around every turn in the road. 

Reading in the newspapers that there were breadlines in the 
larger cities throughout the nation and that misery stalked the land 
from one end to the other was no solace and did not soften in the 
least the ringing blows of the auctioneer's hammer. 

Then slowly North Carolina, and the rest of the South, began 
to rise out of their despair, poverty, and economic hopelessness. 

By 1950 the South's wealth, the comparative measure of its 
standard of living and relative place in the community of states, 
had risen from eleven per cent of the nation's wealth in 1930 to 
seventeen per cent of the nation's wealth in 1950. 

North Carolina and the South at long last were on the march 
toward a better way of life, and toward realization of the economic 
benefits and security that are the keystone of the Democratic party. 

That, my friends, is another compelling reason why North Caro- 
lina and the rest of the South will vote for Stevenson and Sparkman. 

Yes, North Carolina, where men and women still breathe free 
air and are nourished on the virtue of loyalty, will plow to the end 
of the victory row with and in the Democratic party. 

Self-interest demands it, patriotism pleads for it, intelligent rea- 
soning overwhelmingly justifies it. 

In Stevenson and Sparkman we have candidates for President and 
Vice President who have been trained in the science of government 
and who are pledged to the great humanitarian principles of the 
Democratic party. 

In Eisenhower and Nixon the Republicans are offering a glam- 
orous five-star general without experience in government and a first- 
term senator who was forced to admit he has accepted money from 
private sources interested in how he votes in the Senate. 

I would be negligent in my duty as a citizen did I not point out 
that those short-sighted people who call themselves "Eisenhower 
Democrats" are sailing under false colors. 

On November 4, if they vote, they will come face to face with 
the hard, cold fact that if they vote for General Eisenhower they 
will have to vote in the Republican column of the ballot. And, at 
the same time, the self-styled "Eisenhower Democrats" will be vot- 
ing for and endorsing the actions of Senator Nixon. They can't 
vote for Eisenhower without also voting for Nixon. 



318 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

On November 4 those of us who go in and cast our ballots for 
Stevenson and Sparkman will not have to compromise with prin- 
ciple or with our consciences. 

On that day I shall vote a straight Democratic ticket from top 
to bottom. I urge you to do likewise, you will never regret it. 



WATER DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH CAROLINA 

Address Delivered At The Conservation Congress Of The 

North Carolina Department Of Conservation And Development 

Raleigh 
November 19, 1952 

North Carolina is bountifully endowed with water resources. We 
have a long front on the Atlantic Ocean and a maze of inland water- 
ways along the coast. Countless streams crisscross our map from the 
seacoast to the mountains. Our state is blessed with abundant rain- 
fall. 

With this blessing of water, as with other natural resources, we 
inherit a heavy responsibility, the responsibility to protect and con- 
serve our water resources, to develop them and put them to work 
for the benefit of all our people. 

How have we measured up to that responsibility? 

We must admit, in all truthfulness, that we have fallen short. 
We have taken these God-given water resources too much for granted, 
overlooking the fact that they are weakened through neglect and 
abuse. We have allowed them largely to lie idle. 

Let us consider together the challenge of water resource develop- 
ment and see some places where we are falling down on the job. 

During the past summer we suffered one of the most disastrous 
droughts in our history. Estimates of actual crop damage in North 
Carolina range up to two hundred million dollars, or the loss of one- 
fifth or more of farm income for 1952. 

Side by side in the daily newspapers last summer appeared two 
stories. One told of hundred-degree temperatures and no rain for 
weeks; the other told how a few farmers, here and there, were making 
bumper crops as a result of irrigation practices. This has the effect of 
at least casting a shadow of doubt on Mark Twain's famous state- 
ment that everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does any- 
thing about it. A few people in North Carolina are doing some- 
thing about it. 




Governor W. Kerr Scott was introduced to the National 4-H Club delegation in Chicago during 
the 29th Annual Congress (November 28, 1950) by Miss Joy Alexander, sixteen-year-old 4-H Club 
girl from Burns Flat, Washita County, Oklahoma, a national winner in Girl's Record contest. Joy 
was a senior in Burns Flat High School and had been active in 4-H Club work for seven years dur- 
ing which time she had completed eighty-four projects for a total income of more than $9,500. 



Addresses 319 

A generous Creator endowed North Carolina with a network of 
streams that can be dammed to supply a plentiful reserve of water 
for times of need. In the past few years, more than ten thousand 
farm fishponds have been fashioned. With proper equipment that 
is relatively cheap in original cost, many acres on a large number of 
farms could be made highly productive during dry spells by irrigation 
of lands adjacent to ponds. 

It is estimated that today approximately ten thousand North 
Carolina acres are being irrigated. In this acreage is included to- 
bacco, pasture, orchards, hay, and truck crops. A study of weather 
records indicates that dry periods in which irrigation would greatly 
help most of our crops occur in at least nine out of ten growing sea- 
sons. 

Water is not only the lifeblood of agriculture; it also is the most 
important factor in the life and well-being of the city dweller. 
Cities simply cannot exist without an abundance of water. Disease 
and death stalk the streets of the city deprived of an adequate sup- 
ply of water. Industry dries up and withers away in the community 
which continues short in its water supply. 

Parched fields and water-stricken cities, with drastic restrictions 
upon the use of this precious fluid which falls free out of the skies, 
are living proof that we have not planned intelligently in the con- 
servation and use of our water resources. 

As our scientists seek to peer behind the veil of the future, they 
are confronted with visions of even greater demands upon our wa- 
ter resources and are convinced of the necessity of conservation and 
re-use. 

The age of air conditioning is dawning. Air conditioning — 
making homes, in city or country, stores, factories, and offices com- 
fortable in the summertime — is just as important as keeping them 
warm in the winter. Air conditioning can no longer be considered 
a luxury; it is truly as much a necessity as heat is in the winter. 

Recently, a bank president told me that his board of directors 
had set up a policy of making just as liberal loans for the purchase 
of air conditioning equipment as for heating equipment. This is as 
it should be, and I am glad to see the bankers recognizing this need 
of the people. 

Tremendous quantities of water are required to operate efficiently 
the larger air conditioning units; and as their installation gains 
momentum, cities and towns are going to be hard put to meet the in- 



320 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

creased demand unless supplies and reserves are expanded before 
the hour of absolute need arrives. 

We are face to face with a water conservation and use problem 
that we must work out if we are to continue to grow agriculturally, 
and in home comfort. City and country people alike have a stake in 
this matter. All will be benefited by a solution. 

Man's use of water is practically unlimited, and year by year 
the per capita utilization is growing by leaps and bounds. The 
greatest increase in utilization in the past two or three decades has 
been in the industrial field. For instance, I am told that it requires 
60,000 gallons of water to manufacture one ton of steel, and an amaz- 
ing 250,000 gallons of water to make one ton of nylon. 

But it is not in cities and industrial plants alone that the de- 
mand for more and more water is heard. The story is the same on 
the farm. In the old days when water for the home was raised by a 
hand pump or even by a more labor-demanding windlass, use of wa- 
ter was held to a minimum. That was the age of the Saturday night 
tin tub bath and the water bucket. 

Today, the electric pump does the chore; and the story is different. 
The water bucket, the dipper, and the gourd have joined grandma's 
bustle and grandpa's mustache cup. You turn the faucet, and wa- 
ter flows freely. 

Running water — lots of running water in the farm house — is 
the rule rather than the exception. Federal loan agencies refuse to 
finance the building or purchase of a farm home that does not have 
running water. They recognize that a home without running water is 
a white elephant. 

A great mistake of the past has been our negligence in harnessing 
the destructive power of water. Erosion of the soil takes a heavy toll, 
annually wiping out millions of dollars in soil fertility and produc- 
tive capacity. Flood waters that could be controlled wash away low- 
land crops and cause untold damage in cities located upon river 
banks. Location of industrial plants is influenced materially by 
flood records. Good judgment demands that industrial plants cost- 
ing millions of dollars be placed where the raging waters of a flash 
flood cannot reach. An industrial plant site could have all the ad- 
vantage of nearby labor supply, ideal transportation conditions, cli- 
mate, and nearness to raw material, and yet, be worthless because it is 
in a potential flood area. 

The challenge of water resources has many sides, but the answer 
to most of them is simple and relatively easy to set to work. The 



Addresses 321 

conservation, control, and intelligent use of water start in the hills 
where big rivers are born. Terracing, contour plowing, and the 
construction of flood-control dams are the first steps. 

Reforestation of barren and eroded hills is another investment 
in conservation. Destruction of nature's hillside blotters to absorb 
rainfall has aggravated the damaging force of flash floods. It has also 
contributed mightily to soil erosion. Reforestation is an investment 
that will pay rich dividends down through the years long after the 
original investment has been returned in full ten times over. 

Flood-control dams, if wisely located and properly planned, can 
and will pay dividends through their by-products. One of these div- 
idends is the production of hydroelectric power as a by-product. 

As we face this problem, we should keep before our eyes the basic 
fact that what is good for some of the people of the state benefits 
all the people, and that down east along the North Carolina shore- 
line — which incidentally is the longest of any state in the union — 
there awaits a golden opportunity and economic challenge. 

Under present laws, rules, and regulations operators of private 
and commercial boats and ships that ply the waterways of North 
Carolina are rebated the tax on the gasoline used in their marine 
engines. A study of the gasoline tax refunds in the eighteen counties 
which border the coastline shows that marine engine gasoline tax 
revenues amount to approximately $225,000 a year. 

This sum might well be retained by the state and used in dredging 
and otherwise improving the waterways and channels to provide 
more fruitful fishing and recreational opportunities. 

The state's seafood industry, important to those who depend upon 
it for their daily bread and to those of us who relish and delight in 
fresh seafood, could easily be doubled — yes, tripled in volume. And 
this increase could be accomplished without cost to the general public. 

It might be well to create a North Carolina Maritime Authority 
and charge it with the development and maintenance of our water- 
ways in the same manner as the State Highway and Public Works 
Commission is charged with the development and maintenance of 
the highways. Activities of such a Maritime Authority could be sup- 
ported exactly in the same manner as activities of the Highway Com- 
mission are supported — by gasoline taxes paid by the users of the 
facility. 

Other benefits will flow from the modernization and improve- 
ment of the state's marine highways: Recreation and health-building 
opportunities for all the people of North Carolina; and a substantial 



322 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

increase in the tourist dollars left in our state by the five thousand 
out-of-state boat owners who annually travel North Carolina's In- 
land Waterways. 

Transportation by water is older than recorded history, but 
modern methods of transportation have not outmoded the water 
lanes and their importance in the economy of the twentieth century. 
The General Assembly of 1949 provided funds for the construction 
of up-to-date port facilities at Morehead City and Wilmington. Dedi- 
cation ceremonies were held recently to mark completion of this $7,- 
500,000 joint program. 

At this stage of our ports program, we face another challenge in 
an effort to build a greater North Carolina. 

The acceptance or non-acceptance of that challenge, will be vitally 
important in deciding our future. At these ports, silent dockside 
winches and merchandise-empty and bat-filled warehouses can be- 
come, and will become, the order of tomorrow unless the same vision 
and good judgment that brought about their construction is exercised 
in developing and keeping them busy in service to the economy of 
North Carolina. 

These facilities — these piles of concrete and steel, and the serv- 
ices they are capable of rendering — are in Wilmington and More- 
head City, but they belong, also, to all the people of North Carolina. 
They have been built to serve the entire economy of North Caro- 
lina by furnishing an outlet to the seven seas and the lands that lie 
beyond. 

Therefore, no one should assume that the building and dedica- 
tion of these facilities finishes the job. No. The job is far from 
finished. The entire citizenry of our state, over four million strong, 
must become promoters in the never-ending quest for new and ex- 
panded industries — industries to process the raw materials from 
faraway places which now can flow cheaply into North Carolina — 
industries which will export to the other peoples of the world ma- 
terials processed by North Carolinians. 

The policies governing the operation of these ports, which will be 
adopted by the Ports Authority, must, to be effective, have the full 
cooperation of all our people. Only with administration of sound 
policies, and wholehearted public cooperation, can the develop- 
ment of these facilities justify and fulfill the confidence of the people 
from all sections of North Carolina who have made their construc- 
tion possible. 



Addresses 323 

There is another factor that goes into the success or failure of 
ports which is the responsibility of our people. That is the matter 
of feeder ports, small inland ports for the transshipment of import 
and export commodities. 

Development of feeder ports up and down the eastern rivers of 
North Carolina and along the Inland Waterways — at Southport, 
Fayetteville, Washington, Belhaven, and Greenville, to mention 
only a few important potential sites — can, and in all probability 
will, mean the difference between a hand-to-mouth existence and 
success such as we dream of for the ports of Wilmington and More- 
head City. 

Just recently new studies have indicated the possibility of open- 
ing up important sources of revenue to the grain growers of North 
Carolina. They are growing the grain, but are faced with transporta- 
tion problems which reduce their take-home revenue. 

These problems can be largely solved by development of an 
over-all feeder port system and the installation of grain handling 
facilities at the Morehead City and Wilmington ports. In the end 
this would result in our grain growers receiving considerably more 
for their products. 

That, of course, is just one part of the picture. 

We are fortunate, as a state, to have in our possession such a long 
shoreline and so many inland and coastal feeder port sites. To 
neglect their potentialities would clearly be economic folly. 

As we look on this challange, let us not think the task is a simple 
one. Difficulties lie ahead. At the moment we cannot look to Wash- 
ington for the federal assistance which under normal conditions goes 
to the development of rivers, harbors, and ports. Funds of that 
sort are now being poured into the national defense effort. 

We must rely upon our own resources, upon our own ability 
to develop and finance worth-while projects that will tie up the loose 
ends of our economic fabric. This we can do with proper leadership 
and with determination to work together for the common good. What 
is needed is an over-all plan of river-waterway-port development, and 
the development of a spirit of goodwill among individual communities 
that have a contribution to offer in the picture of a greater North 
Carolina — a North Carolina ever going forward. 



324 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

SERVICE TO ALL THE PEOPLE 

Address 1 Delivered Over The Radio 

Raleigh 

December 30, 1952 

As I turn over to my successor the duties, obligations, and privi- 
leges of the governorship of North Carolina, I realize anew the op- 
portunity for service to all the people that the office offers. 

Looking backward at the administration which it has been my 
honor to head, I am convinced that we were eternally right in recog- 
nizing and implementing the desire of the people for better roads, 
better schools, increased health and hospital facilities, and access 
to electric and telephone services. 

Dollars, in themselves, are meaningless; it is the objects and the 
services they will buy that make them valuable. 

The objective of the "Go Forward" program of the past four 
years has been to invest the public's dollars and the time of public 
servants in meeting the backlog of human needs that had grown 
up in our state. 

All available dollars were put to work — put to work for the 
benefit of all the people in the construction of roads, schoolhouses 
and hospitals; and those not needed to meet current bills were in- 
vested in government securities which have paid into the public 
treasury $10,315,447.58. 

More than $430,000,000 has been invested in the construction, im- 
provement, and maintenance of our highway system and city streets 
— a great deal more than was ever devoted to this purpose in any 
similar period. 

One hundred and seventy-five million dollars of the $200,000,000 
secondary road bond money voted by the people has paid for more 
than 12,000 miles of paved farm-to-city roads. The $25,000,000 balance 
of the secondary road bond money remains to be invested in addition- 
al farm-to-city roads; and already $17,600,000 of the first issued 
secondary road bonds have been paid off. 

Altogether 14,810 miles of hard-surfaced roads and highways have 
been paved during the four-year period, which is 179 more miles 
than all roads paved in North Carolina in all the years previous to 
1949. 

Four-lane expressways connecting our larger cities are under con- 
struction on our most travelled highways, and the money is available 
to pay for the completed job. 



^he same address was delivered over television from Greensboro, December 21, 1952. 



Addresses 325 

During the four years 4,096 new bridges have been built and 7,865 
new culverts of 36-inch pipe or larger have been installed, and on 
the country road system 13,902.81 miles have been stabilized for all- 
weather use by applying stone, gravel, sand, or clay. 

The school building program we embarked upon in the early 
days of the administration is providing 8,000 new classrooms, 175 
gymnasiums, and 350 new lunchrooms. 

Through operation of the annual appropriation of $550,000 for 
a state-wide public school health program, initiated the first year of 
the "Go Forward" administration, thousands of chronic defects of 
children have been found, diagnosed and corrected before permanent 
injury was done. 

The teacher load has been reduced, and cost of living salary in- 
creases provided for teachers. 

In the over-all health and medical care field, we have invested in 
77 new and improved hospitals, with 4,406 beds, in 73 of our 100 
counties. 

The mentally ill — that is the thousands of our men and women 
who require, either temporarily or permanently, custodial care — 
have not been neglected as dollars have been converted into human 
services. Larger investments in this area for maintenance and im- 
provement in the care and treatment of patients has been one of 
the orders of the day. 

We have invested, including federal and local participation in 
some projects, $331,339,843 in permanent improvements — badly 
needed schools, administrative buildings, hospitals, and college dor- 
mitories and classrooms. Slightly more than $43,000,000 has been in- 
vested in new buildings at Chapel Hill, Woman's College, and State 
College. Also included in this more than $330,000,000 permanent 
improvement investment is the $90,585,099 for mental, tubercular, 
spastic, orthopedic, and community hospitals. 

Public welfare has been humanized as much as possible in meet- 
ing the state's responsibilities to the aged, the infirm, and the children 
needing its protection. Today 162 licensed homes in fifty-two coun- 
ties are providing homelike living arrangements for approximately 
1,600 aged and infirm men and women; and custodial care is being 
given, in 414 licensed boarding homes, to mentally deficient and 
physically handicapped children who formerly faced a hopeless 
future. The educational training being provided them is serving as 
a pattern for other states. 

Under authority granted by the 1949 General Assembly, and 
with federal and local participation, we are providing assistance to 



326 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

5,500 permanently and totally disabled men and women. 

The tears and longings of suffering and needy humanity have 
helped to wash away the dollar sign in governmental thinking. 

In making all these investments in human services, services that 
touch the life of every man, woman, and child in North Carolina, 
it has not been necessary to impose new taxes or increase tax rates 
with one exception. That one exception is the one cent a gallon 
gasoline tax increase voted by the people themselves when they 
joined with the administration in the secondary road bond issue. 
And, as has been pointed out, $25,000,000 of the bond money has 
yet to be spent, and more than $17,000,000 of the bonds have already 
been paid off. 

And, in addition, my successor, when he takes office, will find a 
surplus in excess of $40,000,000 in the state treasury. 

No secret formula has been used by me and loyal co-workers in 
putting the taxpayers' dollars to work for all the people and accom- 
plishing what we have without any general tax rate increase or new 
taxes. 

Simple, old-fashioned economy, efficiency, and a continuing high 
level of economic activity made it possible. Four years ago the aver- 
age per capita income in North Carolina was $898; today, it is 
$1,052 and the financial experts and economists predict it will con- 
tinue to rise. 

In reviewing the past four years I am particularly pleased with 
the progress that has been made in making electric and telephone 
services available to thousands of rural homes, churches, schools, and 
places of business. Today for the first time in history, North Caro- 
lina is ahead of the national average in percentage of farms served 
with electricity. Those electric and telephone companies that have 
recognized their responsibility to provide area-wide service have 
earned their right to be called "public service" companies. 

All in all it has been a busy four years, and mistakes have been 
made from time to time in mechanical or administrative aspects of 
the over-all program. When such mistakes were detected, immedi- 
ate steps were taken to eradicate them if possible, and if not possible, 
to reduce to a minimum the ill effects of faulty judgment and keep 
a virile, vision-inspired team at work. 

It is hard to measure one accomplishment in the field of human 
services against the others. Each is important standing alone, and 
each interlocks into the others. 

On the other hand, I feel that the greatest impact of the last 
four years of state government most likely has been upon the reli- 



Addresses 327 

gious life of our people. Seventy-eight per cent of all church mem- 
bership in North Carolina is in our rural churches. Today these 
churches are alive with a new vigor and inspiration, and are build- 
ing a rich reservoir of trained leadership for rural and city areas 
alike. Paved roads, telephones, and electric lights have revitalized 
them and made them the center of rural life from the seacoast to the 
mountains. 

No nation, no state, and no community can be any stronger than 
its religious convictions and activities. North Carolina is strong and 
destined to grow in its recognition of this eternal fact. 

One-third of the people of North Carolina live and work in cities 
and towns. Another third live in the country and work in cities and 
towns, and the other third live and work on the farm. Their needs 
are the same; their hopes and ambitions held in common. It has 
been my constant endeavor to serve the needs of all the people. 



A GOVERNOR'S LAST LOOK 

Address Delivered Over A State-Wide Radio Network 

Raleigh 

December 30, 1952 

Fellow Citizens of North Carolina: 

From time to time during the past four years I have enjoyed, 
through the magic of radio, the privilege of having many talks with 
you. 

This is my final visit, as your governor, into your homes. Ten 
days from now a new administration will take over; and I am con- 
fident that it will continue to build upon the firm foundation laid, 
step by step, by succeeding administrations since the days of Governor 
Charles B. Aycock. 

The political structure that our forefathers fashioned is flexible 
and guarantees to the people the power to obtain for themselves and 
for their children the services and facilities they desire and feel they 
can afford. 

The people are sovereign. When the shouting and tumult is over, 
their expressed verdict always prevails. 

Oftentimes the thinking of the people is far ahead of that of 
their political leaders. This has been demonstrated time and time 
again. 



328 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

My recognition of this fact came more than thirty years ago. Some 
of you have wondered what forces worked, and what circumstances 
operated, to lead my feet along the path of the governorship. 

It was realization, shared by my Haw River community neighbors, 
of intolerable road and school attendance conditions that started my 
feet along that path. Political and social leadership was lagging far 
behind the needs of the people and the conscious longings of the 
masses of the people for better roads, better schools, adequate hos- 
pital and other health facilities, and access to electric and telephone 
services. 

When I think back upon what life was like in Alamance County 
years ago, I remember that my children and my neighbor's children 
walked two or three miles in snow, sleet, rain, and mud to drafty 
schoolhouses. At noontime they would eat cold and soggy sand- 
wiches that their mothers had prepared for them before daybreak. 

Sniffling colds, flu, sore throats, and pneumonia were the com- 
mon lot of all children in those days, leaving the little victims, in many 
instances, crippled for life. 

Going to church on Sunday was a struggle because the roads, for 
days at a time, were absolutely impassable even for buggies and 
wagons. 

When I became county agent of Alamance County, and later 
your commissioner of agriculture, and my geographic horizons ex- 
panded, I found that the same conditions existed elsewhere through- 
out the state. 

As we review the past let us not forget that two-thirds of North 
Carolina's population is rural; and that one-third live and work in 
the cities and towns; that another third live in the country and work 
in the cities and towns; and the other third both live and work on the 
farm. 

And let us also remember that what is bad for two-thirds of the 
people is bad for all; an impoverished, mud-tax afflicted, rural popu- 
lation makes poor customers for any trading center or metropolitan 
area. 

I became a candidate for governor because of these two convic- 
tions — that rural North Carolina was a land of forgotten people, 
and that what is bad for two-thirds of the people is bad for all. 

And now I am going to let you in on a little secret. For a quarter 
of a century I had been talking big around home how someone should 
run for governor on a platform pledged to do something for the 
rural people. Finally, Miss Mary — I don't know whether you know 



Addresses 329 

this or not, but I have called Mrs. Scott "Miss Mary" ever since our 
courting days more than thirty years ago — told me either to go on 
and run for governor or forget my dreams. 

I ran for governor; and you, the people, by your votes, breathed 
the breath of life into the "Go Forward" program. It has been your 
program since its inception; the program of rural and city people, 
recognizing inequalities, and dedicated to their correction. 

In developing and carrying out any program, teamwork of the 
highest order is needed. There is no proper place in government for 
either temperamental star performers or vision-lacking footdraggers. 

Mistakes have been made in some of the mechanical or administra- 
tive aspects of our "Go Forward" program. When such mistakes were 
detected, steps were taken to eradicate them, if this was possible; and 
if not possible, to reduce to a minimum the ill effects of faulty judg- 
ment. 

The lesson taught by the Parable of the Talents, found in the 
Bible, has been freely used in putting flesh and substance on the 
body of the "Go Forward" program. 

These buried talents, state funds not needed for day-to-day opera- 
tion of your government and state funds lying idle in banks, were 
dug up, invested, and have earned for you more than $10,000,000 in 
interest. 

Your tax dollars were put to work as rapidly as possible, with 
efficiency and economy, to fund the deficit in services that had ac- 
crued during World War II. 

With federal and local cooperation your state government has, 
in the last four years, invested over $331,000,000 in permanent im- 
provements — greatly needed schools, hospitals, and administrative 
buildings. 

We have built more roads in the last four years than any other 
state ever has in a like period. We have built both secondary and 
primary roads. You have only to look at new four-lane expressways 
being built on our most travelled highways connecting our larger 
cities to realize that our primary road system is not being neglected. 

The state has invested over $430,000,000 in construction, improve- 
ment, and maintenance of our highway system and city streets in the 
four years. This is more than ever devoted to this purpose in any 
similar period. 

One hundred seventy-five million dollars of the $200,000,000 sec- 
ondary road bond money, voted by you, has paid for more than 
twelve thousand miles of paved farm-to-city roads. Fourteen thou- 



330 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

sand additional miles of roads have been stabilized for all-weather 
use. The balance of the secondary road bond money remains for 
improvement of additional farm-to-city roads, and already more 
than $17,500,000 of the secondary road bonds have been paid off. 

The team you put to work four years ago also concerned itself 
with the public schools and the mental and physical health of the al- 
most 1,000,000 youngsters who attend them. The building program 
we embarked upon in the early days of the administration will pro- 
vide, when completed soon, 8,000 new classrooms, 175 gymnasiums, 
and 350 new lunchrooms. 

No longer are poorly heated schoolhouses the rule. Now spotlessly 
clean cafeterias provide our school children with warm, well-balanced, 
and nutritious noonday meals. 

Through operation of our annual appropriation of $550,000 
to provide a state-wide public school health program, thousands of 
chronic defects of children have been found, diagnosed, and cor- 
rected before permanent injury was done. 

We have not been neglectful in providing improved care for the 
mentally ill, the physically handicapped, and our aged men and 
women. Nor have we neglected the needs of those who live behind 
prison bars. 

In the over-all health and medical care field we have made un- 
precedented progress — seventy-seven new and improved hospitals, 
with 4,406 beds, in seventy-three of our 100 counties. 

All these things have been accomplished with only one tax rate 
increase, the one-cent-a-gallon gasoline tax levied by you, the peo- 
ple, to finance the $200,000,000 farm-to-city road project. 

And, in this connection let me remind you, there has been no new 
tax levied in North Carolina by any General Assembly since 1933. 

Faith of the investing public in North Carolina's governmental 
stability has been won and proved. The public has bought more 
than half a billion dollars in stocks and bonds of companies ex- 
panding their electric, telephone, and gas services in North Carolina. 

Industrial development has reached all-time heights. North 
Carolina sites have been selected for 401 new industrial plants with 
a total investment of $264,000,000 to give employment to 41,000 ad- 
ditional workers with annual payrolls of $100,000,000. 

The "Go Forward" program which you authorized by electing me 
as your governor, embracing as it does roads, schools, health, ports, 
electricity, telephones, agricultural and industrial progress, and fi- 
nancial stability, cannot be measured by a dollar and cents yardstick. 



Addresses 331 

It was conceived and built upon a foundation of human needs. 
Its mortar was the longing of human hearts for the better things of 
life for themselves and their children. 

Impetus has been given to the religious life of the state. Seventy- 
eight per cent of all church membership in North Carolina is in 
our rural churches. Today these churches are alive with a new vigor 
and inspiration and are building a rich reservoir of trained Christian 
leadership for rural and city areas alike. Paved roads, telephones, and 
electric lights have revitalized them and made them the center of 
community life in rural North Carolina from the seacoast to the 
mountains. 

Four years ago there were those among us who feared that we 
were embarking upon a spending spree that would wreck the state. 

The falseness of these fears and the shadows upon which they 
were based is proved by the fact that my successor, when he takes 
office, will find a surplus in excess of $40,000,000 in the state treasury. 

As I look back upon the past four busy years, I realize anew 
the importance of the part played by you, the people, in making 
possible the accomplishments of the period. Your letters, and more 
than 350,000 of you have written me one or more times, have been 
an inspiration to me and have kept me going forward even when 
the traveling was rough. 

The press and radio, sometimes critical and sometimes compli- 
mentary, have been most helpful. My friendships with members of 
these crafts have been cemented by our sparring and working to- 
gether to keep the public infomed in detail as to how its business 
was being conducted. 

I am grateful for the contributions to the over-all program that 
have been made by the industrial leaders of the state, particularly 
by those electric and telephone companies that have so successfully 
carried their services to thousands of rural homes, churches, schools, 
and places of business. 

I shall always remember the cooperation of members of the Coun- 
cil of State and also the unselfish service of the members of the team 
who worked with me to make the "Go Forward" program an instru- 
ment of service for all of you. Their advice and assistance has been 
invaluable. 

In the days to come, in the peace and quiet of my Haw River 
farm home, I shall look back and silently give thanks again for your 
having honored me by electing me your governor. 



332 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

But, and this I assure you, I shall not live in the past. I shall 
keep current with events to come. My devotion and dedication to 
North Carolina, our North Carolina ever on the march, will never 
end. 

And now, my friends, as we approach the end of the row that 
we have been ploughing together for the past four years, I wish for 
you, each and every one of you, a happy and prosperous New Year, 
and may the God of us all be with you and with North Carolina 
forever. 



STATEMENTS AND ARTICLES 
FOR THE PRESS 



ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROGRESS 1 

January 14, 1949 

While campaigning for the office of governor, I told the people 
of North Carolina I face the future with confidence. As governor, 
I reiterate that confidence. I believe North Carolina stands on the 
threshold of a period of unprecedented economic and social progress. 
What we need to do is to take the initiative to have this prosperity 
fully realized for our people. 

I have set this as the goal of my administration — and I believe 
it can be accomplished, if all the people strive together with a com- 
mon purpose. 

First of all, it might be wise to point out again that North Caro- 
lina is largely an agricultural state. Our largest income is derived 
from agricultural pursuits, and the great majority of our people are 
concerned with agriculture. Although this is true, we must also 
realize that North Carolina's highest welfare lies in the creation of 
a state well balanced between agriculture and industry. North Car- 
olina's chief executive should be equally interested in both groups 
and their increasing prosperity. I propose to make my administra- 
tion balanced to this end. At the same time I shall seek to elimin- 
ate certain inequities I have observed during a long career of public 
service. If, at the outset, I should seem more concerned with agri- 
cultural affairs, it will be because I feel agricultural interests need 
to be balanced on the scale. 

If I should seem to overemphasize agriculture, I hope my own 
sense of fair play will bring the scales back into balance. 

With this background in mind, I shall briefly outline the pattern 
of my "Go Forward" program which has a direct bearing on the 
industrial and business development of North Carolina. 

As a state composed of many small cities and towns sprinkled 
over a larger pattern of small farms, North Carolina seems ideally 
suited for developing a well-integrated agricultural and industrial 
society. If this potentiality is developed, we will be accomplishing 
one of the primary aims of all the planning for Atomic Age welfare 
— the dispersal of industry. 

If North Carolinians can live in their rural areas and at the 
same time have many of their number employed in industrial estab- 
lishments, then we will see the greatest period of prosperity ever 
anticipated for our region. Already this is being done in many 



iThis statement was prepared for and published in the Eighth Annual Business Review and 
Forecast Edition of The Charlotte Observer, February 8, 1949. 



336 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

places. Many of our citizens are living in the country and working 
in factories. But they cannot achieve this ideal situation unless, 
in their rural environment, they are provided with all the services 
to which they are entitled as citizens of North Carolina. I refer to 
roads for traveling to and from work; I refer to telephones for 
transacting their business in town; I refer to electricity and all the 
modern conveniences which will make them satisfied beyond the city 
limits. 

This constitutes a major phase of my "Go Forward" program. 
The program of bringing industry to the byways of North Carolina 
ties in directly with my program to launch in our state a new era 
of agricultural prosperity. I think you may readily see why such 
a program calls for a chief executive who, like the late O. Max 
Gardner, comes to the governor's chair seeing "the State of North 
Carolina as a whole." I hope I have made it clear that I assumed this 
office as the governor of all the people — and not of any special 
group. 

The rapidly advancing industrialization of our state is responsible 
in large measure for our unprecedented prosperity in recent years. 
Let me state again that I am opposed to any legislation unduly favor- 
ing or discriminating against legitimate business enterprise. I be- 
lieve in the free enterprise system and I want to help make it bring 
us new prosperity. 

I have noted with some gratification this month that the Sperry 
Corporation has enlarged its ownership of the Wright Automatic 
Machinery Company of Durham, thereby expressing new confidence 
in the soundness of this pioneer North Carolina industry. I believe 
we must seek new industry for North Carolina as the need for man- 
power on the farm decreases. Our people need new sources of em- 
ployment, and I believe the "Go Forward" program outlined in my 
inaugural address will help us find them. 

Business and industry can make important contributions to this 
program. Through the combined efforts of all our people I antici- 
pate the flowering of a new era of progress in North Carolina. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 337 

DANIELS TO NATIONAL COMMITTEE 

January 26, 1949 

I have noted the statement of the chairman of the State Demo- 
cratic Committee, Mr. Waynick, to the effect that the committee 
would welcome an expression of my views as to a successor to the 
late Senator Joe Blythe 1 as national committeeman. 

Several members of the committee have suggested that such ex- 
pression be made without delay. 

I am responding to these suggestions. 

I trust that the State Democratic Committee will see fit to recom- 
mend to the national committee the election of Mr. Jonathan 
Daniels. 2 The outstanding service rendered by Mr. Daniels to his 
party in the state and nation merits this recognition. In my judg- 
ment he would make a fine successor to our able and beloved nation- 
al committeeman whose death was such a distressing blow to us all. 



NORTH CAROLINA'S AGRICULTURAL PROBLEMS 3 

February 4, 1949 

The time has come for some fundamental thought and action 
regarding North Carolina's agricultural problems — not just for 
the sake of helping the farmer, but because these problems are of 
vital concern to the state as a whole. Agriculture is the warp of our 
economic fabric, and the cloth won't endure unless the warp is 
strong. 

A splendid analysis of our agricultural situation has been made 
by the Hilton Committee in its report known as "A Farm Program 
for North Carolina." This group, headed by Dr. J. H. Hilton, dean 
of agriculture at State College and director of the Experiment Sta- 
tion, has brought into focus some facts that we cannot afford to 
ignore. Here are some of those facts: 



Joseph Lee Blythe, son of Richard Samuel and Virginia (Gamble) Blythe, was born in 
Huntersville, North Carolina, November 8. 1890. He was a master engineer, senior grade, in 
the United States Army; vice president of the Blythe Brothers Company and of the Charlotte 
Equipment Company; senator from the 20th district in the General Assembly; and was State 
Director of Finance for the Democratic National Committee. Blythe died January 29, 1949. 
Jonathan Worth Daniels, son of Josephus and Addie Worth (Bagley) Daniels, was born 
in Raleigh, April 26, 1902. He received his A.B. and M.A. degrees from the University of North 
Carolina and attended law school at Columbia University. He began his newspaper career as a 
reporter on the Louisville (Ky. ) Times, going from there to The News and Observer. He was 
Washington correspondent for that paper for three years and in 1933 became editor. He served 
as assistant direcror of Civilian Defense and as an administrative assistant to President Roosevelt. 
He was Democratic National Committeeman from North Carolina from 1949 to 1953. Daniels 
is the author of Clash of Angels, A Southerner Discovers the South, A Southerner Discovers New 
England, Tar Heels: A Portrait of North Carolina, and Frontier on the Potomac. 
aThis article appeared in the "Farm Edition" of The News and Observer (Raleigh), February 
21, 1949. 



338 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Thirty-nine per cent of North Carolina's population of 3.5 mil- 
lion people are engaged in farming and another twenty-two per 
cent live in the country or in villages of less than 2,500 population. 
That means that sixty-one per cent of our people, or 2,181,000 of 
them, can be classed as rural. 

While North Carolina ranks second among the states in farm 
population, it is thirteenth in total cash farm receipts and thirty- 
eighth in individual cash farm income with an annual per capita 
average of only $550. This compares with per capita farm income 
of $3,554 in California, $1,617 in Florida, $1,236 in New York, 
$1,013 in rock-ribbed Vermont, and $905 in Texas. 

These figures, it should be remembered, represent gross cash 
income from farming, not net profits. Out of the $550 average for 
individuals engaged in farming in North Carolina must come the 
money that goes to buy feed, fertilizer, and implements, as well as 
food, clothing, and other necessities of living. 

"There are too many people on the land to afford them full-time 
employment," the Hilton Committee found. "There is an average 
of less than twenty acres of cropland per farm worker in the state. 
The average for the United States is fifty-four." 

The committee also pointed out that industries are "highly con- 
centrated in a few urban communities" and predicted that unem- 
ployment will increase on North Carolina farms as they become 
more mechanized. 

To overcome this situation and provide more profitable employ- 
ment for farm people, the Hilton Committee recommended that we 
hold our position in regard to the production of tobacco, cotton, 
and peanuts, which account for more than two-thirds of our cash 
farm receipts; increase our production of fruits, truck crops, grain and 
pastures; and turn more and more to livestock, especially dairy cattle, 
poultry, and hogs. The committee also advocated better care of farm 
forests, recommended improved marketing facilities for farm prod- 
ucts, and concluded with the statement that the state needs more 
industry to furnish full or part-time employment to people now 
living on farms. 

It is a sound program worthy of the support of all our interests. 
Farmers cannot be expected to put it into effect by themselves. 

First of all, they can't pull themselves out of the mud without 
the help of the state. The initial step in any program to improve 
agricultural conditions in North Carolina should be improvement 
of the roads over which the farmer must travel to carry his farm 
products to market. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 339 

The "mud tax" is doing more than any other single factor to 
block agricultural progress in North Carolina. Nearly a third of our 
people, most of them farmers, still live on dirt roads. Put these peo- 
ple on all-weather roads and we will have gone a long way toward 
solving our farm problems. 

One of our most urgent problems, one of importance to the city 
dweller as well as the farmer, is the shortage of milk. In order to 
meet current demands North Carolina has to import about a fourth 
of its fluid milk supply from other states, although our rate of con- 
sumption is considerably below the national average. This certainly 
is an unhealthy situation in more ways than agricultural. 

I am convinced, however, that good rural roads would do more 
than anything else to encourage our farmers to increase their milk 
production. As a dairyman living on a dirt road, I know that mud 
is one of the biggest obstacles the average milk producer has to 
overcome. 

What is true of milk is also true of some other farm products, 
especially the perishables. Bad transportation is a hazard retarding 
expansion of any crop that has to be marketed in a hurry. 

While a rural road program will help the farmer, it also will 
help our industries by providing them with a source of labor. The 
urban supply has been pretty well absorbed, and, more and more, 
new workers for our mills and factories are coming from rural areas. 
This is a happy situation, one that provides greater stability to our 
economy, and everything should be done to encourage it. 

Management and labor alike fare better when the worker has 
land of his own in the country and is not totally dependent on 
wages. 

Next to improved roads our rural residents need electricity and 
telephone service. Once these might have been regarded as con- 
veniences, but now they should be classed as necessities. The farmer 
even more than his urban neighbor needs the telephone to save 
precious time and effort, and electricity will reduce his drudgery, 
increase his productive capacity, and bring greater joy to life in 
the country. 

Great advances have been made in rural electrification since 
1935. The latest report of the state REA shows that as of July 1, 
last year North Carolina had 49,847 miles of rural electric lines 
serving 307,888 customers. In addition, there were more than 8,000 
miles of lines under construction or approved for construction. 

This represents splendid progress, but the job is still far from 
completion. There are still 96,586 farms in the state without electric 



340 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

service, and some rural lines built in past years are unable to meet 
the load of an ever-increasing demand for farm power. 

Our farmers, as the Hilton report points out, need to utilize 
their resources of labor and land to better advantage by developing 
a new and more diversified pattern of farming, one that will give 
them profitable employment for more days in the year. They need 
to get together with their neighbors in town and the country to 
work out better arrangements for processing and marketing farm 
commodities. 

Today, as in the years following World War I, North Carolina 
finds itself at the crossroads of decision in important matters of 
public policy that may determine the state's future development for 
many years to come. The farmer has much at stake in the final 
decisions and, I am confident, he will exercise his right and respon- 
sibility to share in them with judgment and wisdom. 

A quarter of a century or more ago North Carolinians chose 
the path of progress and there have been no regrets. Surely 
they will decide again to "Go Forward." 



AGRICULTURE — WARP OF OUR ECONOMIC FABRIC 1 

February 7, 1949 

The rank and file of the people of North Carolina believe that 
the time has come for some fundamental thought and action about 
our agricultural problems. This is true not simply for the sake of 
the farmer but because agricultural problems in North Caroilna in- 
fluence the livelihood and welfare of all our citizens. Agriculture is 
the warp of our economic fabric, and the cloth won't endure unless 
the warp is strong. 

Thirty-nine per cent of North Carolina's population of three 
and five-tenths million people are engaged in farming and another 
twenty-two per cent live in the country or in villages of less than 
2,500 population. That means that sixty-one per cent of our people, 
or 2,181,000 of them, are classed as rural. 

While North Carolina ranks second among the states in farm 
population, it is the thirteenth in total cash farm receipts and thirty- 
eighth in individual cash farm income with an annual per capita 
average of only $550. This compares with per capita farm income of 
$3,554 in California, $1,617 in Florida, $1,236 in New York, $1,013 
in rock-ribbed Vermont, and $905 in Texas. 



^This statement was prepared for and published in the annual "Farm and Poultry Digest" 
of The Charlotte Observer, March 2. 1949. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 341 

These figures represent gross cash income from farming, not net 
profits. Out of the $550 average for individuals engaged in farming 
in North Carolina must come the money that goes to buy feed, 
fertilizer, and implements, as well as food, clothing, and other neces- 
sities of life. 

A recent survey of North Carolina's farm needs shows that there 
are too many people on the land to afford them full-time employment. 
There is an average of less than twenty acres of cropland per farm 
worker in the state. The average for the United States is fifty-four. 

Our industries are on the whole concentrated in a few urban 
communities. Farm unemployment will increase in North Carolina 
as agricultural methods become more mechanized unless we find 
means of attracting industry to our rural regions and expanding our 
agricultural potential. 

This is the program I will champion during my administration. 
I want to make diversified farming more attractive to our citizens 
by extending to the rural areas those services they need. The project 
nearest my heart, as you probably already know, is the expansion 
of North Carolina's all-weather roads. I also want to extend the 
services of electricity and telephones to our rural regions — but 
good roads are more important than either of these. They will not 
only stimulate our largely rural population to greater economic 
activity; they will also allow industry to go into these areas and tap 
an unused labor supply. The "mud tax" is doing more than any 
other single factor to block agricultural and industrial expansion 
in our state. The initial step in any program to improve these con- 
ditions is the improvement of roads over which the farmer must 
carry his products to market and over which the workers in industry 
must travel to and from their employment. 

Take the milk situation as a typical example. The shortage of 
milk in North Carolina is one of our most urgent problems, im- 
portant to city and country people alike. In order to meet current 
demands, North Carolina has to import about a fourth of its fluid 
milk supply from other states although our rate of consumption is 
considerably below the national average. This is not a healthy 
situation in an agricultural state like North Carolina. 

I am convinced that good rural roads would do more than any- 
thing else to encourage our farmers to increase their milk production. 
I make this statement as a dairyman with a farm on a dirt road. 
What is true of milk is also true of other farm products, especially 
the perishables. Bad transportation is a hazard retarding expansion 
of any crop that needs to be marketed in a hurry. 



342 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Because I believe so firmly in the great economic prosperity that 
will come if North Carolina opens its rural areas by paving more 
country roads, I have proposed a $200,000,000 bond issue to do the 
job. I have also proposed that the state gasoline tax be increased 
by one cent to help carry this debt. I have recommended this pro- 
gram only after the most careful consideration. Technicians in the 
State Highway Commission assure me that such a program can be 
initiated and carried through in a business-like manner during the 
next four years. 

I have proposed this bond issue because I believe in North Caro- 
lina's future. But I also believe we need to make our own oppor- 
tunities. If we continue to move along on a cautious and conserva- 
tive pay-as-we-go basis, we may miss the golden opportunity of our 
generation. A new program of road building at this time will reap 
the same benefits we reaped here in North Carolina following Gover- 
nor Morrison's 1 bond issue program in the twenties. There was some 
reluctance in those days to undertake what appeared to be an overly 
ambitious program, but I have found very few North Carolinians 
who don't believe a great part of North Carolina's remarkable prog- 
ress during and immediately after that era came as a result of our 
good roads program. The vision of that program has been paid a 
hundredfold. I think we need the same vision in 1949. There are 
always people who spend so much of their time explaining why 
they can't accomplish a task they don't find time to do it at all. 

A quarter of a century ago North Carolinians chose the path of 
progress, and there have been no regrets. Surely they will see the 
wisdom of another "Go Forward" program in 1949. 



WELCOME TO FOREIGN STUDENTS 
February 21, 1949 

I am definitely interested in the strengthening of friendships 
between citizens of our state and the peoples of other lands. 

Having representatives of some twenty-three other countries in 
Raleigh attending our educational institutions is a privilege to which 
I attach great significance. 

It is my definite request that these students, temporarily in our 
midst, on returning to their native lands shall say to their relatives 
and friends that North Carolina desires to strengthen the ties of 



iCameron Morrison, governor 1921-1925. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 343 

friendship and courtesy, and a warm welcome awaits visitors from 
other lands. 



THE ROAD BOND ISSUE 1 
February 24, 1949 

I still believe the people of North Carolina want a $200,000,000 
road bond issue referendum, and I think it will take that much 
money to do the job. Any lesser amount will restrict the program 
and increase the growing friction between those people who have 
all-weather roads and those people who do not. 

If it is the sincere opinion of the Senate Roads Committee that the 
roads program as outlined by them is what the people of North 
Carolina need and want, then I respect that opinion. My position 
and feeling about the matter, however, have not changed. I think 
the people should have an opportunity to vote for or against a 
$200,000,000 bond issue program. 



NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION WEEK 

February, 1949 

The National Exchange Club is sponsoring the observance of the 
week of February 13-19, 1949, as National Crime Prevention Week. 

The Exchange Clubs of North Carolina are joining in this move- 
ment to direct attention of the people to the necessity of curbing 
our constantly increasing rate of crime. 

I commend the purpose of this endeavor and urge all citizens to 
cooperate with Exchange Clubs, law enforcement agencies, and all 
organizations enlisted in the cause of preventing crime. 



HIGHWAY SAFETY 

February, 1949 

As governor of the State of North Carolina, my chief concern is 
for the safety and welfare of our citizens, and I welcome this op- 
portunity of sending a message to the people of North Carolina 



1 The bill authorizing a $200,000,000 bond issue as advocated by Governor Scott had been 

amended several times, and The News and Observer wrote had "little resemblance to its original 

self." Governor Scott opposed these amendments but when the bill finally passed both houses 

of the General Assembly, he issued a statement accepting the anion of the General Assembly. 
See page 349. 



344 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

through the Motor Vehicle publication 1 concerning the all-import- 
ant problem of injury and death on our streets and highways. 

The most important thing in North Carolina and in any other state 
is conserving and saving human life. For many years I have given 
much thought to the question of accident prevention, particularly 
the prevention of accidents on our streets and highways in connec- 
tion with the operation of motor vehicles. This is one of the most 
positive challenges confronting our people today. 

The 1947 General Assembly made progress in passing a High- 
way Safety Act designed to cut down on the needless loss of life and 
property caused by highway accidents. Our people cooperated with 
this important program to the end that traffic fatalities have been 
reduced twenty-nine per cent during a two-year period. 

The records of the Department of Motor Vehicles show that over 
958,000 motor vehicles were registered in North Carolina during 
1948. This meant more cars, more drivers, and more miles of travel 
than ever before in the history of our state. We expect motor ve- 
hicles registration to reach the million mark in 1949, thereby in- 
creasing the exposure factor to highway accidents. I strongly urge 
that all citizens give their utmost cooperation to the safety program 
in order that 1949 will be the safest year on record for North Caro- 
lina. 

Highway Safety is the business of very citizen in this state. It is 
a personal problem, for an accident can happen to any of us. I urge 
every organization, both state and local, to exert its utmost influence 
in making our streets and highways safer places to travel. Let's "Go 
Forward" in safety! 



DEATH OF SENATOR J. M. BROUGHTON 
March 7, 1949 

North Carolina has suffered a shocking loss in the unexpected 
death of Senator Broughton. 2 

As governor during World War II, Melville Broughton proved 
his great capacity for leadership, and though he was privileged to 



r This message was published in The North Carolina Motor Vehicle, II ( January- February, 1949). 
Nos. 7-8. 

2 Joseph Melville Broughton, son of Joseph Melville and Sallie (Harris) Broughton, was 
born November 17. 1888, in Raleigh, North Carolina. He graduated from Hugh Morson Academy 
in 1906, and received an A.B. degree from Wake Forest College. He studied law at Harvard 
University from 1912 to 1913. For two years he taught school, then was a newspaper reporter. 
He later served as acting superintendent of public instruction for Wake County. Broughton was 
a member of the North Carolina Senate, 1927-1929; Governor of North Carolina, 1941-1945; 
elected to the United States Senate in 1948. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 345 

serve only a short time in the United States Senate, he established 
himself as an outstanding member of that body. 

Senator Broughton knew North Carolina and North Carolinians 
as few did, and few men have made a greater impression upon our 
state than he did. He contributed heavily to its progress and well- 
being, and by his death at the early age of sixty years, it may be 
said that he gave his life to the cause of a better state and a better 
nation. 



WILDLIFE RESTORATION WEEK 

March 19, 1949 

The people of North Carolina have long enjoyed the privileges 
of hunting and fishing and other outdoor recreation ranking among 
the finest in the nation. The time has come, however, to take stock 
of our wildlife and other natural resources and devote more and 
more attention to correlating land-use programs which will not only 
benefit our wildlife species, but which will serve to promote the 
welfare of this and future generations. 

The food we eat, the clothing we wear, all of the economic and 
cultural benefits we enjoy depend upon two things: natural re- 
sources and human energy. Continued depletion of our renewable 
natural resources will ultimately result in economic and cultural 
poverty. These are resources to be cherished, defended, and restored. 

The wildlife resources of this state, in dollars and cents value to 
the total wealth of the state, are of incalculable value. There is no 
measure of the value of wildlife. 

It is fitting that during National Wildlife Restoration Week, 
from March 20 through March 26, as well as during every week in 
the year, the citizens of this great commonwealth give special empha- 
sis to intelligent planning for continuing and improving our price- 
less wildlife resources. 



PATRIOTS' DAY 

March 28, 1949 



April 19 has long been celebrated in various states of our Union 
as Patriots' Day, to mark the anniversary of the battles of Lexington 
and Concord where "the embattled farmers stood and fired the shot 
heard round the world" in the cause of freedom. 



346 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

The critical state of the world today demands that the full force 
of every American be exerted toward strengthening this country's 
power for peace, and the strength of our nation depends upon the 
wise management of our economic resources, personal and national. 

The United States Savings Bonds program builds economic 
strength and stability for our nation and our people, and I deem it 
fitting as governor to urge the people of North Carolina to observe 
Tuesday, April 19, 1949, as Patriots' Day, to pay honor to the Minute 
Men of 1775 and all their successors who have served the cause of 
freedom and security throughout our history, and with them to 
honor the patriotic Minute Men and Women who are working today 
as volunteers in the Savings Bonds program in our state and their 
communities, knowing that only the strong can be free and only the 
productive and thrifty can be strong. 

I call upon the citizens of this state to make this Patriots' Day a 
day of rededication to thrift in their daily lives through the regular 
purchase of United States Savings Bonds on the payroll savings plan 
where they work, the bond-a-month plan where they bank, or at 
our banks and post offices, and by volunteering to serve as Minute 
Men in the 1949 Opportunity Savings Bonds Drive, May 16 through 
June 30, thus helping to fortify our people and our nation against 
whatever the future may bring and to create opportunity for better 
living in peace and continuing prosperity in this land of freedom. 



CANCER CONTROL MONTH 

April 1, 1949 

The tide of cancer continues to mount relentlessly throughout 
this state and the nation. Even the most pessimistic prior estimates 
of cancer deaths during recent years have fallen far short of the 
eventual number of cancer fatalities. 

But modern science has been mobilized against this ancient 
disease in scores of the nation's finest laboratories employing the 
keenest minds. Basic science is providing an evermore powerful 
array of weapons to beat this disease; medicine has demonstrated a 
vast improvement in the techniques of diagnosis and treatment of 
cancer. 

A beachhead has been established against this formidable enemy 
of all humans, because a considerable part of our citizenry have 
dedicated some of their time, their talents, and their money to the 



Statements and Articles for the Press 347 

American Cancer Society's program of research, education, and 
service. 

It is fitting that during April, Cancer Control Month, as well as 
during every month in the year, the people of North Carolina sup- 
port the effort now being made by the American Cancer Society to 
defeat this disease. 



THE CORN WAR 

April 2, 1949 



On February 16, the Honorable William M. Tuck, governor of 
Virginia, addressed a challenge to me. He declared that during 
1949 Virginia farmers would produce more corn per acre as com- 
pared to their 1937-1946 average than would North Carolina farmers. 

On the following day I accepted Governor Tuck's challenge. On 
behalf of the people of North Carolina I told him that he could 
rightfully be proud of the outstanding progress made by Virginia 
farmers in increasing their corn yields, but that here in North Caro- 
lina we have also been making outstanding progress. Our yields of 
1947 and 1948 were almost half again as large as the average for the 
preceding ten years. 

I accepted Governor Tuck's challenge upon the advice of the 
Agricultural Committee, composed of agricultural agencies, farm 
organizations, and business representatives. The committee assured 
me that our acceptance is well justified. 

Briefly, here are the terms of the contest. The years 1937 to 
1946 will serve as the base period. North Carolina's average corn 
yield during that period was 21.8 bushels per acre. Virginia's aver- 
age was 27.8. As our 1949 averages we have agreed to take the De- 
cember estimate of the United States Department of Agriculture 
Crop Reporting Service. 

To determine the winner, the 1937-1946 average yield for each 
state will be subtracted from the 1949 estimate. The state that has 
the largest increase in number of bushels per acre will be the winner. 

Today, as the corn planting season begins in eastern North Caro- 
lina, I appeal to all farmers to enter into this friendly competition 
with all seriousness. Needless for me to say, the trophy that will go 
to the winner is but a symbol — an inadequate symbol — of what 
more efficient farming can mean to our people. Though our motto 
is "Beat Virginia," our aim is to improve North Carolina. 



348 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Approximately one-third of the cultivated land in North Carolina 
is in corn. Yet corn accounts for less than two per cent of our cash 
farm income. Obviously, much of the acreage we have in corn is not 
even paying its own way. 

Our research men have demonstrated that corn yields of double 
or triple our present average can be grown on most of the farms of 
the state. They have also shown that high-yielding corn is the most 
profitable corn. For instance, the state corn champion last year 
produced corn at a cost of sixty-eight cents a bushel for fertilizer and 
labor. What he has done is no more than can be done by other 
farmers. 

This is a job that will take action on the part of every individual 
farmer. It will profit us little if just a few pitch in to grow the highest 
possible yields. The important thing is the farm and state average. 

When I accepted this challenge I counted on your support just 
as I have counted on it in the past. The next few weeks are the 
important ones. Get your corn in on time and follow the five steps 
recommended by your local farm leader. More corn on fewer acres 
— at less cost per bushel — can add to our farm prosperity as well 
as show Virginia farmers how to grow corn. 1 



ARMY DAY 

April 4, 1949 

By proclamation of the President of the United States, April 6, is 
designated for appropriate observance of Army Day. 

Throughout our history, the Army has stood as a mighty shield for 
the defense of our country and a deterrent to aggressors who would 
violate the peace. 

On April 6, by authority of the Commander-in-Chief, President 
Harry S. Truman, it is customary for military units throughout the 
United States to assist civic bodies in appropriate celebration of this 
event; and I deem it proper for me to join the President in urging 
all North Carolinians to observe Army Day as a token of special 
honor to the soldiers of our Army and the veterans who have re- 
turned to civilian pursuits. 



'•Virginia won the "war" with an increase of 19.2 bushels of corn per acre as compared with 
North Carolina's increase of 13.2 bushels per acre. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 349 

THE CORN WAR 

April 9, 1949 

As Governor Tuck will discover next fall, anyone who challenges 
the people of North Carolina is really sticking his neck out. 

Right now our farmers aren't saying very much about the corn 
contest which Virginia started. They're too busy preparing their 
land, applying the right kind of fertilizer, buying hybrid seed, and 
planting their corn. 

They aren't worried about the outcome of the contest, for the 
experience of the past few years has taught them that they know 
how to grow corn. Thousands of them have produced remarkable 
yields by using the scientific data accumulated in the laboratory and 
in experimental plots. The average yields for North Carolina in 
1947 and 1948 were almost half again as large as the average for the 
preceding 10 years. 

This year every farmer who grows corn is being urged to follow 
all recommended practices on at least one acre of his crop. If this 
is done and if these acres average 75 bushels each, the average yield 
for the entire state will increase by five bushels. 

North Carolinians usually go quietly ahead with their work and 
leave the bragging to other states. But when they are challenged, 
they know how to respond. They have set out this year to show 
Governor Tuck and Virginia farmers how to grow corn. 



AMENDED ROAD PROGRAM ACCEPTED 1 

April 15, 1949 

The Legislature in its wisdom has adopted a road program 
different from the one I proposed. I accept it, and will carry it whole- 
heartedly to the people. I believe this program is vital to the con- 
tinued progress of North Carolina. I am convinced that we cannot 
"Go Forward" as we should without it. 

This state must extend dependable road service to the people or 
suffer heavily in public confidence and in economic power. To deny 
this service is bad business policy. The history of our advance in 

Governor Scon advocated a bond issue of $ 200,000.000 for rural roads and an increase of one 
cent per gallon on gasoline. This bond issue developed into one of the major fights in the 1949 
session of the General Assembly. Some advocated only a §100,000,000 bond issue. Others wanted 
the one cent rax increase contingent on the approval by the people of the bond issue. Governor 
Scott advocated the tax increase as an independent and separate bill so that if the people did not 
approve the bond issue they could approve the tax increase and thereby have additional funds for 
road construction. When the bill finally passed, the tax was made contingent on the passage of 
the $200,000,000 bond issue. Governor Scott accepted the action of the General Assembly and 
waged an' effective campaign for a favorable vote of the people. 



350 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

the field of transportation proves that courageous investment in 
development of the state pays big dividends. I am confident that the 
people stand ready to support this bond issue proposal, and I call 
upon all citizens who believe the time has come to reduce the heavy 
"mud tax" to help organize forces to carry the election. 



CONTINGENT TEACHER PAY RAISE 

April 20, 1949 

There was a mutual misunderstanding 1 as to procedures and 
amounts involved in the Senate amendment, which I did not see 
prior to its introduction. 



iThere was a long discussion about this misunderstanding between certain members of the 
General Assembly and Governor Scott. Governor Scott in his inaugural address had recommended 
a minimum salary of $2,400 for A-grade teachers with increased increments to encourage better 
qualified teachers, but many members of the General Assembly took the position that the revenue 
bill would not yield enough income to appropriate sufficient funds to pay this salary scale. 

An amendment to the appropriations bill was offered setting the pay scale at $2,200 minimum 
per year for A-grade teachers provided there was sufficient money in the general fund to justify 
this pay scale. 

The above statement by Governor Scott gives his public views on this misunderstanding. The 
following statement taken from the Journal of the Senate of the General Assembly of the State 
of North Carolina, Session 1949, page 643, is the report of members of the General Assembly 
involved in this misunderstanding. 

"The amendment relating to Gontingent Teacher Raises' had its inception in and came 
directly from the Governor's office to the Senate. Immediately upon the adjournment of Monday 
evening's session of the Senate, a few minutes after the Appropriations Bill without the amend- 
ment had passed its second reading, a representative from the Governor's office approached the 
President of the Senate with the suggestion that the plan for the establishment of the 2,200-3,100 
dollar teacher pay scale, contingent upon sufficient revenue being available to meet the same 
during the coming biennium, would please the Governor and settle the entire controversy. The 
President of the Senate arranged for this information to be immediately transmitted to the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Chairmen of the Appropriations Committees of 
the House and Senate, and two or three other leaders in the General Assembly. The proposed 
plan was thoroughly discussed and a conclusion was reached around midnight Monday evening 
whereby the wishes of the Governor might be complied with. The representative of the Governor 
was contacted at that late hour and requested to arrange for a conference with the Governor at 
ten o'clock the next morning to conclude the details of the proposal that had come from the 
Governor's office. This proposed conference was satisfactory to the representative. However, at 
eight o'clock the next morning the representative of the Governor called and stated that the 
Governor had been contacted and it was found that he would necessarily have to leave Raleigh 
at 9:45 to meet an engagement at Goldsboro. The representative of the Governor was then 
advised that the hour of the conference might be moved forward to nine o'clock in order to 
meet the Governor's convenience. The hour of the conference was actually set at 9:15, at which 
time the undersigned met with the Governor and his representative in his office. 

"Upon arriving at the Governor's office at the appointed time and after the usual greetings, 
the President of the Senate suggested that the representative of the Governor, by whom the confer- 
ence had been arranged, take charge as spokesman of the meeting. He thereupon outlined his 
ideas of the proposed amendment which were discussed in detail and it was our understanding 
that the Governor and all persons present were in agreement that an amendment would be pre- 
pared along the lines suggested and offered in the Senate. It was further suggested by the repre- 
sentative of the Governor that a joint statement be prepared and signed by the Governor and 
President of the Senate (the Lieutenant Governor), advising that this course be pursued. The 
representative of the Governor wrote a pencil memorandum containing the substance of the 
statement which he thought would be proper for them to sign under the circumstances. The 
Governor had to leave and go to Goldsboro and the meeting was adjourned, with the under- 
standing that the representative of the Governor and the Chairmen of the Appripriations [sic] 
Committees would prepare an amendment in accordance with the agreement, which amendment 
was to be offered in the Senate on the third reading of the bill. The representative of the 
Governor and the chairmen of the Appropriations Committees went immediately to the office of 
Mr. R. G. Deyton, Assistant Director of the Budget, where an amendment was prepared con- 
taining the substance of the understanding referred to in the Governor's office. This amendment, 
after it was prepared and typed, was approved by the representative of the Governor, who had 
been present and taken part in all the negotiations above referred to. This amendment, as approved, 
and as passed by the Senate, was in accordance with the proposal made and discussed in the 



Statements and Articles for the Press 351 

Naturally, I am anxious that agreement be reached and the 
Legislature conclude its task; and to this end I discussed various 
possibilities with Lt. Governor [H. P.] Taylor, Senator [Edwin] 
Pate, Speaker [Kerr Craig] Ramsey, and Representative [W.] Frank 
Taylor, and Mr. George [R.] Ross, who worked with Mr. R. G. 
Deyton in the preparation of the amendment. 

Among the possibilities we discussed were salary increases con- 
tingent upon available revenue; and I suggested that those present 
work out a plan acceptable to those who have supported the school 
program as adopted by the House. I had in mind that before I 
could agree to anything, I should discuss it with the forces in the 
Senate and the House who were supporting the school program. 

I regret that what I said was misinterpreted to mean that I gave 
an endorsement unqualifiedly to a contingent bonus plan for paying 
teachers incorporated in an amendment which I had never seen. 

I was, and am, in favor of a meeting of minds; but I am not 
in favor of, and can never agree to, this amendment which penalizes 
and discriminates against public education. 

My position is unchanged that the $2,200 to $3,100 schedule is 
the minimum below which we should not go on teachers' salaries. 
Teaching is a profession and different from other work. The $2,200 
to $3,100 schedule represents a compromise on my part from the 
$2,400 minimum I campaigned for. 

I am still in favor of the full $50,000,000 bond issue for school 
buildings, and I am still against deficit spending. It is not necessary 
for this Legislature to engage in deficit spending to pay teachers 
adequate salaries, or to provide adequately for other necessary 
services. 



Governor's office just prior to the time he left for Goldsboro, as understood by all of us. We 
regret very much that there is a misunderstanding about this important matter. 

H. P. Taylor. 
President of the Senate. 
Edwin Pate. 
Kerr Craig Ramsey, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
W. F. Taylor." 
For further discussion concerning this matter, see The News and Observer (Raleigh), April 
20, 1949. See also North Carolina 1949 Session Laws and Resolutions Passed by the General 
Assembly at its Regular Session, Chapters 1249 and 1291. 
In section 201/2 of chapter 1249 we find the following: 

"Salaries and wages of public school teachers shall be increased by an additional amount 
sufficient to bring the salary schedule of teachers holding A-grade certificates to a range of 
$2,200 to $3,100 for the fiscal years 1949-50 and 1950-51, provided the revenues and surplus 
of the General Fund shall be sufficient to provide for the increases. Provided however, that in 
the event funds are not sufficient to provide the full increase, an increase , shall be given, in 
multiples of two per cent (2%), in accordance with availability of funds. ..." 
Chapter 1291 amended this section as follows: 

That Section 201/? of Committee Substitute for House Bill No. 33. the Biennial Appropria- 
tion Act, relating to teachers' salaries, be amended by adding in Section 20 Vl after the words 
and figures "teachers holding A-grade certificates to a range of $2,200 to $3,100," the following: 
"and teachers holding C grade and B grade certificates in the same proportion." 



352 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

If the Legislature will merely remove inequities in our existing 
tax schedules, it can raise enough money to meet the needs of the 
state. 

I ask the General Assembly to remove tax inequities that the 
Legislature and the people know exist, appropriate fairly for ade- 
quate salaries for teachers, state employees and necessary state serv- 
ices which include care of the mentally afflicted and the needy, and 
leave the contingency to me as director of the budget, bound by law 
as I am to balance spending and income. 



MOTHER'S DAY 

May 8, 1949 



In accord with a beautiful tradition, North Carolina is observing 
Mother's Day on this second Sunday of May. Since the first observ- 
ance of this occasion many years ago, the number of "days" and 
"weeks" has multiplied and many such events have become so com- 
mercialized as to bear little significance. 

But even in the multiplicity of "days" and "weeks," Mother's Day 
continues to stand out as the occasion for paying especial tribute to 
the finest people on this earth — our mothers. 

The observance this year has significance, because it is the first 
Mother's Day since the founder, Miss Anna M. Jarvis, passed away. 
Friends of Miss Jarvis are bonded together to perpetuate the custom 
of once each year, on the second Sunday in May, of showering special 
honor upon those whom the poet has justly called "the holiest thing 
alive." 

I deem it a privilege, therefore, to join with all the people of our 
state on this day in honoring — each of us individually — the best 
mother who ever lived. 



PAT KIMZEY DIES 
May 10, 1949 

The unexpected death of Pat Kimzey 1 comes as a severe shock 
to me and to the state he served so well as a member of the State 
Industrial Commission and the General Assembly. It was my privilege, 



1 William Patton Kimzey, son of William Rucker and Roberta (Patron) Kimzey, was born April 
14, 1901, in Henderson County. He graduated from Brevard High School, received an A.B. 
degree from Davidson College and an LL.B. degree from Cumberland University, Lebanon, 
Tennessee. He was a representative to the General Assembly from 1937-1939. In 1939 he was 
appointed to the Industrial Commission and became chairman in May, 1949. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 353 

only last week, to reward him for faithful and efficient public service 
by promoting him to the chairmanship of the Industrial Commis- 
sion. As a man, Pat Kimzey was unselfish and lovable. As a public 
official, he expended his boundless energy with integrity and deep de- 
votion to duty. He leaves a void in the state's official family that will 
be extremely difficult to fill. 



SHUT-IN'S DAY 
May 28, 1949 



The Shut-in's Day Association, International, is sponsoring the 
observance of the first Sunday in June as "Shut-in's Day" for the 
purpose of stimulating interest in the sick and disabled. 

The object of this special observance is to encourage visits and 
messages of cheer from those in the outside world to the thousands 
of unfortunates who, because of illness and disability, are forced to 
stay in their homes or institutions. 

This is an unselfish and worthy movement, and I deem it a priv- 
ilege to bring it to the attention of all citizens of North Carolina. 
Not only on the first Sunday in June, but every day in the year those 
of us who are so fortunate as to enjoy good health can be of in- 
estimable help to those in confinement because of injury or illness 
by paying them a visit or otherwise remembering them. 



DEVELOPMENT OF FOREST RESOURCES 

June 6, 1949 

My earliest recollections have to do with farm life, 1 and farming 
has always been my chief interest and principal activity. I was an 
active 4-H Club member in my home county of Alamance, and I 
know of no finer groups of young people than those in the Future 
Farmers, Future Homemakers, and 4-H Clubs. 

My early recollections are not only of the farm crops and the 
livestock; what farm boy doesn't recall the woodland, and squirrel- 
hunting time? But in those days we hadn't yet learned the full 
value of the woodlands; the lumber and paper and poles and furni- 
ture they supply that we can't do without. We didn't realize their 
vital part in controlling floods and soil erosion, and in keeping the 
creeks and rivers clear and strong. 



iThis statement was issued to my "Friends at the Annual Farm Boys Forestry Camp. 



354 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

We've learned those things now. We've learned them the hard 
way. I congratulate every young man in this forestry camp upon be- 
ing a leader in his county in this field of forest conservation. The 
future of our land lies in young hands like yours. 

The Board of Conservation and Development, the director of the 
department, and the Division of Forestry are to be commended for 
their leadership in this forestry camp for farm boys. 

It is only through a broad training of our farm youth that our 
great natural forest resources will continue to play their vital role 
in the development of our state. 



STRIKE AT HART COTTON MILLS 
June 10, 1949 

Since May 12 more than 500 workers of the Hart Cotton Mills 1 
in Tarboro have been on strike. This dispute has deprived the com- 
munity of a weekly payroll which I am informed is in excess of 
120,000. It has brought hardship to the townspeople, to the workers, 
and to the employer. 

The State Department of Labor, through its conciliation service, 
has exerted every effort to bring the parties to this dispute together, 
but they appear to be no closer than at the time the strike began. 

As I understand the issues, there seems to be no reason why this 
destructive economic warfare should continue. 

For the best interests, not only of the parties involved, but also 
of the people of the community of Tarboro and our state as a whole, 
I urge both parties to submit their differences to an impartial arbi- 
trator agreeable to both, and pending a decision, to resume opera- 
tions at the mill. I understand that the workers, through their union, 
the Textile Workers Union of America, CIO, have expressed will- 



^Hart Cotton Mills v. Elizabeth Abrams. The case involved the Hart Cotton Mills, Inc., 
and Elizabeth Abrams and 159 other individuals and Textile Workers Union of America, 
CIO, an Unincorporated Association, and R. H. Harris, Howard Parker, Ted Thomas, Charlie 
Standi, Henry Byrd, Melvin Hoard, J. C. Hughes, and Sylvester Sawyer in their capacities as 
representatives and officials of the Textile Workers Union of America, CIO. 

The members of local 316, Textile Workers Union of America, CIO, employed by the 
Hart Cotton Mills, Inc., of Tarboro, N. C, went out on strike May 12, 1949, as a result of 
disagreement with mill management over renewal of contract. Immediately after walking out, 
the workers formed a picket line around the mill. On June 15, Marcus W. Carter, vice presi- 
dent of the Hart Mills, wrote to Governor Scott outlining the company's position and asking 
that he take steps to curb the "lawless condition" existing at the plant. The governor had re- 
ceived no request for help from the local authorities and was powerless to act. On August 4, 
the company requested a restraining order to put an end to what they considered unfair picketing. 
The order was served September 13. The mill planned to open the morning of the fourteenth 
between 6:30 and 7:00, but prior to 6:30, 100 to 125 employees aligned themselves across the 
main gate in a solid mass five to eight deep, completely blocking the entrance. In spite of orders 
from the sheriff to allow the other employees to enter, the pickets refused to move and as a 
result were tried for contempt of court and fined for violation of the restraining order. See 
N. C. Reports, 231, P. 431. See pages, 385 and 476. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 355 

ingness to follow this course. I trust that the company will do like- 
wise, in order that this strike may be terminated without delay. 



MESSAGE TO CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY 
June 11, 1949 

On June 4, 1949, the people of North Carolina expressed in no 
uncertain terms their immediate desire for more and better roads. 
It is our job and obligation to be certain that our people get the 
most and the best roads for the least money. 

The wholehearted cooperation, the fine judgment, and the far- 
reaching vision of men in your association will be essential in the 
building of a system of roads adequate for the proper development of 
our schools, agriculture, industry, health, commerce, and facilities 
for national defense. 

As North Carolina begins this program of road building, we look 
to you who "know how" to help restore her to the exalted position 
she held in 1928 which prompted Governor McLean to say, "North 
Carolina has a highway system that has challenged the admiration 
of the entire country, as well as foreign nations. It is a develop- 
ment of which every patriotic citizen is justly proud. ... I would 
not detract one foot from this network of highways. I would con- 
stantly add to, extend, and further improve our roads, for in them 
lies our hope of future progress." 

North Carolina can again set the pace for the nation as she goes 
forward on better roads, which means better farms, better dwellings, 
better schools, better churches, and a better society. 

You have the opportunity to make an enviable reputation for your- 
selves, as well as for your state. With your cooperation we shall build 
a better North Carolina through better roads. 



APPALACHIAN STATE TEACHERS' COLLEGE 
OBSERVES ANNIVERSARY 

June 13, 1949 

Governor Scott today invited Governor Earl C. Clements of Ken- 
tucky, Governor Gordon Browning of Tennessee, and Governor 
William M. Tuck of Virginia to participate in the Watauga County 
Centennial Celebration in Boone on July 7, which will be observed 
as education day and will honor Dr. B. B. Dougherty, founder and 



356 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

president of Appalachian State Teachers' College, which is observing 
its fiftieth anniversary. 



THE MARION DISPUTE 

July 16, 1949 1 

Following his conference with representatives of the Upholsterers 
International Union, American Federation of Labor, last week, Gov- 
ernor Scott met with representatives of two Marion furniture com- 
panies in his office Saturday. The furniture company representatives 
were: J. Maurice Hill, production manager, and C. P. Reinhardt, 
personnel director, Drexel Furniture Company; and E. C. Beach, 
production manager and C. E. McCall, a director of the Broyhill 
Furniture Company. 

After this meeting, the governor conferred with Attorney Gen- 
eral Harry McMullan, Labor Commissioner Forrest H. Shuford, and 
SBI Director Walter F. Anderson, and issued the following statement: 

"I have conferred with representatives of both labor and manage- 
ment about the situation at Marion. I asked and received assurance 
from both groups that they would cooperate to prevent any further 
disorder." 



FARM ORGANIZATIONS NECESSARY 
July 18, 1949 

Recent developments emphasize the importance of farmers having 
an organized front to fight for their well-being. Prices for farm pro- 
ducts have been dropping faster than production costs, and for some 
months the farmer's share of the food dollar has been steadily de- 
clining. Meanwhile, mounting surpluses in some commodities point 
to the likelihood of more stringent crop controls next year. 

It is becoming increasingly apparent that we are going through 
a period of major readjustments. Policies are now in the making 
that will affect the future of agriculture and the farmer's share of 
the national income for a long time to come. 

The problems confronting us in this period of change are too 
big for the individual farmer to tackle. Alone, he is helpless in the 
face of overpowering economic and political currents. Banded to- 
gether with other farmers in an organization such as the Farm 
Bureau Federation, he can exercise a strong influence in shaping na- 



J See page 359. note 2. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 357 

tional policies and contend effectively for his rightful place in the 
economic sun. 

The Farm Bureau 1 has been gaining steadily in strength and con- 
structive influence in North Carolina and the nation. Here in our 
own state its membership has climbed from 1,726 to more than 78,000 
since 1940. Political leaders and public officials have learned to re- 
spect the Farm Bureau and to depend upon its voice as an expression 
of farmers' opinions. 

Every farmer and every business man dealing with farmers owes 
it to himself and his community to become a member of this splendid 
organization. And once a member, he should take part in its ac- 
tivities, for it is only through the participation of its members that 
the organization can accurately reflect their hopes and aspirations. 



THE DANIELS CASE 
July 18, 1949 

This office welcomes word from any citizen who believes that any 
other citizen is being denied justice in North Carolina. It would be 
helpful to the state, its officials, and its citizens, however, if any 
group conducting a money-raising campaign on the basis of inflam- 
matory Insinuations about injustice would itself take some care about 
the facts before making wholesale charges about justice in North 
Carolina. 2 

Circulars being distributed with regard to the case of two Negro 
men charged with the murder of a taxi driver in Greenville state 
that these defendants have only until August 6 to prepare their 
appeal to the Supreme Court. This applies only to the record to 
be served on the solicitor of the fifth judicial district in accordance 
with judgment in the case which allowed the defendants sixty days 
for this purpose. Actually, counsel for the defendants have until 
October 1 to file their briefs with the Supreme Court. The case 
will not be argued until the week of October 9. Notwithstanding 
this ample time in which to present the case, and in advance of the 
decision of the courts, this group is crying "legal lynching" and urg- 
ing people to write and send postal cards to my office. 



x This statement was prepared for inclusion in a membership pamphlet to solicit new members 
for the North Carolina Farm Bureau Federation. 

2 Bennie and Lloyd Ray Daniels of Greenville, North Carolina, at the May, 1949, term of Superior 
Court of Pitt County, were tried for the murder of William Benjamin O'Neal and were convicted 
without recommendation. Judge Clawson L. Williams sentenced both defendants to death. This 
case was appealed several times to the Supreme Court of North Carolina and to the Supreme 
Court of the United States. Each petition to these courts was denied. See North Carolina Reports, 
231, PP. 17, 341, 509 and 232, p. 196. 



358 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

I do not think it necessary to assure the people of North Carolina 
that these men and all other defendants will receive justice in North 
Carolina. If there is evidence of forced confession or any other 
improper procedures, full opportunity to present it in an orderly 
manner is afforded by appeal to the Supreme Court. These defend- 
ants have the benefit of every safeguard of the law for the protection 
of all its citizens. 

Until the Supreme Court acts on this appeal, the case is not before 
me. Should it come before me as a matter of executive clemency, 
I shall consider it on its merits and with the benefit of every resource 
for investigation of the facts. I shall certainly not let any group 
which wishes to use this case or any other for money-raising or propa- 
ganda purposes injure the cause of these defendants. 

North Carolina is enjoying excellent relations among the various 
races within its borders. I am making every effort to see that this 
condition is not only continued but improved. The color of a man's 
skin shall not determine or deter the administration of justice. Nor 
shall the inflammatory activity of professional agitators be permitted 
to prejudice the case of these young Greenville men or any other 
defendants who are charged with crime in this state. 

I do resent, however, the willingness of crude and careless agita- 
tors to use this case while it is still pending in the courts as a means of 
raising a ruckus for propaganda and money for their purposes. The 
only "legal lynching" in this case is the willingness of these propa- 
gandists to lynch the good name of North Carolina in a case not 
yet decided in terms of either the state's justice or the state's mercy. 



THE LEADERSHIP OF JAMES E. SHEPARD 1 
July 19, 1949 

Dr. James E. Shepard, a leader among educators of North Caro- 
lina, dedicated himself to the uplifting of his people. All who knew 
him respected his sound principles, his far vision, and his patient, 
but persevering spirit. 

His services and works will be felt and appreciated by generations 
to come not only in North Carolina, but throughout the South. We 



Mames Edward Shepard was bom in Raleigh, November 3, 1875, the son of Augustus and 
Harriet (Whined) Shepard. He attended Shaw University, Muskingum College, Selma Univer- 
sity, and Howard University. He was a deputy collector for the United States Department of 
Internal Revenue; president of the National Training School, Durham, 1910-1923; president of 
Durham State Normal School, 1923-1925; and president of North Carolina College for Negroes, 
from 1925 until his death. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 359 

shall forever be grateful for his contribution to a better North 
Carolina. 1 



TOBACCO PRODUCTION 

July 19, 1949 

As governor of North Carolina, I fully appreciate the importance 
of flue-cured tobacco as a cash crop. I have observed with interest the 
increase in poundage per acre since tobacco marketing quotas have 
been in effect in North Carolina, as well as in other states. I have al- 
so been advised that the quality of tobacco is better; that is, there 
is more poundage of cigarette tobacco being produced per acre, and 
that there is a greater effort in all belts to produce higher quality 
cigarette tobacco. This is very important with respect to any com- 
modity and particularly with flue-cured tobacco since about forty or 
fifty per cent of the flue-cured tobacco grown is exported. 

In the last tobacco referendum, North Carolina led other states 
by a small margin. The vote for three years, on July 12, 1946, was 
ninety-seven and nine-tenths per cent, whereas the average for all 
states was ninety-seven and one-tenth per cent. 

I believe in the democratic process which permits landowners, 
tenants, and sharecroppers to go to the polls and vote for or against 
any program that affects their financial welfare, and earnestly hope 
that all will vote in the election Saturday. 



THE MARION DISPUTE 2 

July 21, 1949 

The original and supplemental State Bureau of Investigation 
reports covered all phases of the Marion dispute. In addition I have 
interviewed representatives of both the labor union and mill man- 
agement in my office. The investigation was impartial and complete. 
I received assurance from representatives of both labor and manage- 
ment that they would cooperate to prevent further disorder without 



iThis statement was sent to Dr. James T. Taylor, director of the James E. Shepard Memorial 
Foundation, to be included in a brochure prepared in the interest of establishing a suitable 
memorial to Dr. Shepard. 

^his statement was made after there had been disturbances in Marion. The Upholsterers Inter- 
national Union, AFL, was trying to organize the furniture factories in Marion, and it was reported 
that both employers and employees were opposed to organizing. Because of the activities of the 
organizers, some violence developed and some arrests were made. See Charlotte Observer, July 7. 
22, 27. 1949; Winston-Salem Journal, June 27, 28, 1949; Asbeville Citizen, July 5, 1949; The 
News and Observer, June 20, July 7, 27, 1949. 



360 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

the use of the State Highway Patrol in local police capacity which 
the representative of the union insisted upon. 

The law will be upheld in North Carolina on an impartial basis. 

I consider that the representatives of both union labor and man- 
agement gave their pledges of cooperation in good faith, and I trust 
that both will carefully avoid inflammatory tactics calculated to 
create an emergency. 



DEATH OF J. C. B. EHRINGHAUS 

July 31, 1949 

Our state has lost a distinguished citizen. As governor during 
the last throes of, and following, the "great depression," J. C. B. 
Ehringhaus 1 led North Carolina courageously and ably during one of 
its most critical periods. He faced stern situations realistically, and 
decided issues with unswerving integrity regardless of the popularity 
of his decisions at the time. Governor Ehringhaus to a large degree 
is responsible for our modern parole system, and for marked ad- 
vances in the educational, economic, and cultural life of the state 
that occurred during his administration. 



MAINTAINING PRISON DISCIPLINE 2 
August 1, 1949 

We are not going to tolerate inhumane practices in the state 
prison system. Our prison officials have been charged with the 
serious responsibility of maintaining discipline. The prisoners placed 
in their custody are there for breaking the rules of society. Those 
who receive special punishment while in prison receive it because 
they have broken other rules after their incarceration. A firm pun- 
ishment policy for the infraction of prison regulations is necessary 
in any good prison system, but firmness doesn't mean cruelty. I have 
asked the chairman of the Highway Commission to review the rules 
now in force in North Carolina and other states. Such changes as 
are necessary to eliminate inhumane practices will be made. 



yohn Christoph Blucher Ehringhaus, son of Erskine and Carrie (Matthews) Ehringhaus, was 
born February 5, 1882, in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. He was a graduate of Atlantic Col- 
legiate Institute, received an A.B. degree from the University of North Carolina in 1901, and an 
LL.B. degree in 1903. Ehringhaus was a representative to the North Carolina General Assembly 
from 1905 to 1908, solicitor from the 1st judicial district, and governor from 1933 to 1937. 
Governor Scott issued this statement after a conference with Dr. Henry W. Jordan, chairman of 
the State Highway and Public Works Commission. The governor requested that prison rules and 
disciplinary policies of other states be studied in order to modernize the North Carolina system. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 361 

OPERATING EXPENDITURES 
August 1, 1949 

The balance statement of the condition of the general fund for 
the fiscal years 1947-1948 and 1948-1949 shows how idle state funds, 
accumulated during the war period, are being put to work toward 
erasing the deficit in public services piled up during the same period. 

In making its general fund appropriations for the biennium 1949- 
1951, the Legislature took into account the credit balance of $80,171,- 
555 with which the general fund began the fiscal year 1948-1949, 
and anticipated a credit balance at the end of the fiscal year from 
which it also made specific appropriations. The appropriations for 
the new biennium exceeded by the amount of $5,608,174 this antic- 
ipated credit balance and expected revenues. 

It has been determined that as of June 30, of this year the credit 
balance was $13,937,753 which reduced the anticipated deficit from 
$5,608,174 to $3,561,456. This reduction occurred mainly as a re- 
sult of saving $2,423,618 which was appropriated but not spent by 
the various departments and institutions and was reverted to the 
general fund. 

Therefore, if revenues meet estimates, the anticipated deficit for 
the biennium will be only about one and three-tenths per cent of the 
total general fund appropriations of $279,160,191 and could easily 
be taken care of by the combination of greater economy of operation 
and closer collection of taxes. 

Should tax collections decline materially, and revenues fail to 
meet estimates, a situation would be created that could be met in 
only two ways: (1) Action by the Legislature to balance the budget 
by levying additional taxes or reducing appropriations, or (2) by 
exercise of the power of the chief executive to cut appropriations, 
and this would mean salary reductions of state employees and school 
teachers, to the point where collections from existing tax schedules 
would meet expenditures. This was the course followed in the de- 
pression of 1929-1933. 

We hope, naturally, that this will not be necessary; but the 
present economic situation is such that it must be faced realistically, 
and every effort made by all officials and employees of the state to 
see that there is neither waste nor lost motion and that the taxpayers 
get value received for every dollar collected and spent. 

The current budget is the largest in the history of the state, but 
the ability of the people of North Carolina to pay for a program of 



362 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

public services current with the needs of the times is also greater 
than it has ever been before. 

Road, school, health, permanent improvements, and public util- 
ities projects in the 1949-1951 program are not only calculated to 
bolster our economy in a period of business recession, but should 
better equip us to render the public services to which the people of 
North Carolina are entitled and are demanding. 



A STATEMENT OF THE CONDITION OF THE 
GENERAL FUND FOR THE FISCAL YEARS 

1947-1948 AND 1948-1949 

August 1, 1949 

AVAILABILITY 1947-1948 1948-1949 

I. Credit Balance July 1: 

1. Net Unappropriated Credit Balance $ 12,011,430 $ 49,675,215 

2. State Post War Reserve Fund 30,076,056 30,418,417 

3. Reserve for Permanent Appropriation 

Liquidated 456,232 77,923 



Total Credit Balance $ 42,543,718 $ 80,171,555 



REVENUES 

II. Schedule A — Inheritance Taxes 1,719,878 2,088,277 

III. Schedule B — Licenses 3,944,444 4,314,575 

IV. Schedule C — Franchise Taxes 10,053,970 11,526,159 

V. Schedule D — Income Taxes 59,583,846 65,524,030 

VI. Schedule E — Sales Taxes 39,333,608 40,649,401 

VII. Schedule F — Beverage Taxes 6,471,703 6,862,276 

VIII. Schedule G — Gift Taxes 143,904 374,728 

IX. Schedule H — Intangible Taxes 591,572 616,842 

X. Schedule I-A Freight Cars 37,408 39,008 

XI. Schedule I-B Insurance 4,320,410 4,861,651 

XII. Miscellaneous 4,955 6,291 



Total Under Revenue Act $126,205,698 $136,863,238 

XIII. Non-Tax Revenue (Earnings, fees, 

dividends, etc.) $ 3,362,454 $ 3,980,407 



Total Revenue $129,568,152 $140,843,645 



Total Availability .$172,111,870 $221,015,200 



Statements and Articles for the Press 363 

EXPENDITURES 

1947-1948 1948-1949 

I. General Assembly $ 34,195 $ 304,316 

II. Judicial 499,440 606,259 

III. Executive and Administrative 5,893,906 7,046,281 

IV. Educational Institutions 6,846,680 9,174,488 

V. Charitable and Correctional Institutions 7,485,872 8,628,489 

VI. State Aid and Obligations (Including 

Reserve for Permanent Appropriations) 8,325,628 9,768,869 

VII. Pensions 277,415 256,810 

VIII. Contingency and Emergency — Total 

Allotments (347,305) (1,437,214) 

Reimbursements from Prior Years 56,000* 

Total Other Than Public Schools and Debt 

Service and Permanent Improvements $ 29,363,136 $ 35,729,512 

IX. Public Schools $ 62,655,102 $ 73,672,077 

Total Other Than Debt Service and 

Permanent Improvements $ 92,018,238 $109,401,589 

X. Debt Service 151,858* 

XI. Permanent Improvements 72,827,734 

XII. Aid to County School Plant Facilities 25,000,000 

Total Expenditures of the General Fund $ 92,018,238 $207,077,465 

Credit Balance June 30: 

1. Post War Reserve Fund $ 30,418,417 $ 

2. Balance Post War Reserve Fund 

Reverted to General Fund 5,887,743 

3. Credit Balance Exclusive of Post 

War Reserve Fund 49,675,215 8,049,992 

Credit Balance June 30, 1948 $ 80,093,632 

Credit Balance June 30, 1949 

Reserved for Appropriations in Biennium 1949-1951 $ 13,937,735 

* Indicates Credit — Deduct 
() Indicates not to be added 



WALLACE CHANNEL IMPROVEMENT 1 

August 4, 1949 

Fishermen are handicapped at present by insufficient water in 
Wallace Channel on the trips from the Morehead City and Beaufort 
area to the Atlantic Ocean via Ocracoke Inlet, and it is claimed, 
with reason, that the fishing industry could be increased greatly by 
the deepening and widening of the channel. The proposed route 
would provide access to the ocean fishing grounds that is safer and 
more readily navigated at night than is the route through Beaufort 
Inlet, around Cape Lookout shoals. 



iThis statement was issued after Governor Scott had communicated with General Lewis A. Pick, 
chief of army engineers, concerning the proposed improvement of the channel. It was estimated 
that the improvement would cost about $85,000. Congressional approval was necessary. 



364 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS SLATED FOR NORTH CAROLINA 1 

August 8, 1949 

North Carolina's commissions, departments, agencies, and insti- 
tutions have an availability of considerably more than $500,000,000 
to spend during the next three years in public improvements, subject 
only to available labor and materials and a wise development of the 
various state programs. 

In addition, the state's local government units and other quasi- 
public organizations have mapped programs and provided funds 
amounting to more than $200,000,000 for public improvements dur- 
ing the next two or three years. Many of these items are the back- 
log accumulated during the war and postwar periods and are ex- 
pected to be supplemented by additional expenditures of even 
greater amounts during the next two or three years. 

By including actual available funds and expected expenditures 
during the next three years, it seems safe to assume that the State 
of North Carolina and its subdivisions and quasi-public organizations 
will spend close to three quarters of a billion dollars during the 
next three years. Also, on the best information I can get, it seems 
likely that approximately one-half of this amount, or probably 
$375,000,000, will be spent for labor on what we usually call public 
works during the next three-year period. 

These programs have been planned as necessary improvements 
in our public facilities and were not specifically designed to take up 
slack in unemployment. They do, however, fit right into the picture 
by providing salaries and wages greatly in excess of $100,000,000 a 
year, which, as we the dairy farmers might say, is not hay. More- 
over, the additional labor required to produce the materials we use in 
our improvements and the equipment which will be used as a result, 
in this and other states, will require salaries and wages which will 
double or even treble the amount we spend on our improvement 
programs. 

Principal item in our "Go Forward" program will be expenditure 
of $200,000,000 in improving and extending our rural roads in North 
Carolina. The General Assembly of North Carolina last spring pro- 
vided for submitting to the people of the state a referendum on issu- 
ing $200,000,000 in bonds for developing our farm-to-market and 
school bus route roads. The citizens of the state in an election this 
summer voted decisively for these bonds. Provision has been made 
to issue bonds of $50,000,000, a part of it in anticipatory notes, to 



iThis article appeared in the Labor Day edition of the Trade Union Courier, (New York, N. Y.), 
September 12. 1949. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 365 

get our rural road building and improvement program started this 
fall. If we experience one of our normally mild winters, we shall 
be able to get our program well under way and ready to go forward 
in full force by next spring. 

Naturally we shall chart a reasonable course, and not try to push 
our improvements faster than good business dictates. As plans, labor, 
and materials are available, however, we propose to "Go Forward" as 
rapidly as conditions will allow. We can take up a lot of slack in 
unemployment, if it should become worse, through the development 
of this program. 

Our General Assembly also submitted to the voters, along with 
the road bond proposal, the issue of voting $25,000,000 in school 
building improvement bonds, after the General Assembly had already 
provided for a $25,000,000 appropriation for school building. Again 
the citizens of North Carolina approved, even more decisively, the 
authorization of the $25,000,000 bond issue. This means that $50,- 
000,000 will be distributed among North Carolina's one hundred 
counties to aid county and city units in erecting and improving 
school building. This program, supplemented by bonds issued by 
the local units, will provide employment for many additional thou- 
sands of North Carolina workers. 

Based on present and expected income from our gasoline tax and 
license tax on automobiles, plus federal allotments, we shall have 
at least $73,000,000 a year for improvement and extension of our 
present state highway system. This means that at least $220,000,000 
will be expended in the next three years in the further development 
of our primary road system. 

Far behind, due to the war and postwar conditions, North Caro- 
lina's hospitals, as well as educational, charitable, and other institu- 
tions, are all set for inauguration of an extensive building program. 
The General Assembly appropriated $72,000,000 for permanent im- 
provements at the state's forty institutions scattered throughout the 
state and for departments in Raleigh. Largest item in this program 
is approximately $9,000,000 for expansion of the Medical School of 
the University of North Carolina from a two-year to a four-year 
school, with the erection of a teaching hospital and other buildings 
and additions. The bulk of these expenditures will be made within 
the next two years and additional permanent improvements may be 
provided by the 1951 General Assembly. 

Steps are already under way for improving port facilities at two 
of the state's principal seaports, Wilmington and Morehead City, for 
which the recent General Assembly authorized bonds in the amount 



366 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

of $7,500,000. These improvements will call for the expenditure of 
the funds provided and will also provide employment for thousands 
of additional workers for manning the docks and the additional ships 
which are expected to utilize these facilities. 

Although restricted by a constitutional limitation in the amount 
of bonds they may issue, local government units of North Carolina 
are planning extensive local improvements, not only through bond 
issues for educational institutions, to supplement the state's provi- 
sion for $50,000,000 for this purpose, but for erection of local gov- 
ernment buildings, improvements of streets, expansion of water 
systems, and other developments which have been postponed during 
the past eight years. During the past three years, for example, our 
State Local Government Commission has sold bonds or approved 
bond issues of local units in excess of $100,000,000, much of it now 
being used, and expenditures of local units are expected to be greatly 
accelerated during the next two or three years. 

Only two states, Texas and Pennsylvania, top North Carolina in 
the amount of funds received and utilized in the promotion of 
health care under the federal program. North Carolina got in the 
program at the beginning and in the first two years the North Caro- 
lina Medical Care Commission supervised and arranged for erection 
of thirty-five hospitals in thirty-five counties, plus seven units for 
state-owned hospitals, at an aggregate cost of approximately $20,- 
000,000. In the first month of the new fiscal year, contracts were let 
for seven new units at a cost of more than $4,000,000. These units 
will provide approximately 3,900 new hospital beds, practically all 
in rural areas. This program, in which the federal, state, and local 
units furnish approximately one-third each of the cost, is expected 
to involve expenditures of at least $10,000,000 a year for the next 
few years. Probably half of this cost goes into labor. 

Close to my heart and the object of much of my energy are rural 
electrification and rural telephones, one well under way, the other 
just about to begin. Last year, electrification cooperatives, with the 
help of the federal government, built lines into rural areas which 
supplied 25,000 new units with electric current. We have in North 
Carolina approximately 240,000 more units to which electric current 
should be supplied. Normally, this would take four years. We hope 
to be able to string wires to at least 200,000 of these rural units 
within the next two years, either through activity of private power 
companies or by local cooperatives. These local cooperatives during 
the past year have spent approximately $10,000,000 in developing 
rural electric power lines. They have served as a spur to established 



Statements and Articles for the Press 367 

power companies, which have also spent several millions of dollars 
during the past year in reaching 335,000 rural units. We are demand- 
ing light and power for rural people. 

North Carolina has already surveyed and mapped several areas in 
the state for the extension of rural telephone lines and has establish- 
ed a division in our State Rural Electrification Authority for hand- 
ling the job. We are poised and ready to take full advantage of any 
federal help that may be available, but we are also planning develop- 
ments on our own which will help bring our rural citizens in con- 
versational touch with their neighbors. 

While our public works programs were not intended specifically 
to provide jobs for workers who may become unemployed, our 
planned expenditures during the next two or three years fits admir- 
ably into the picture by furnishing well-paying jobs to many thou- 
sands of North Carolina citizens, as well as thousands in other states 
who will be engaged in providing the materials, equipment, and 
fixtures which our program will demand. 



INVESTIGATION OF STATE ADVERTISING FUND 1 
August 9, 1949 

The administration of the State Advertising Fund may be kept as 
above suspicion as Caesar's wife. If there have been practices in the 
past tending to place the advertising project under a cloud, they 
must be ferreted out and cleaned up. 

If charges now being spread about are without foundation, it is 
important not only to those being subjected to this whispering 
campaign, but also for the good name of the state that they be dis- 
posed of by a thorough and impartial investigation. 



UNITED SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS 

August 17, 1949 

For some time the need for civilian directed recreational welfare 
and character guidance of our youth in the armed forces has been 
apparent. After study of the various reports and findings of church 
and welfare committees, I am convinced that the reactivition of 
USO Service Clubs and other facilities is an important step not 

^Governor Scott asked the State Bureau of Investigation to investigate reports of irregularities in 
connection with awarding the contract for state advertising. The investigation was requested on tne 
suggestion of Josh L. Home of Rocky Mount, chairman of the State Advertising Committee. 



368 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

only for the general welfare of our men and women now away from 
their homes in the service of our country, but also as a positive ac- 
ceptance of our civilian community responsibility to our peacetime 
armed forces. 

There are ten full-scale installations of USO already in operation 
in North Carolina in such strategic locations as Fayetteville (Fort 
Bragg) , New Bern, and Jacksonville. These, with USO services to 
veterans in hospitals, are serving men and women of the armed 
forces in the numerous training and military areas which give North 
Carolina fifth place in the nation in this respect. 

Of the more than one million six hundred thousand men away 
from their homes in military training or on active service, almost fifty 
per cent are twenty-one years of age or under. These are very young, 
impressionable citizens who will be returning in large numbers to 
their respective states and home communities when their period of 
service is over. Their spiritual, moral, and physical welfare is the 
responsibility of every community. 

I believe that it is proper that religious and recreational welfare 
within our armed forces remain a civilian, rather than a govern- 
ment, program; and the program recommended through church and 
welfare agencies, as represented on the President's Committee on 
Religion and Welfare in the armed forces, seems best suited for this 
purpose. 

I am informed that Mr. Leon M. Gibson of Fayetteville has ac- 
cepted the USO chairmanship for North Carolina and that a state- 
wide reactivation campaign will be launched in the near future. 1 
commend to all citizens this important civilian aid to the soldiers, 
sailors, and marines who are maintaining our national defense. 



VALUE OF THE TOBACCO CROP 1 

August 27, 1949 

Down through the years tobacco has played a major role in the 
economy of North Carolina. It has been the major factor in making 
North Carolina one of the leading agricultural states in the nation. 
Tobacco affects the lives of more people in North Carolina than 
any other farm product and, therefore, is a challenge to every grower 
to help keep our farm programs sound. 



iThis statement was prepared for a joint tobacco edition of the Patriot Farmer (Greensboro) and 
the Greensboro Daily News. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 369 

Last year growers received the highest average price in history, 
realizing approximately $376,000,000, or one-half of our total farm 
income from tobacco. 

While we watch farm prices level off, we must work and plan to 
keep North Carolina's farm economy sound by wise planning and 
diversification. 



NORTH CAROLINA PUBLIC WORKS PROGRAM 

September 5, 1949 

Agencies of the state government now have an availability of 
considerably more than half a billion dollars for use in public im- 
provements. 

In addition the state's local government units and other quasi- 
public organizations have mapped programs and provided funds 
amounting to more than $200,000,000 for public improvements. 
Many of these items are the backlog accumulated during the war 
and postwar periods and are expected to be supplemented by ad- 
ditional expenditures of even greater amounts during the next two 
or three years. 

By including actual available funds and expected expenditures 
during the next three years, it is probable that the State of North 
Carolina and its subdivisions and quasi-public organizations will in- 
vest close to three-quarters of a billion dollars in public works during 
the next three years. Also, on the best information available to me, 
it appears that the bulk of this sum will be paid out for labor in one 
form or another. 

These programs have been planned as necessary improvements 
in our public facilities and were not specifically designed to take up 
a slack in employment, but they are coming along at a time when 
some cutbacks are appearing in both private and government pay- 
rolls. They will, therefore, serve a dual purpose. 

The principal item in our "Go Forward" program will be ex- 
penditure of $200,000,000 in improving and extending our rural 
roads in North Carolina. The General Assembly of North Carolina 
last spring provided for submitting to the people of the state a ref- 
erendum on issuing $200,000,000 in bonds for developing our farm-to- 
market and school bus route roads. The citizens of the state in an 
election this summer voted these bonds decisively. Provision al- 
ready has been made to issue $50,000,000 of these bonds to get our 



370 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

rural road building and improvement program started this fall. If we 
experience one of our normally mild winters, we shall be able to 
get our program well under way by next spring. 

Also, our General Assembly submitted to the voters, along with 
the road bond proposal, the issue of voting 125,000,000 in school 
building improvement bonds, after the General Assembly had al- 
ready provided for a $25,000,000 appropriation for school building. 
The citizens of North Carolina approved the authorization of the 
$25,000,000 school bond issue. This means that $50,000,000 will be 
distributed among North Carolina's one hundred counties to aid 
county and city units in erecting and improving school buildings 
to care for rapidly increasing enrollments. This program, supple- 
mented by bonds issued by local units, will provide employment for 
many additional thousands of North Carolina workers. 

Based on present and expected income from our gasoline tax 
and license tax on automobiles, plus federal allotments, we shall 
have $73,000,000 a year for improvement and extension of our 
present state highway system — in addition to the proceeds of the 
$200,000,000 bond issue, which is to be used exclusively on secondary 
roads. 

North Carolina's educational, hospital, charitable, and other in- 
stitutions are inaugurating an extensive building program to wipe 
out the deficit in public services accumulated during the war and 
postwar periods. The General Assembly appropriated $72,000,000 for 
permanent improvements at the state's forty institutions scattered 
throughout the state and for departments in Raleigh. Largest item 
in this program is approximately $9,000,000 for expansion of the 
Medical School of the University of North Carolina from a two-year 
to a four-year school, with the erection of a teaching hospital and 
other buildings and additions. The bulk of these expenditures will 
be made within the next two years. 

Steps are already under way for improving port facilities at two 
of the state's principal seaports, Wilmington and Morehead City, 
for which the recent General Assembly authorized bonds in the amount 
of $7,500,000. These improvements will call for the expenditure of 
the funds provided and will also provide employment of many ad- 
ditional workers for manning the docks and the additional ships 
which are expected to utlilize the facilities. 

Although restricted by a constitutional limitation in the amount 
of bonds they may issue, local government units of North Carolina 
are planning extensive local improvements not only through bond 



Statements and Articles for the Press 371 

issues for educational institutions to supplement the state's provision 
for $50,000,000 for this purpose, but also for erection of local govern- 
ment buildings, improvements of streets, expansion of water systems, 
and other developments which have been postponed during the 
past eight years. During the past three, for example, our State Local 
Government Commission has sold bonds or approved bond issues of 
local units in excess of $100,000,000, much of it now being used, 
and expenditures of local units are expected to be greatly accelerated 
during the next two or three years. 

Only two states, Texas and Pennsylvania, top North Carolina in 
the amount of funds received and utilized in the promotion of health 
care under the federal program. North Carolina got in the program 
at the beginning and in the first two years the North Carolina Medical 
Care Commission supervised and arranged for erection of thirty-five 
hospitals in thirty-five counties, plus seven units for state-owned 
hospitals, at an aggregate cost of approximately $20,000,000. In the 
first month of the new fiscal year, contracts were let for seven new 
units at a cost of more than $4,000,000. These units will provide ap- 
proximately 3,900 new hospital beds, practically all in rural areas. 
This program, in which the federal, state, and local units each furnish 
approximately one-third of the cost, is expected to involve expendi- 
tures of at least $10,000,000 a year for the next few years. Probably 
half of this will be paid for labor. 

The rural electrification and rural telephone programs are gather- 
ing momentum. Last year, electrification cooperatives, with the help 
of the federal government, built lines into rural areas which sup- 
plied 25,000 new units with electric current. We have in North 
Carolina approximately 240,000 more units to which electric current 
should be supplied. Normally, this would take four years. We hope 
to be able to string wires to at least 200,000 of these rural units 
within the next two years, either through activity of private power 
companies or by local cooperatives. These local cooperatives during 
the past five years have invested approximately $10,000,000 in de- 
veloping rural electric power lines. They have served as a spur to 
established power companies, which have also spent several millions 
of dollars during the past year in reaching 35,000 rural units. 

North Carolina has already surveyed and mapped several areas in 
the state for the extension of rural telephone lines and has established 
a division in our State Rural Electrification Authority for handling 
the job. We are poised and ready to take full advantage of any fed- 
eral help that may be available to augment the building by private 



372 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

companies of telephone service to rural areas which must have it 
to keep abreast of the times. 

As I have said, our public works programs were not planned 
with the specific purpose of tiding over a period of business recession; 
but they appear ample to help stabilize any condition now fore- 
seeable. 



FOLK FESTIVAL PROJECT 

October 13, 1949 

I have observed with pleasure the folk festival project originated 
by Dr. J. S. Dorton for presentation at the forthcoming State Fair 
and endorse the movement wholeheartedly. The stimulation and 
encouragement of folk music and folk dancing, which have provided 
our people with so much enjoyment down through the years, are 
indeed to be commended. 

The Folk Festival will make available to thousands of our citizens 
a needed opportunity to display their talents and help perpetuate 
an important part of our North Carolina culture. I am looking for- 
ward to attending the festival and sharing in this wonderful enter- 
tainment during the fair next week. 



ANNUAL HARVEST DAY FESTIVAL 
October 29, 1949 

Governor Scott will attend the Fifth Annual Harvest Day Festival 
at his home church, the Hawfields Presbyterian Church, this after- 
noon. 

The governor and Geddy Fields of Durham will act as auctioneers 
for the sale. The resulting proceeds are to be applied to the fund 
now being raised for the new Hawfields Church Community Building. 



NASH COUNTY RECREATION COMMISSION 
November 8, 1949 

Governor Scott today congratulates the people of Nash County on 
the passing of an ordinance by the Nash County Commissioners 
authorizing a County Recreation Commission. 

It is anticipated that more than $8,000 will be appropriated for 
this project. According to the records of the State Recreation Com- 



Statements and Articles for the Press 373 

mission, this is the first program to be designed county-wide for rural 
and urban areas in North Carolina. 

Dr. Harold Meyer, director of the State Recreation Commission, 
and Henry Milgrom, recently appointed member of the State Recrea- 
tion Commission (from Battleboro), and a temporary committee 
called a public meeting on October 18. At this time a committee 
was appointed by the people to study the needs of recreation in the 
county and make recommendations to the county commissioners. 
The members of this committee were: G. E. Beal, chairman, from Red 
Oak; Ben Neville of Whitakers; Allan Barbee of Spring Hope; 
Vernon Sechrist of Rocky Mount; Mrs. Effie Vines Gordon of Rocky 
Mount; and C. R. Patton of Nashville. 

The Nash County commissioners — J. Henry Vaughan, chairman, 
from Elm City, RFD; Dal Alford of Rocky Mount; J. W. B. Overton 
of Stoney Creek; J. Madison Skinner of Whitakers, Route 2; and 
M. H. Griffin of Bailey — will appoint the members of the Nash 
County Recreation Commission, who will plan and direct North 
Carolina's first county recreation program. 



TUBERCULOSIS CHRISTMAS SEAL CAMPAIGN 

November 18, 1949 

I urge all North Carolinians to join in the crusade against the 
great "white plague" that has killed more than nine hundred of our 
citizens in the past twelve months. 

Medical science has been successful in finding the cause for tu- 
berculosis. Constant research is discovering and perfecting cures for 
the various types and stages of die disease. Therefore, death from 
tuberculosis is needless. 

It is our duty to provide the financial means of educational pro- 
grams, field work, early diagnosis, adequate and immediate treat- 
ment, and extended research. It is our responsibility to banish this 
killer from our own and future generations. 

Please do your share, and more, in buying and selling the Tuber- 
culosis Christmas Seals, the sole monetary source for this tremendous 
task. We can win the fight by zealous support of the 1949-1950 con- 
centrated campaign November 21 to December 25. 



374 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

NORTH CAROLINA LEADS IN TEXTILES 1 

November 30, 1949 

Years ago North Carolina welcomed the textile industry to the 
South, and our state is continuing its leadership in that field to 
mutual advantage. 

It is no accident that North Carolina achieved leadership in tex- 
tiles. It has accessibility to materials and markets, ample labor 
supply and progressive government, and friendly climate — all essen- 
tial to successful operation in a highly competitive field. 

Now, with the advent of the era of atomic energy, North Caro- 
lina offers advantages of decentralization unequalled in the American 
union. Already, forward-looking industry is availing itself of suburb- 
an and rural manufacturing sites made possible by our state's ad- 
vanced development of rural transportation and communication. 

New industrial construction in North Carolina emphasizes its 
economic balance. North Carolina is a state of many small towns 
and few large cities. It is a state of small farms. Nearly seventy per 
cent of its population is rural. Industry located outside cities draws 
upon a stable and plentiful labor supply from families remaining 
on the farm, but able to combine the advantages of industrial em- 
ployment with the security of small farm ownership. This is possi- 
ble through the state's network of more than 65,000 miles of roads, 
its rapid extension of rural electrification and telephone systems, 
its rural school and hospital programs. 

North Carolina is devoting itself earnestly to curbing the migra- 
tion from farms to congested urban areas by making rural living 
both profitable and attractive. It is also improving its transporta- 
tion facilities by the development of deep-water ports at Wilmington 
and Morehead City. As governor, I regard these steps as vital, not 
only to economic balance, but to future security and prosperity in 
the atomic era. 

We welcome additions to our thriving textile industry and the 
full facilities of the State Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment are available to those who wish to explore our advantages for 
expanding industry. 



^This article appeared under the title of "Growth of Southern Textiles Reviewed by Governors" 
in the Southern Progress Issue of the American Wool and Cotton Reporter (America's Textile 
Reporter). December 15, 1949. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 375 

REPORT TO THE PEOPLE 
January 1, 1950 

When I took office on January 6, 1949, at the head of a new "Go 
Forward" administration, I stated in my inaugural address that "Our 
state stands now at a point where it must take counsel of courage rather 
than fear in plotting its advance." 1 

I stated that I faced the future with confidence, and I enumerated 
a fifteen-point program as the basis for our forward march. 

As the first year of the "Go Forward" administration draws to a 
close, I consider it my duty to report to the people on the progress 
made toward carrying out the promises and hopes of their new ad- 
ministration. 

The achievements of this administration are not the work of 
one man or of a small group of men. What we have wrought is the 
work of many men and women. Thus the credit for North Carolina's 
progress in 1949 and its entry, solid and enthusiastic into the new 
half century, does not belong alone to me as governor, or to the 
members of the Council of State, or to the members of the Legislature, 
or to the heads of the departments of government, or to any individual. 
Credit belongs to the many members of the team, of which you elected 
me captain, whose greatest interest is a better, greater North Caro- 
lina. You know who the members of the team are. I am certain you 
join me in saluting them for their part in the year's achievements. 

I shall now take up the fifteen points in the order and under the 
headings by which they were dealt with in my inaugural address on 
January 6, 1949. 

1. Roads. In my inaugural address I gave number one position 
to roads. I stressed the need for all-weather transportation in the 
many sections of North Carolina where it was not available. I said 
that the "rounding out of our road system with a network of all- 
weather secondary mileage is essential to the economic as well as 
the cultural development of North Carolina." 2 

During these first twelve months, what has been done about roads 
in North Carolina? 

The General Assembly and the people authorized the issuance of 
$200,000,000 in bonds for improving our secondary roads. A new, ten- 
man Highway Commission took office to plan and execute this gigan- 
tic project along with an extensive regular road program. Following 

J See page 3. 

"Inaugural Address. See page 4. 



376 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

the successful bond election on June 4, 1949, 1 these commissioners 
and their engineering staffs launched the first planning work on what 
constitutes one of the most ambitious road improvement programs 
in North Carolina history. Their goal is the hard-surfacing of 12,000 
miles and the stabilization of 35,000 miles of secondary roads. 

Under experienced leadership the commission has maintained and 
stepped up the excellent pace of road building established by the 
Cherry administration. It is only fair to point out that much of the 
work completed during this first year actually was begun during the 
preceding year. 

The bond issue program itself did not get under way officially 
until the sale of the first $50,000,000 in bonds on September 28 at an 
average interest rate of 1.57 per cent. The estimated year-end figures 
thus reflect only a small amount of bond money work completed. 
They do not include the extensive mileage of projects now under 
construction or ready for hard-surfacing at the end of winter. 

Preliminary estimates just compiled by the Highway Commission 
show that our road forces throughout North Carolina completed 
about 1,640 miles of new pavement and surfacing on all highway 
systems during the twelve months of 1949. Of this amount approx- 
imately 1,456 miles were added to the secondary road system and 
183.5 miles to the primary road system. 

The 1,456 miles hard-surfaced on the secondary road system in- 
clude 184 miles completed under the $200,000,000 bond program 
which will not reach full momentum until spring. 

Besides new hard-surfacing, the Highway Commission completed 
major improvements such as widening, resurfacing, and relocating 
another 5,627 miles of road on all highway systems. About 1,575 miles 
were improved on the primary system and 4,052 on the secondary 
system. 

The commission let to private contractors road improvements 
totaling $28,707,542 in 1949 and expended an estimated $17,386,320 
on work done by its own forces. Additional millions went toward 
maintaining our vast 63,000-mile road system, the largest supervised 
by any state highway department in the United States. 

In spite of the emphasis on secondary roads, work is pushing 
ahead at full speed on our primary highway system which will get 
more money during the next few years by reason of the passage 
of the $200,000,000 bond issue. The pressure of secondary roads 



iThe vote was 229,493 for the bond issue, and 174,647 against the bond issue. North Carolina 
Manual, 1951, 249. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 377 

has been taken off the regular highway fund, and more of the com- 
mission's regular income will now be available for primary roads. 

With much of the planning and preliminary work finished, the 
Highway Commission stands on the threshold of its greatest year of 
road building. Equipment augmented by new purchases last fall is 
ready to meet emergencies caused by snow and sleet on primary and 
secondary roads this winter. The commission has announced the 
selection of 4,885 miles of secondary roads to be hard-surfaced under 
the initial phase of the bond program. With the arrival of the new 
paving season men and machines from the mountains to the sea will 
keep faith with our people who voiced their confidence in the move- 
ment for better roads last June. 

2. Education. I advocated positive action toward improving our 
schools with full realization that the cost would be high. I continue 
firm in my belief that we cannot afford not to spend the major part 
of our general fund taxes for the education of our oncoming genera- 
tion. I urged with all the power I possessed better salaries for teachers 
and more funds for more and better school buildings. The Legisla- 
ture granted more than has ever before been appropriated for pub- 
lic education; in addition, the people voted bonds in the sum of 
$25,000,000 for additional state aid in building new schools, and 
many counties are now planning supplemental funds for buildings. 

At the beginning of the century when Governor Aycock led the 
educational revival, we were spending less than $100,000 a year for 
schools. As we enter the new half century, we are spending more 
than $100,000,000 a year for the education of our children. 

The direct appropriation by the state for its public schools this 
year is $88,000,000. This increase of $22,000,000 over 1948 enabled 
us to raise the average salary of teachers to $2,494 a year. It also per- 
mitted us to reduce the teacher load, provide for better transporta- 
tion and more adequate maintenance of plants, and provide better 
instructional facilities and a vastly important child health program. 
We are holding more of our good teachers and attracting better 
qualified men and women to the teaching profession. We are rapidly 
building sorely needed new classrooms, not only with the $25,000,000 
you voted 1 for in June, but also with $25,000,000 appropriated di- 
rectly by the Legislature from monies accumulated in the war sur- 
plus fund and with local supplements. The State Board of Educa- 
tion is now approving new school buildings and additions and im- 
provements at the rate of a million dollars a month, and this rate 



x The vore on rhis bond issue was 273,663 for the bond issue and 122,460 against the bond 
issue. North Carolina Manual, 1951, 249. 



378 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

should increase in 1950. Including matching local funds, the State 
of North Carolina is planning to build nearly $150,000,000 worth of 
modern school housing in the next five years. 

I continue to regard a comprehensive program of public educa- 
tion as the soundest insurance policy the State of North Carolina can 
take out. 

3. Health. Our state enters 1950 with the largest public health 
program in its history. The Medical Care Commission is going full 
steam ahead in providing hospital facilities where they did not 
exist before. Under this program, forty-three new hospitals in forty- 
two counties, providing 3,000 additional beds, have already been 
completed or projected. When this four-year program is rounded 
out in 1951, we will have made an investment of about $50,000,000 in 
new hospitals, nursing homes, and health centers. These funds came 
from federal grants and state and local matching contributions. The 
new teaching hospital and four-year medical school at the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, now under construction, will help to relieve 
the existing shortage of doctors and nurses. 

An example of our progress in public health is our program for 
the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis. Now in progress is a 
building program calling for use of $7,852,234 for additions to our 
state sanitoriums at McCain, Black Mountain, and Wilson, and also 
the erection of a fourth unit, to cost half a million dollars, at Chapel 
Hill. This provision of additional hospital facilities ties in with the 
state-wide case-finding project of the State Board of Health, which 
has for its goal a chest X-ray of every person in the state over the 
age of fifteen. This will bring about the detection of many cases of 
tuberculosis still in the curable stage, and the completion of the new 
buildings will not only greatly reduce or eliminate present waiting 
lists, but enable us to hospitalize newly discovered cases with a mini- 
mum of delay. 

The last Legislature made appropriations that provide more than 
$800,000 a year for the work of local health departments, and fa- 
cilities of the State Health Department for augmenting its research, 
inspectional, and educational program which will be brought up 
to date during 1950 by the erection of a new state health building to 
cost approximately $600,000. 

The State Health Department is also carrying on a vigorous cancer 
control program and is now setting up a division to study mental 
health from the preventive standpoint. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 379 

The school health program, for which $550,000 was appropriated 
by the last Legislature, is gathering momentum. This service can 
prove of inestimable value in the correction of physical defects among 
school children and in health education. 

4. Welfare. A year ago we accepted the challenge of improving our 
humanitarian services. During the past twelve months definite for- 
ward steps have been taken, but we know we have only scratched the 
surface of the program which so vitally affects the physical and 
moral health of our people. 

Old age assistance payments during 1949 from federal, state, and 
county sources were made to more than 58,000 persons and amounted 
to $14,000,000, as compared with $10,000,000 in 1948 to 49,700 per- 
sons. Aid to dependent children increased from $4,100,000 in 1948 
to $6,110,000 in 1949. There were 13,300 families with 38,000 chil- 
dren receiving this aid as compared with 10,600 families with 30,200 
children in the previous year. 

The average number of cases receiving general assistance (a pro- 
gram financed entirely from county funds) increased from 3,500 in 
1948 to 4,000 in 1949, while expenditures increased from $603,000 
to $685,000. 

In addition to these, almost 3,000 older people are receiving special 
care in licensed boarding homes or county institutions, while 226 chil- 
dren were helped through the state boarding home fund. 

The 1949 Legislature appropriated $11,387,138 to carry on the 
building program at our mental institutions. This year two build- 
ings providing 400 additional beds have been completed and three 
additional buildings providing 1,130 beds are under construction 
and will be completed in a few months. Plans and contracts for two 
hospital buildings at Morganton and Raleigh with 270 beds each, 
for advanced treatment, and a tuberculosis hospital with seventy 
beds at Caswell Training School will be let in the next few months. 
The complete building program which includes power plants, ad- 
ditional kitchen facilities, nurses homes, and a number of cottages 
for personnel, will be built in the next twelve months. 

The new half-million-dollar North Carolina Hospital for Treat- 
ment of Spastic Children, with seventy-two beds, was completed dur- 
ing December and will begin admitting patients the first week in 
January. The staff has already been selected and is currently in 
training. 

A separate program for the rehabilitation of alcoholics, authorized 
by the last Legislature, was adopted by the Hospitals Board of Con- 



380 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

trol in November. This contemplates, in addition to a separate 
unit for the treatment of alcoholics at the Camp Butner Hospital, 
a state-wide educational program and outpatient clinics. 

In the early days of this administration I asked our Prison De- 
partment officials to place more emphasis upon the training of pris- 
oners to the end that they might return to useful places in our so- 
ciety. The 1949 Legislature authorized a First Offender Training 
Center for young men from sixteen to twenty-five years of age. The 
training center has been set up at Camp Butner. Already, thirty- 
five of the one hundred men authorized are in training, and reports to 
date have been impressive. This group is building the First Offender 
Training Center from salvaged materials while they learn trades 
under trained supervisors. 

The parole system has been tightened. A determined effort is be- 
ing made to find a more scientific and equitable basis for the selection 
of paroles and at the same time provide stricter supervision. 

Parole selection is now based upon the total behavior pattern of 
the prisoner studied, rather than single factors. Every prisoner's 
case is reviewed at regular intervals and an effort is being made to 
give every prisoner fair and equal consideration regardless of whether 
or not he is represented by legal counsel. 

5. Natural Resources. Ground-breaking ceremonies are scheduled 
at both Wilmington and Morehead City in 1950 for the new port 
terminals being developed by the State Ports Authority with funds 
provided by the $7,500,000 bond issue authorized by the 1949 Legis- 
lature. The Wilmington port development will be greatly facilitated 
through use of the United States government shipyard, leased to the 
state at $1 a year as a direct result of negotiations with the Mari- 
time Commission by Senator Graham and Senator Hoey and members 
of our congressional delegation. Wilmington is also getting a huge 
Navy floating drydock through the efforts of Senator Graham. These 
developments will prove of inestimable value, not only to the state 
but to the defense of our nation in the event of war. 

The Department of Conservation and Development has, during 
the year, made progress toward the restoration of our forest resources 
which were depleted during the period of heavy demand in the war 
years. Ten million tree seedlings are being distributed by the Forestry 
Division and planted with a program of care and protection. 

Also directed toward the protection and development of our re- 
sources is the cooperative marine life research program being con- 
ducted by the Department of Conservation and Development and 



Statements and Articles for the Press 381 

the University of North Carolina. During 1949, North Carolina be- 
came a member of the Atlantic States Fisheries Compact, which 
should prove of great advantage to our commercial fishing industry. 

The Department of Conservation and Development also developed, 
in cooperation with State College and the TVA, three new methods 
and improved processes for handling clays and other non-metallic min- 
erals, and through its Division of Water Resources aroused public 
interest in this important resource through surveys and extended 
service for furnishing information about water resources to both 
industry and municipalities. 

Continuing progress is being made by the Department of Agricul- 
ture and the experiment and extension services of our agricultural 
colleges toward better land usage that will promote the broadened 
economic base vital to our growth and well-being as a state. 

The year 1949 was not our best farm year. The general downward 
trend of agricultural prices reduced farmers' net income. The worst 
slumps were in cotton and wheat. Adverse weather conditions con- 
tributed to lower production in cotton and burley tobacco. 

On the other hand, diversification proved its value anew, and 
our farmers set a new record for corn production (but not enough 
to win the corn war from Virginia) , and marked progress was made 
in the dairy and beef cattle industries. Notable is the fact that 
there was a twenty-eight per cent gain in North Carolina's Grade A 
milk production and a twenty-nine per cent drop in our imports of 
milk from other states. Milk consumption increased six per cent 
during the year. 

The Markets Division provided an official grading service which 
during the last few weeks enabled farmers to get government loans 
on about half a million bushels of corn. 

The Board of Agriculture, established a diagnostic clinic for poultry 
at Waynesville to serve the growing poultry industry of western North 
Carolina, and the soil testing service of the Agriculture Department 
is proving a constantly increasing benefit to farmers. The laboratory 
analyzed 70,000 soil samples during the past year — forty per cent 
more than in the previous year. 

Our better land use program is paying off also in increased small 
game, which, I understand through reports from a number of sec- 
tions, is more plentiful now than at any time in ten years. The 
widespread development of lakes and ponds provides not only sport 
fishing but also a valuable new food supply. 



382 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

After the period of enforced curtailment due to the war and re- 
conversion, our program of park and parkway development is again 
going ahead. Vast improvements were made in 1949 to our state 
park facilities, and progress was such on the Blue Ridge Parkway 
that it is now scheduled to be opened into Asheville by July 1, 1950. 
The Great Smoky Mountains National Park is already the most visited 
of all the national parks, and the opening of the new parkway links 
will further improve the accessibility of North Carolina's unequaled 
tourist attractions. 

Combining, as we do, coast and mountains and summer and 
winter resorts, the tourist industry is a major economic factor. The 
United States Travel Division estimated that the travel-resort in- 
dustry was worth $200,000,000 to our state in 1949. This places it 
ahead, in dollar value, of the wooden furniture industry, in which 
North Carolina leads the nation. We shall continue to advertise 
our tourist attractions, as well as our advantages to industry and 
homeseekers, along lines which experience has proved highly successful. 

6. Public Utilities. When I first took office, the largest percentage 
of my mail was about roads, electricity, and telephones. It still is, 
but mixed with the many requests for these services are letters of 
appreciation for obtaining roads, electric power, and telephone serv- 
ice during 1949. With the cooperation of our public utilities and 
the vigorous efforts of the rural electrification cooperatives, we have 
made substantial progress and are in a position to make further great 
improvement of our condition during 1950. 

North Carolina forged ahead of the national average for rural 
electrification during the year, and 7,967 miles of rural electric lines 
were built to serve 43,388 customers. This brings our total to 62,112 
miles of line serving 383,241 rural customers. As we enter the 
new year, 83 per cent of North Carolina's farms have electric power. 
This compares with 79.4 per cent a year ago. 

Progress has been made toward meeting the telephone shortage — 
56,097 new telephones were installed during the year — and extend- 
ing rural telephones, but still only 15 per cent of our farms have 
this essential service. Existing telephone companies have experienced 
difficulty in obtaining the necessary capital for expansion, and it 
was to help them hurdle this difficulty that Congress appropriated 
$25,000,000 to the Rural Electrification Authority. These funds are 
now available to telephone companies or telephone membership 
cooperatives. The State Rural Electrification Authority stands ready 




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Statements and Articles for the Press 383 

to assist those wishing to avail themselves of this opportunity to ob- 
tain funds on a loan basis for extending rural telephone lines. 

The last Legislature granted my request for laws reorganizing 
and strengthening the State Utilities Commission. A technical staff 
has been assembled to enable the regulatory commission to cope 
with the problem of protecting the public interest in matters of rates 
and service. 

During 1949, the Utilities Commission was concerned with numer- 
ous problems in the field of railroad transportation affecting the 
economic structure of the state, and it is cooperating with industry 
and the Department of Agriculture in protecting our shippers against 
rate discriminations which would place both our industry and our 
agriculture at a disadvantage in marketing their products. 

There is still much to be desired in the development and regula- 
tion of public utilities, but with the enlarged technical staff of the 
Utilities Commission and the availabilty of federal funds for rural 
telephone extension, we are in a position to deal with these problems 
realistically in 1950. 

7. Democratic Representation. I stressed broader representation 
on the state boards and commissions which serve the public interest 
as a must in an administration striving to represent to the best ad- 
vantage all our people. Lack of such representation was particularly 
noticeable for large segments of our population, such as women, 
farmers, and Negroes. I considered that in the past there was too 
great a tendency to reappoint board members and thus, regardless 
of the ability of individuals, to deny new blood and fresh initiative 
to our policy-making and supervisory bodies. 

Of the 428 appointments I have made in 1949 to various boards and 
commissions, only 89, or approximately 20 per cent, were reappoint- 
ments. This enabled us to retain necessary experience but at the 
same time make room for spokesmen for groups which were not ade- 
quately represented in the past. 

Of these 428 appointments, 62 or 15 per cent were women. This 
compares with only 7 per cent of women on these boards and com- 
missions prior to the first year of this administration. Twenty per 
cent of the new appointees are farmers or persons with rural back- 
grounds. There were only 3 per cent of these before. I have ap- 
pointed fifteen Negroes to boards and commissions dealing directly 
with business affecting our large Negro population. This 3|/2 per 
cent of such appointments during 1949. The percentage of Negroes 
on these bodies prior to that was less than 1 per cent. 



384 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

I have also recognized labor with positions of responsibility, 
along with representatives of management. 

The people have told me time and again that they approve this 
policy of broader representation in our government. 

8. Referendum. I said a year ago and I repeat now: The people 
have the right to express themselves on any important issue affecting 
their well-being. I shall continue to oppose gag rule in any shape 
or form. The Legislature rejected my recommendation for a state- 
wide referendum, but under laws permitting local expression elec- 
tions have been held in a number of localities. 

Our law now provides for dry counties and for counties and cities 
in which alcoholic beverages may be sold as prescribed by law. Under 
the direction of the state Alcoholic Beverages Control Commission, 
not only is the law being enforced vigorously, but also, through 
cooperative agreements with other states which had been flooding 
dry counties in North Carolina, the flow of illicit liquor is being 
stemmed. Bootleggers are finding it increasingly difficult to get stocks 
from out-of-state distillers. 

Since the regulation of beer sales was added to the ABC Board's 
duties last May, more than 2,000 retail beer outlets which failed to 
meet rigid requirements have been closed. The wine division ob- 
tained 288 convictions for law violations in the five months ending 
November 30. As a result of the meeting here in Raleigh of sheriffs, 
police chiefs, and ABC enforcement officers to discuss better law en- 
forcement, a special commission is now drafting recommendations 
to curb the illicit liquor traffic. Since that meeting there has been an 
increase in the number of stills captured. 

9. Elections. Our State Board of Elections is keenly aware of de- 
fects in our election system. It is conscientiously approaching the 
problems of making our elections fair and honest and of removing 
difficulties that deter many of our people from exercising their right 
to vote. In my inaugural address I advocated a trial of mechanical 
devices for recording ballots. I did this because I was informed that 
voting machines, although costly, were proving highly successful 
elsewhere, not only in expediting balloting but also in eliminating 
errors in counting. Such machines were demonstrated to members of 
the Legislature last winter and are being given a trial in Guilford 
County. 

10. Veterans. The state's debt to the 480,000 men and women 
who wore the uniform of the armed services in time of national peril 
is a continuing one. Our state Veterans' Commission was strengthened 



Statements and Articles for the Press 385 

by laws enacted by the last Legislature which provided for making 
the heads of all veterans' organizations chartered by Congress ex- 
officio members of the commission and by making an appropriation 
to match, up to $1,000, funds raised by each county for service to 
veterans. A veterans' service survey and district service officer schools 
were conducted in all thirteen service districts during the year. Our 
state Veterans' Commission is now in the best position in its history 
to render service to veterans second to none. 

11. Labor. I stated in my inaugural address that "No state has 
enjoyed better relations between labor and management than ours. 
We have a definite responsibility for continuing and improving these 
good relations." 1 

Although I failed to obtain from the Legislature the modification 
I wished of the so-called Anti-Closed Shop law passed in 1947, when 
labor's demands nationally influenced lawmakers all over the country 
to pass restraining legislation, I do feel that the new wage and hour 
law passed by the Legislature was a step in the right direction. As 
a whole, labor-management relations in North Carolina continued 
on a very high plane. 

During 1949 a total of 173 cases involving about 50,000 employees 
were referred to the Conciliation Division of the State Department 
of Labor. In seventeen of these cases, strikes occurred before the 
Conciliation Division was called in, but these were mostly of short 
duration and involved relatively few workers. Of the remaining 156 
cases, 153 were settled by conciliation or arbitration. In only three 
cases were we unable to effect a settlement, and only one of these, 
the Hart Cotton Mill 2 strike in Tarboro, was of major proportions. 

Safety programs conducted by the Department of Labor and the 
State Industrial Commission bore fruit, and in 1949 the accident 
rate in major industries fell under the national average for the first 
time. Compensation totaling $3,300,193 was paid in 12,664 industrial 
accident cases during the year. 

Employment has been on a steady upgrade since the middle of 
the year, but the increase in unemployment during the business re- 
cession in the first six months resulted in increased payment of un- 
employment benefits in 1949. These totaled $19,500,000. The Em- 
ployment Security Commission proved its worth in tiding workers 
over periods of joblessness and thus cushioning our economy against 
the impact of temporary layoffs and industrial shutdowns. 



1 See Inaugural Address, page 10. 
3 See pages 354 and 476. 



386 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

To meet higher living costs, the Legislature increased the unem- 
ployment benefit scale from a minimum of $4 and a maximum of 
$21 a week to a minimum of $6 and a maximum of $25. This 
made the average benefit paid in 1949 slightly more than $15 a week 
as compared with $11.35 in 1948. The unemployment benefit period 
was also increased from sixteen to twenty weeks in a fifty-two-week 
period. 

In August, the Employment Security Commission brought about 
a complete integration of the functions of the Employment Service 
and the Unemployment Compensation Division. This is providing 
much more effective service to workers seeking employment and con- 
siderable saving to taxpayers. During 1949 the Employment Service 
made 305,500 job placements in the state. 

As a rule, cooperation of both labor and management to preserve 
amicable relations was excellent. A conspicuous example of this was 
at Marion, 1 where serious trouble was threatened during the summer 
as a result of a campaign to unionize a furniture industry. Repre- 
sentatives of both labor and management responded to my invitation 
to talk things over, and both pledged their cooperation toward pre- 
serving the peace. These pledges were observed scrupulously. 

12. Business and Industry. North Carolina is first among the 
twelve southern states east of the Mississippi, not only in public serv- 
ices, but also in resources and productivity. 

Here are the latest figures and reliable estimates. Every one of 
them shows North Carolina in first position in the southern states 
east of the Mississippi, and this includes Maryland, Delaware, and 
the District of Columbia: 

Population 3,761,300 (1949 estimate), 

United States Internal Revenue Collections $1,166,217,593.14 
(Fiscal year 1949; the remaining figures are for 1948, the 
latest year for which figures are available) , 
Retail sales $2,294,535,000, 
Net income $3,487,827,000, 
Manufacturing sales $4,497,300,000, 
Value of farm products $944,900,000. 
These are big figures, but they are not surprising to those who 
have kept their fingers on the healthy pulse of North Carolina. 

We built our supremacy by hard work and intelligent leadership 
through the first half of the century, during a great part of which 



iSee pages 356 and 359. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 387 

we concentrated on cash crops (cotton and tobacco) and manufac- 
turing in three fields — textiles, tobacco, and furniture. 

These are still the backbone of our economy, but we are now 
making tremendous strides toward diversification — toward getting 
our eggs out of a few baskets into many baskets so that the economy 
of the state will not be at the mercy of fluctuation of the fortunes of 
any one industry or crop. 

North Carolina continued its industrial forward march in 1949 
with emphasis upon diversification. New industries introduced into 
the state during the year, or industries which expanded operations, 
are manufacturing cellophane, electronic materials, cosmetic con- 
centrates, and lightweight aggregates. 

Five of the new plants established in our state during the year 
are for processing artificial fibres — nylon and rayon. Meat and 
food processing facilities were expanded. 

Our facilities for distribution and our tremendous market here in 
North Carolina appeal to industry, which recognizes the advantages 
of converting raw materials into finished goods where the raw ma- 
terials are produced if other factors are advantageous. These North 
Carolina advantages are growing more attractive every day as we enter 
the era of atomic energy. 

Our state has long had a favorable climate, raw materials, and 
a good reservoir of labor already trained or readily adaptable to 
specialized training. Now it has advantages of dispersion superior 
to those of any state, because North Carolina is a state of small farms 
and few large cities; rural North Carolinians have more incentive to 
remain on their farms than people anywhere else, because good 
roads, rural electric and telephone lines, and educational and health 
facilities are being carried to them at the fastest rate of any state in 
the Union. 

Sharp reduction of our industrial accident rate during the year — 
it is now below the national average — enabled the commissioner of 
insurance to order an over-all reduction of 8.8 per cent in Work- 
men's Compensation rates amounting to a saving of $901,000. 

Despite increased unemployment benefit payments in the first 
half of the year, the Unemployment Trust Fund was not impaired, 
and employment experience was so good with most lines of business 
in the state that it was possible to reduce the payroll tax for main- 
tenance of the unemployment fund from 2.7 per cent to an average of 
1.3 per cent during the year. 



388 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

13. Personnel. I was conscious during my campaign that the 
state was lagging behind private industry in personnel administra- 
tion and that compensation for services rendered the state was not, 
in many instances, comparable to that paid by private enterprise. 
I advocated remedying this situation by two steps: 

(1) Increased pay. 

(2) Establishment of a Personnel Division separate from 
the Budget Bureau. 

These objectives have been achieved. 

The state has now, for the first time in its history, an adequate 
Personnel Department under the jurisdiction of a state Personnel 
Council consisting of seven outstanding representatives of industry, 
personnel administration, and state employees themselves. 

The Personnel Department has already put into effect up-to-date 
personnel practices. Loss of our best qualified workers because other 
employment offered better compensation has been stemmed. State 
employment is again attractive to capable and technically qualified 
individuals essential to rendering the most efficient and economical 
service to the people. 

In accordance with the personnel act of 1949, every state position 
is being reviewed as to duties and responsibilities in order that fair 
and equitable compensation may be paid for duties performed. 
Since July 1 about 2,000 jobs have been classified, and by next July 
6,000 additional jobs will have been classified. This classification 
is being done through actual on-the-job study, and the methods used 
are those approved by the most progressive industrial and commercial 
enterprises in the state. 

A system of rating the performance of each individual employee 
is being established. Such evaluation will permit recognition of merit 
in advancement of the individual and is bound to result in an over- 
all increase in efficiency in the conduct of the state's business. 

A five-day week for state employees is being inaugurated on a six- 
months trial basis on January 1. 

14. Local Government. I am conscious of the continuing financial 
difficulties besetting our local governments. I stated upon taking office 
that theirs is a problem to be approached by the governing powers 
of the state with sympathy and understanding to the end that relief 
might be afforded in fairness and equity. 

I suggested that the Legislature appoint a special committee to 
study and make recommendations, both for the pressing needs at 
short range and the long-range policy for affording relief to local 



Statements and Articles for the Press 389 

government. The Legislature did not see fit to do this, but it did act 
favorably upon my suggestion that road maintenance funds allocated 
to highways and streets inside cities be doubled. And the Legisla- 
ture took another forward step in authorizing the naming of a 
commission to study the needs of cities and towns with relation to 
the state's distribution of highway funds. This commission is making 
extensive investigations, and its findings should prove of the greatest 
value in solving this problem. 

In addition to more than doubling the road maintenance fund 
for municipalities — an increase from $1,000,000 to $2,500,000 a year — 
the Legislature also increased slightly the cities' share of the utilities 
franchise tax. 

I am fully aware that all this is not nearly enough. Nor do I 
believe that the proper financial relationship between the state and 
its cities and counties can be established by such a piecemeal ap- 
proach. I shall continue my advocacy in the 1951 General Assembly 
for a commission to make a thoroughgoing study of this complex 
problem. 

15. Federal Cooperation. We continued to receive millions of dol- 
lars from the federal government, which were of great aid in financing 
our road, school, health, welfare, and rural utilities programs. Our 
farmers also benefited greatly from agricultural support payments. 
Our ports development program was helped by the federal govern- 
ment's leasing to us a portion of the shipyard at Wilmington at a 
rental of only $1 a year, and also assigning a huge war surplus float- 
ing dry dock to the Cape Fear area. We have had the full coopera- 
tion of our senators and congressmen in Washington in obtaining 
this help. 

The federal education assistance plan, which would have enabled 
us to raise teachers' salaries to a minimum of $2,400 a year, and the 
federal general assistance project, which would have matched our 
state appropriation of $350,000 for aid to the needy, failed of pass- 
age in 1949, but there still is hope that federal legislation will ma- 
terialize which will enable us to improve further the standards of 
our teacher-pay and general welfare program. 

Under the pledge of the Democratic party, such federal aid is 
being extended for use in accordance with custom and without in- 
terference with our state plan of administration of public services. 
On this basis, it is my belief that we should take full advantage of it. 

I did not allude in detail to insurance in my inaugural address, 
but such progress in this field has been made that I am including it 



390 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

in this report. The insuring public is saving more than $5,000,000 a 
year in premiums as a result of rate revisions made during 1949. Dur- 
ing the year, also, public hearings were inaugurated on proposals to 
change insurance rates. 

The insurance savings now being enjoyed by North Carolinians 
are specificially: 

Automobile bodily injury and property damage $2,211,000 

Auto fire, theft, comprehensive and collision 642,000 

Workmen's compensation 901,000 

Liability other than automobile 25,000 

Fire and allied lines 1,472,000 

Tobacco storage warehouses 85,000 

Tobacco pack and cutting barns 171,000 

Personal jewelry coverage 35,000 

Total ...$5,542,000 

The insurance industry is growing rapidly. General fund taxes 
paid by insurance companies totalled $5,288,940.68 up to December 
20, 1949. This was an increase of 12 per cent over 1948 and 39 per 
cent over 1947. The duties of the Insurance Department are con- 
stantly increasing and able administration is essential for fostering 
continued growth and making justifiable changes in the interest of 
the public in this essential service. 

A forward step in the interest of public economy was taken by 
the last Legislature in providing a state plan for school building in- 
surance. Since this law was enacted, sixty local units have insured 
their property with the state at much lower rates than had prevailed, 
and other units plan to do so upon expiration of existing policies. 

I said a year ago, and I repeat now: "I have not and do not now 
minimize the cost of the 'Go Forward' program." 

We are spending more than we ever have before. We are also a 
richer state than we ever were before. We are able to spend more, and 
we must spend more, to keep government services current with the 
needs of the times. Also, we must, and we are, getting more for our 
tax dollars. 

I promised when I took office that where I saw government in 
a rut I would do everything in my power to get it out. I promised 
that I would not hesitate to reorganize or change time-honored prac- 
tices if this was necessary to make improvements in the public in- 
terest. 

We have made strides toward greater economy and efficiency in 
our government. The committee of eleven outstanding citizens that 
I named in July to attack problems of waste and inefficiency has al- 
ready achieved results. Its recommendations have been translated, 



Statements and Articles for the Press 391 

through the cooperation of department heads and employees, into 
savings of tax dollars for such items as equipment and supplies, 
travel expense, and motor vehicle operation. Subcommittees are now 
analyzing various government operations and will offer specific recom- 
mendations for specific improvements at an early date. 

When I appointed this committee it was dubbed "Governor 
Scott's Petty Graft Committee." It has outgrown that petty designa- 
tion. I estimated, when I named the committee, that a saving of a 
million and a half dollars a year could be made without impairment 
of state services. I now believe that that estimate was too conservative 
and that savings will exceed a million and a half a year with greater 
efficiency of operation. Coordination of the work of the Tax Research 
Department with that of the Revenue Department is a specific ex- 
ample of progress in that direction. 

Faced with appropriations by the Legislature upward of five 
million dollars in excess of estimated general fund revenue for the 
biennium, the Budget Bureau has been and is hammering incessantly 
at keeping expenses down in order to avoid curtailment of services or 
cutting salaries of schoolteachers and state employees. 

As it has before, the general fund may run into an overdraft prior 
to the heavy income tax collections in March. Should this happen 
this year, it will be necessary for the state to use its credit for temp- 
orary financing in anticipation of income tax collections. If this is 
necessary, such borrowing will be in accordance with sound business 
practice. North Carolina's credit is sound. Wall Street, which lent 
us money in 1949 at the lowest interest rate North Carolina has ever 
received, testifies to that. 

The state is not keeping lazy money on hand. You will remember 
that in my campaign I promised to do something about the huge 
sums of taxpayers' dollars lying around in banks without interest. 

The General Assembly of 1949, by an act ratified on March 4, 
made provision for comprehensive investment of cash balances in 
the state treasury. Following procedures authorized by this act, large 
sums have been invested in United States short-term securities and 
lent to banks on certificates of deposit, which deposits are secured 
by state and federal obligations. 

On June 30, 1949, at the close of the last fiscal year, interest on 
funds invested under the provision of the 1943 act and under the 
1949 investment act amounted to $355,718.70. In this fiscal year 
which began July 1, 1949, interest on cash balances collected to date 
amounts to $555,966.80 and interest which has been earned but not 



392 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

yet collected as of December 31, 1949, is $877,856.44; thus, a total of 
$1,798,111.89 in interest has been earned. It is expected that in the 
last half of the fiscal year interest earnings will continue at a high 
rate, inasmuch as the cash balances now invested are earning at an 
annual rate of more than $2,000,000. 

Following the bond election held on June 4, 1949, which author- 
ized $200,000,000 in bonds for secondary roads and $25,000,000 for 
school building, the Treasury Department undertook to set up plans 
for marketing these bonds, as well as the $7,500,000 in ports improve- 
ment bonds authorized by the General Assembly, to the best advantage. 

On August 9, ports bond anticipation notes of six months' dura- 
tion were sold at an interest cost of .5233 per cent. This interest rate 
is considered most satisfactory and it drew the attention of the se- 
curities dealers throughout the nation. Because the proceeds from 
the sale of the ports bond anticipation notes were not immediately 
needed (since, the ports bonds being authorized under the provision 
of the Constitution not requiring a vote of the people, it was neces- 
sary to create this obligation before issuance of roads or school bonds) 
the funds were reinvested in United States Treasury notes at an in- 
terest rate in excess of one per cent and a net profit to the state of 
approximately $18,000 will result in the six-month period. 

On September 28, $50,000,000 secondary road bonds were sold at 
a net interest cost to the state of 1.5768 per cent. This interest rate 
is exceedingly low and is comparable with interest rates obtained by 
states considered much wealthier than North Carolina. It is ex- 
pected that additional road and school bonds will be sold in this 
fiscal year. 

A study has been made of the state's sinking fund portfolio in 
the light of conditions resulting from the bond elections authorizing 
the creation of new debt. It has been determined by the sinking 
fund commission that it is not now considered expedient to con- 
tinue to hold state bonds which had heretofore been purchased for 
the sinking fund, and that it would be desirable to take advantage 
of the current market conditions and liquidate these bonds on the 
low-yield basis now prevailing for state bonds and reinvest the pro- 
ceeds in United States securities. These securities, because of the 
state's tax immunity, bear a much higher yield. It is anticipated that 
this operation will increase sinking fund earnings over the life of the 
bonds in excess of $2,000,000. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 393 

At the same time that interest on state funds is producing sub- 
stantial revenue in addition to taxes levied by the Legislature, fur- 
ther saving to the taxpayers is being made through taking advantage 
of lower building costs. 

Already a saving of $3,900,000 has been made on $27,000,000 of 
building contracted for to date under the permanent improvements 
appropriations of 1947 and 1949. These appropriations total $122,- 
000,000, and if we can maintain this ratio, a saving of $15,000,000 may 
be expected on the whole program. 

We are not only saving; we are distributing the cost of govern- 
ment services more equitably by better tax collecting. 

The Revenue Department is facing a tough problem courageously. 
The Legislature greatly increased appropriations, but it levied no 
new general fund taxes. In fact, it granted additional tax exemp- 
tions and provided a greater distribution of tax monies collected by 
the state to local governments to relieve their financial distress. 

The Revenue Department is meeting this situation by increasing 
its efficiency for collecting tax monies due the state. It is already 
getting large sums in delinquent taxes and, by close cooperation with 
the federal government, is collecting current taxes much more closely. 
The Legislature granted it additional funds for employing personnel 
and purchasing mechanical equipment necessary to do this. 

With all that is being done toward better economy and efficiency 
in our state government, I have no fear — barring the completely 
unforeseen — that the state will suffer any serious financial embarrass- 
ment during this biennium, despite the fact that it is undertaking 
the largest program of public services in its history. As a matter of 
fact, the state budget is in much better shape now than it was at the 
adjournment of the Legislature. 

I face the future with renewed confidence that North Carolina 
will not only maintain, but greatly extend in the new half century, 
its leadership in the South. 



ADVISORY BOARD OF PAROLES 

January 12, 1950 

Governor W. Kerr Scott today announced the revival of the 
Advisory Board of Paroles called for in the 1935 General Assembly 
statute setting up the parole system. He named to the board for a 
one-year term Mrs. Walter G. Craven of Charlotte; for a two-year 
term, Dr. J. A. Gill of Elizabeth City; and for a three-year term, 



394 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Dr. Clarence H. Patrick of Wake Forest. Ex-officio members of the 
board as provided by the statute are: the attorney general, the chair- 
man of the State Highway and Public Works Commission, and the 
superintendent of public welfare. The governor himself serves as 
chairman of the board and the commissioner of paroles as its secre- 
tary. 

The appointments announced today by Governor Scott are the 
first since 1935 when the act was passed. At that time Governor 
J. C. B. Ehringhaus appointed Judge T. B. Bryson of Durham, R. E. 
Sentelle of Southport, and J. F. Spruill of Lexington. It appears 
from the records that the board met only a few times and the ap- 
pointments were allowed to expire without replacement. 

The new board, as provided for by law, will meet at the call of 
the governor and will receive as compensation a per diem and 
expenses while attending meetings or performing such other duties 
in the State Prison Program and Parole System as may be assigned 
by the governor. The board is advisory in its nature and will be 
expected to deal with general policies rather than with specific parole 
hearings. 

In announcing the revival of this board Governor Scott declared 
that both he and paroles commissioner, Dr. T. C. Johnson, have 
felt that the parole system ought to be strengthened and that the 
public should be more fully informed as to its program. He express- 
ed the opinion that the new board will be helpful to this end. He 
called attention to the fact that it is a representative board. Mrs. 
Walter G. Craven is past state president and past national president of 
the American Legion Auxiliary and was a member of the House of 
Representatives of the 1949 General Assembly. Dr. J. A. Gill is a 
practicing physician and civic leader in Elizabeth City. Dr. Clarence 
H. Patrick is head of the Sociology Department of Wake Forest 
College. 



THE CHARLOTTE STORY 1 
January 19, 1950 

The "Charlotte story" is one of progress; but the story of Char- 
lotte actually is a chapter in the book of North Carolina. 

The first half of the twentieth century has seen North Carolina 
rapidly develop its natural resources, diversify and expand indus- 



^his story appeared in a special edition of The Charlotte Observer, February 28, 1950. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 395 

trially and agriculturally, and build a network of connecting high- 
ways that made it the South's most progressive state. 

Taking advantage of the state's forward motion, Charlotte used 
the same fifty years to build herself into a shopping, distribution, 
and industrial center that has made it the "Queen City" of Tarheelia. 

Two of the most important factors in the development of Char- 
lotte into North Carolina's largest city were its early access to good 
roads and electric power. 

Charlotte's growth has followed — almost as closely as night does 
day — the expansion of the state's highway system. 

The first road bonds were voted in 1920 when Charlotte boasted 
having a population of 46,338, and there were only 400 miles of 
paved highways in North Carolina. 

Ten years later there were 6,912 miles of paved roads with the 
Charlotte area being one of the first to get a complete road system. 

And in 1930 Charlotte had grown to a city of 82,675. 

In other words, the first ten years of state road building had been 
the same period in which Charlotte made its greatest growth in 
population — both from the standpoint of increased numbers and 
per cent of gain. 

As of January 1, 1949, the state had jurisdiction over 63,603 miles 
of highway, including city streets that were part of the road system. 
Of this 16,286 miles were paved. 

It is estimated that 20,000 additional miles of roads will be paved 
by 1960, including the 12,000 miles of rural road paving under the 
$200,000,000 bond issue. And practically all the rest of the then 
70,000 miles of state highways will be all-weather construction. 

Thus the state's road system will have made its greatest progress 
within the next decade. Ten years from now we will have more than 
36,000 miles of paved roads within the state. 

This will open innumerable new opportunities for the further 
growth and expansion of Charlotte. 

It will increase the potential area serviceable by the city's dis- 
tribution system, at the same time cut the cost of distribution 
service. It will enable more rural folks to sell in Charlotte, and to 
buy in Charlotte. It will open new fields of commuting labor sup- 
ply for the Atomic Age. 

Incidentally, a recent estimate of labor supply for the piedmont 
section, of which Charlotte is the capital, showed that the major 
part came from "families with a farm and one or more members 
working for wages." 



396 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

Generally, new electric power and telephone lines follow the road 
builders. Expansion of electricity and telephone service to the farms 
will give further impetus to Charlotte's continuing growth. 

This expansion of utilities will provide many more sites for fur- 
ther diversification of industry, which in turn will give Charlotte 
more potential customers with a higher yearly cash income. It will 
provide better living conditions in the farm home. It will aid the 
farmer in better marketing and buying. It will help improve the 
health of farm families. 

Electricity alone will give the dairyman and farmer more time 
to devote to industrial jobs by cutting their labor time. And, since 
electricity is the cheapest labor you can find for the farm, it will give 
the farmer more money to spend in trading centers such as Charlotte. 

If the farmer makes money and prospers, so will industry. 

This was shown in a survey by the State Department of Labor's 
division of statistics covering the years from 1930 through 1944 and 
which came to this conclusion: 

"The incomes of farmers and of industrial workers during that 
fourteen-year period rose and fell together in almost exact propor- 
tion." 

A balanced state makes for a stable economy. Industry and agri- 
culture can work together to make an even greater North Carolina. 

And Charlotte will grow as North Carolina goes forward. Every 
tax dollar paid out by Charlotte to help build North Carolina will 
be, and has been, returned tenfold. 

North Carolina can be compared to a football team, with its 
cities and industries as the backfield and its rural, agricultural area 
as the line. You could, perhaps, call Charlotte the "Charlie Justice" 
of the team. 

But a team has to work together to win. The backfield can be 
the most brilliant in the world, but it can't gain consistently if the 
line doesn't block the way. 

Charlotte can go for those long runs in the future if the rest of 
the team blocks. 

Charlotte cannot live alone. 

Build a wall around Charlotte, cut it off completely from the re- 
mainder of the state, and the city would die within a comparatively 
brief period of time. The cut off areas surrounding Charlotte would 
suffer by not being able to purchase supplies and manufactured 
goods, but the people from these areas would be able to live. 

And eventually they would build other cities and other industries, 
just as their pioneering forefathers built Charlotte. 



Statements and Articles for the Press 397 

DEATH OF WILKINS P. HORTON 1 
February 1, 1950 

Our state has lost a loyal and distinguished citizen. Few people 
have rendered such outstanding public service to the party and 
government of the state in so many capacities — namely, Lieutenant 
Governor, National Committeeman, State Chairman, Superior Court 
Judge, and a member of both the House and Senate of the General 
Assembly. In each instance he demonstrated marked ability and 
fidelity. 

The loss of his unselfish service and leadership will be keenly 
felt by his party and his state. 



DEATH OF MRS. ESTELLE T. SMITH 

February 15, 1950 

In the death of Mrs. Estelle T. Smith 2 North Carolina has lost 
one of its distinguished public servants. 

As a pioneer in home demonstration work, she devoted thirty- 
one years of her life to a program of enriching the rural life of 
North Carolina. Through her untiring efforts and leadership, she 
has made an outstanding contribution to her state and its people. 

Throughout the years she has been a tireless co-worker. Her 
talents and loyalty will be sorely missed. 



HIGHWAY SAFETY 

March 30, 1950 



In an effort to combat the mounting toll of highway deaths in 
North Carolina, Governor Scott today appointed an Advisory Com- 
mittee on Highway Safety and announced tentative plans for a 
Governor's Highway Safety Conference in Raleigh, June 6 and 7. 

The governor named John A. Park, Sr., editor and publisher of 
the Raleigh Times, as chairman of the committee and conference. 

Other members appointed to the committee are: Graham Poyner, 



x Wilkins Perryman Horton was born in Kansas City, Kansas, September 1, 1889, the son of 
Thomas B. and Mary E. (Wilkins) Horton. He attended the public schools of Chatham County, 
Draughan's Business College and graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1914. Horton, 
a lawyer, was county attorney, Chatham County, 1916-1919 and 1924-1930. He served as 
chairman of the Democratic Executive Committee of Chatham County and as secretary of the 
State Democratic Committee. North Carolina Manual, 1937, 179- 

a Mrs. Smith was a native of Randolph County. She joined the North Carolina State College Ex- 
tension Service in 1916 as demonstration agent for Wayne County. In 1918 she became district 
agent for 34 counties and was assistant state home demonstration agent for five years. 



398 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

WPTF, Raleigh; Cliff Pace, Institute of Government, Chapel Hill; 
J. T. Outlaw, Raleigh, North Carolina Motor Carriers Association; 
Louis M. Wade, Raleigh, transportation official; Coleman Roberts, 
Charlotte, AAA Motor Club; Colonel L. C. Rosser, commissioner of 
motor vehicles; Colonel C. R. Tolar, commander of the State High- 
way Patrol; Captain L. R. Fisher, acting director of Highway Safety; 
H. G. (Tarvia) Jones, safety engineer of the State Highway Com- 
mission; E. W. Ruggles, North Carolina State College; Dr. Clyde A. 
Erwin, superintendent of public instruction; Mrs. Harriet Pressley, 
women's organizations; Dr. H. W. Jordan, chairman of the State 
Highway Commission; and John Marshall, secretary to the governor. 

The governor said he was asking the committee to hold its first 
meeting with him and Chairman Park on Friday, April 7, at 10:30 
A.M. 

"One person is being killed every ten hours on the highways of 
North Carolina," the governor pointed out, as he announced the 
fifteen-member committee. "Every fifty minutes someone is being 
injured. Every twenty minutes an accident occurs involving a motor 
vehicle. We've been talking long enough about how terrible the 
situation is. The time has come to do something about it. I am ask- 
ing this group to help me to work out some solution to this problem. 

"In my opinion the sources at our disposal for combatting high- 
way accidents are making every effort to alleviate this shameful 
situation. However, this is not enough. We must tap new sources 
in an effort to find a remedy. Safety is everybody's business. That 
is why I am calling a Governor's Highway Safety Conference on 
June 6 and 7 to discuss this problem. I hope this committee can 
arrange to have persons from every field of endeavor represented. 
I want us to get together and work out a plan whereby we can cut 
down on this senseless slaughter on the highways." 

Approximately 600 North Carolinians representing all fields of 
activity will be invited by the governor to attend the conference for 
the purpose of inaugurating a program to cut down fatalities and 
accidents on the highways. 

"It is my sincere hope that this committee can give serious con- 
sideration and study to our safety problems during these next two 
months and have something concrete to offer at the June conference," 
the governor said. 

"All facilities of the Motor Vehicles Department, including the 
Highway Patrol and the Highway Safety Division, are available to 
assist you in your task." 



Statements and Articles for the Press 399 

A native of Raleigh, Chairman Park attended Raleigh schools 
and was graduated from North Carolina State College in 1905 with 
a degree in mechanical engineering. The next few years were spent 
in taking post-graduate work and teaching mathematics at State 
College. After two years as manager of the Carolina Machine and 
Garage Company, Park became editor-publisher of The Raleigh Times 
in 1911. From 1920 to 1925 he also was owner-publisher of papers 
in Fayetteville, New Bern, and Greenville. 

During the twenties he served as Associated Press correspondent 
on several summer cruises of the U. S. Fleet. 

Prominent in civic affairs, Park is a charter member of the Ra- 
leigh Rotary Club and former district governor. He is past president 
of the Raleigh Chamber of Commerce, Community Chest, YMCA, 
Civic Music Association, State College Alumni Association, Carolina 
Highway Association, and Boy Scout Council. He has served as a 
trustee of State College and chairman of Wake County Board of 
Education. 

Also active in press groups, Park has been president of the North 
Carolina Press Association and the Southern Newspaper Publishers 
Association. In 1947 he was one of a group of American editors who 
made a tour of Europe to observe conditions there. As a result of 
this trip, Park conceived his Book Aid Program which was responsi- 
ble for shipment of one million books to Germany and Austria 
from North Carolina. The plan spread to other states which sent 
thousands of books to Europe to replace those destroyed by Hitler. 

Park was instrumental in getting two German girls, one of whom 
inspired the Book Aid Program, to come to this country to study. 

He is a member of Hayes Barton Methodist Church and active 
in church work. 



WHY I APPOINTED FRANK P. GRAHAM TO THE 
UNITED STATES SENATE 1 

April 15, 1950 

Thomas Jefferson long ago taught us this principle: If a democra- 
cy is to succeed, it will succeed in proportion as the people are 
allowed to participate. 

For a number of years I have called to the attention of state 
authorities the fact that the citizenship of the state did not have 



^his statement was dictated by Governor Scott and used as a basis for the speeches which he 
made in behalf of Dr. Frank P. Graham whom he appointed to fill the unexpired term of 
Senator J. Melville Broughton. The primary campaign was between Senator Graham and Willis 
Smith who won the nomination. 



400 Papers of William Kerr Scott 

proper and proportionate representation on boards and commissions 
and various major positions in state government. We find that 
about 65 per cent of our people live out in the rural areas. (This 
does not necessarily mean farmers as many people who live in the 
country work in filling stations, sawmills, and other places of busi- 
ness, and also have jobs in the towns and cities.) The 35 per cent 
of our population which lives in the cities and towns has for a 
number of years been holding 94 Vi per cent of the membership on 
boards and commissions. Four and one-half per cent came from 65 
per cent of our population which lives in the rural areas. This had 
been going on for so long that many of this 65 per cent group felt 
that they did not have the ear of the governing boards of our state. 
For instance, no man so far as I can recall ever served on the State 
Highway Commission who was from the country; yet th